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It m^ not be remov^ fr^ thi^ 
Tt^mKng 1liH>iii witlimjt [n-nniNmoii 
jgf the Librarian. 

.1 * .-. 

,«, A '/\ ,/* 

>*■ J, 


7^* X^ -r»iU. 












- VOL. XVI. /V^ 

I .= 


VOL. X. 







GLUGOSIDES (continued) 

Glmiondet with 16 ai. Carh^ n the Copnla. 


Indiow, CWTH^O** .... ..,. .,.. ..., ,... 1 

Indiotnin, C*WH»0" - C«Hff 0",aC'=H"0" 

Jppatdix to Imdicam amd ludxcaian, 

1, ladfliniDiii, C^H»0< .. 

;B. Indjfiucia and IndifuHOao, O^^lfHuC and CMH"*©" .„, 6 

a IndUalTin i a. C^HH^'O".— ^. C"B»B^"0- 6 

4. IndiPBtin, C»WH*?0" ..,. .... 7 

5. Indirubin, C^"NHK)» 7 

O^KOndet with IB of. Carboit in iht CoptUa. 

Phlowtin, (Fff <0i" - C«HX>^,C"HK)* .,« 9 

iMd-oompound, C»H"0",6PbO .... 

Qiudribromophlorttm^ 0»Br*H"XJ" - C^BrH70*,C«Bi'HK)' .... 10 

Pblomin, C*>H**0» - C"H«0">.C«H"0'" _ 11 

Hjdntcd PUomin, CH^O^ + aq. ..., .... .... ij 

Ccanpoimdi of FMorinu with Aaanoni^ Buyto, Stroalan, Lime, 

tnd Le&d-oxido .... .— .... .... .... IS 

FhloriMln, C*'HH"0" P .... .... ..,. .,.. „., 17 

Ammonia-, Lead-, «nd BilTflT'flompoundi of Pbloriida .... IB 

£,jnjjn_ Q«JH*K>» - C'"H-O«^0J^»O«' .... IB 

CrjiUUised ^aiMulin, 0*'H=»0"^EO .... .... ,_ 2S 

VOL. xn. £ 

n C05Tf5T5. 

A*tikttn,CWHW-C»H*0'.0=f _ _ -_ _ » 

CrTtCaOiKl .fKoIfCm, XC^^'H^O-^HO _ _ _ 15 

Ammonia uui Lefld-eompcoDdA df^Eonlcdn .^ ,,_ gfi 

Aa^-Hcaietm, C^WH^* - 3C*HK)',C«HX)* _ .„ « 

PiBip«fia,C*'H»0"-C'H*0>.2C=H*0" _ _ _ » 

Appfwju m TcL xiy, p- »a 

Bridw^ C»WK)" - CS»H»,0» ^. ... , „_ 19 

Ifeajmlbhi -^ .^^ _ ^- ■'- — 90 

7um»U ot Mfoymttthin — _ .... _ .... SI 

S'ffiiiid bodj &OID Bodbcan _ „„ .— .... AS 

Sobun, (?«IP«0>" _ ™ .... ~ ^ .... 31 

L*^-«nnp™nd, C"Ta*K)*^bO .... .„. ..., 38 

BabUflk jicid, t^H»0^ „, _ ,... 38 

AiBinonit«rL — PirtMhidt. CtUt)* 40 

Bu7t»-H]ti, C^^Ball^'K}^ + at;-, ud £BsO,3iFH^'OV .... .... 41 

Limp-, Ijem^; and Sil*fT'i^t« ..^- — .... ,-. 41 

BubeiTthric n-nd, C^H-O* w t^TFO" ? ._ ..„ ..,. 43 

L««l-nlt, (7aP'O^,10PbO or C^TFO'^SPbOP ... _ ^ 

Appmdir to Btibiait, Jtuhiamie aeid, amd SattrythHe OwJL 

L Rubnijdjmii,C"H»0"? „ 43 

t, Rubidrhjdnin, CWH^O* ™ .- .... 4G 

I. CiLUaxinjbiu, C^CUi^JO" 46 


Compoumdt titJurpndv^ Sjr ilu dmmpotUiou of iW* 6fMWJd«^ or 

erutimff ftadyjbrmt d it Maddvr. 

r BablAinn. C^"0>' «- iJ 

Tjpwl-ronipoiind, 8(?»n"0*,8PbO „., .... ,« .... fiO 

1. Rubinfln, C*H"0* ^ 60 

B, Knliivic >ncl. (FflK)*' .... .... .^, .,.. _. 50 

Hu^ivMa i>r rdtbh, C^H^KO". — BabiftoaU of Bilrvr, 

(^H*A|K>" «« ..,. fil 


Oompoimd of BubiuDO *oid with Bubiads, C7>TH*0^,C^^H>K>^^ &3 

4. Babiadio, (T'H'Kl" ..„ .„. „., ..„ CS 

it. Babiagin, 0"H'*O'»oFt?*H'J0« 64 

Leftd-compound, CPffK)">.aPbO .,., « 66 

€. BnbiBiiiii, C^H"0" 66 

7^ Eobiretm, C"fl»0 ,,. 67 

a YcffMitiii, C"H»0' 68 

Bariom-eompoDnd, a{C»H*O',Bft0) + Oi*HK)» ..» .... 69 

Cuprio compoimdi t 0»H»0'.CoO or (3C?ra*O*,0iiO)0"H^ 69 

Btumoiu oompoimd, 4Ci<lPO^,7SaO + IS H' •■■• -■ ^ 

Compoond of TMBcdn witb AHzajin .... .„. 60 

9. BnUftdipin, 0"'H*0» F «» .... .,.. ^^ .... 60 

10. Oxjrnbito, C^ffH)!* .,- ..- ^ 61 

n. Perryororabian. 0<*C1"HH}* 61 

la. Chlororubiidui, OHJiBPO* .... .... 63 

Bflriiun-oompouiid.3BBO,0»ClE?K)» 68 

CadmiuTD'CompouDd .... .... .... ,— 64 

IS. ErJthnuTTn ,.„ .... .... ,.„ .... .,.. 61 

1^ Chlorogpnin .». .... .... .... .... ..,. 66 

Appondix U> ChloroffoUtt ; 

d. Bubichloric Add .». .... ».. .... .... 66 

h. Stittaucertiffrmuffpttrtfy with Chloroffmiii, partly foith Btibian: 

1. Hig^'fl Xantbm .... .... .... .... 68 

2. Euhlmum'i Xmit H^ p ,.,^ ,.,. „., .... 69 
B. Madder-jello* .... .... .... .... .... 69 

0, DeeompotUion-pTodttct of Chlorogemn; 

Ohlororubin, C-TP'0»,C»'H'0' or C>^*0* „,. .... 70 

1. XMilhoAaimiiD, 0*«H*0» « C*'E'0",2(7^'O" „,. .... 71 

JppMdix b? T4^ XT, p. 5S0 ; Bbamnetizi^ qbquqid 

a. OajwrhMMiiii, C"H=0» 

LMd-componnd, C*H«K)",4PbO 

8. PmngaliD. C"H«0« ot C«H»0" 

4. KitrofringuliD acid, C"X»ff'0»P 

6. Bliumun .... 

B. BbmuiocaOi^rtin .,.. .... ..^ 

6fuof»dM wlA 24 at. Corfron M tit ChpulA 
CHobnIirim CFH*M?» ,., 63 


.,. 76 

.... .... 



... 76 

■ ■H .... 


...1 . 

... 78 




... 80 




Appendix to Okthnlarin : 

I. Globnlaremn, am»(y'>? ..„ .„ .... ^ SB 

& GHobnlaritftjmw add, C'»HaO» «. .^ .... SS 

Lnd-Bdt, C»H>%fH,SPbO ..„ ^ .». U 

Baponin .,.. .^. .... .... .... .... ».. 84 

flom^, CFH'M3» .... _ ,.^ _ 91 

YbUdw ColoBriiig Mattor of Senega ».. .„- .... .-„ M 

1, Apiin, CH1K)" M 

S. Cniciii, C«H»0» 97 

8. Ljoopodium-bitter .... .... ».. .... .... 96 

Apptndix io Ljffopodium-bitter : 

0. Lycutdrin .... .... ^.. ... .... 08 

h. lujoarem .-,. .... .... .... .... S9 

4. PBjigllTL 

fi. XjkifltelD, 


HMnuM.C^'K^^O' -0"*K»H"0»»H" 10> 

8*JU of Harminw .... .... .... .„. ,.,. lOfi 

Kd^onbxrmia^C^lPCPBKfiJP 108 

FtlpohaniiiDe.C^lPH"0*- C^N'XH^)"^ ..» _ 109 

Salts of NiCrolurmmB .... ,.., ..„ „.. _ 110 

Bmiodid* of Nitrolumiiiie, CNTXH^^O*,? .... US 

Bromonitrohannuiffr (^tPBrW^y - (^■N'XBrHK)',^ .... .... US 

Bibromid* of Bromoulxolurmiae, O'TH'SBiWK}'^ .... .... US 

GblonmitnbBmiuu, (?*fl»ClIPW - C«I*»XaHK)»^ .... _. US 

Bliuodid« of Chloromtrahvmui*, (nPXCUP'O'J' ll» 



Hinnaline, (^WHiH)" - C»1PH?»0»,IP llfl 

Salt! of Humalino .-,. .... .». ».. 117 

Jppeudix to ffanutlaK ! 'Earnal^nd ,..< ->.- -.< 119 
COnjugaied Compound qf SarmaU*e : EjdrooyanhnTualine, 


Oxymircato-meUu* C*WXH*^0*- 

ffitrahirmaline, CWN'H'W - 0»NTSI["O»^ IM 

BaJto of Ifitrolianiulliie .... .... .... .... 124 

Co^fy^ated ComptMnd .■ HjdrocTaa-nitroliarmalmo, CP'N'ff'O* •■ 

C*TnXH»0'^07 ..„ 126 

Primary irucleiu (?^W I Ox^ffnt-mctnt {?^W*0*. 

KIicw»cid;C*H"0" - 0"H«0*,0*? .„. «. ... 126 

FQicato of SodA .... J27 

PiliciK of Lead» C"fli*0'=^,PbO 128 

Oxyddorine-nucleiu <?^C\WKy*. 

OJoroflUeic Kid, 0»CIH'»08 ^ O^ClH^CO*? " ^ 1» 

Lead-salt, 0"K3iH«O^PbO «., ..« 1*9 

Ternhlorafilicio add, 0"a'H"0» - C»CafH"CM,0' P 1*9 

L»d-ialt, C^HiKJl^bO" + HO 180 

Oxyiuo^iHtelfMt O^NH"^ 

CotaniiM, C«HH'K>« " C»HH''0«.ff Cmo«oorrwUy)0>TiH*W ..,. ISO 

CiystamMd Cotamine, 0"NH?»0*^HO 132 

Hjdriodoto of Cotamine _ ..., .... .... .... 132 

HjdrocMofite, CMH'K)*,aa 138 

Chloromorcarate, 0»*jrH"O'^0l^Hga .... .... .... 13S 

CWoroplaanato, 0**HH»0*,HCI^C1" 1B3 

Appiaidix to Vol. xrv, p. Bai. 

Cotaroio add, 0"H»0"> - 0°E«0^,0» lU 

flUTflr-B^t. tT'H'PAg^" 184 

Oxyamidosat-micUft C"Ad£piO'. 

Ootanuunie add, CFim^K)* ^ C»AdH'iO<,0' IM 

Hjdioohlont^ 0»AdH"0«^Cl .... -. .« IM 

■n C0NTBNT3. 

Ontfitffeited CompoHndt ^ C<ttarniMe. 

ManwtiiuT, C«Xn»Oit or C*fHH?HJ" IBS 

FrrpHntion .„. ..., .... .... .... .... ISd 

Propenio* .... .... .... .... .... -. U7 

DecompoBitiotifl i 

1, By Heat .... .... -,., 138 

2, B; Hefttidg in contact with Air, — 3, Bj Hntiug with 

Water in a Kaled tubo .„. .... .... .... 139 

4. Ej tha Electric current „.. .... „.. .... 1S9 

6. Bj Bnjmino and Chlorine .... .... .... .". 139 

a By TTj-driodifl acid ..,. .._ .... ..- 140 

7. By Sulphuric acid ..,. ..., .... .... .... 1« 

8. By Nitric acid .... .... 140 

9. By IlypODitric acid ..,. .... .... .... 140 

10. By Dilulfi Sulphuric acid and Fcroiidc of UangaucM 141 

11. By Potash .... ,. ,„, .,. ..,. 141 
12p By Mcrcurooo-mflnniric nltntd .,.. ,.,. .... 143 

13. By BLchLorido of Platinum .... .... -.- .... 143 

14. By Rett PruMiatfl of Polath .... 1*3 

16. By Iodide of Ethyl 143 

t^mbiwationt .- 

WithWatw .... .... .... H3 

WithAcJdi: S<tHt t^ li'arcotin* .... 143 

Carbonate, Plioiphalcj Hydriodata and HydKichlanCe of 

Kareolino ..„ .... .... ^ 143 

Chloronif rcunil*, C"Sn=0'MIC1,Hga 14-1 

Chloruplalinal*, C«XH»0",HCl»PtCl> - 115 

Chloriridtiitd .... .... .,.. .... 145 

HydPOt;i!phocjuuta .... .,., .... .... 145 

Acdato .... .... .... 145 

Opianinc, C*S'Ii*0« 146 

Chloromerc urate, C»^jniI»K)n,HCl.KgCl 1*7 

iTarcolinip acid .... ..„ .„. .... .... .... 148 

BulphoimrfOtidc, C^TP'SO" or C«>'n»SO» 148 

Naro.gcninc. C*N'll»0*» - C^NII30i'»C»*NH»0* .,-. ... 149 

Appemdix to Cotarnine and Ifareoii*e; ITuiuDpio acid ..,. .... 160 

Cap«il»cic atid, 0>'U'=0'» - ClVKt^.O* IBl 

Primary ymcliMMC^U^t Orjjw-jwcIiM C*H*0». 

OilfromOilorCajcput, CiP<0> .... .... 161 

CaDTolTuliiialidacid,CH*Hy -<7aP*0',0« ».. 151 



Bu7t»-M]t^ CH^BaGfi i- HO. — Leodsftlt^ 0><HBPbO« ... 163 

Oopper-silt, C»H*CuO* + HO. — SilTer-Hilt .... ,.„ „.. 168 

OanTolTolinol, 0»H»0' - tFH^CHO l&S 

Couju^foiid GwipoflMdJ 0/ CtmvotvuUiuIic acid or <if ComolvuHnoL 

ConTolTiilin, Q«E.**0» - C»HTO',SC»H"0" .,« „.. 154 

CanTolruUc ftcid. C*H*'*0" 166 

Potoflh-Ball, C"H"KO" 157 

Potarfi'Ult witJi CoDTolFulin, C?»H"KO»,0=H»0" .... .... 157 

BHTttaalti, C"H"BaO» and aC"H"Bft'0*,C*H'*B40» »« 168 

lime-Bait. — Lead'Ult, 0"H"PbK)" 158 

Silyer-Balt ..,. .-,. 159 

Afptndix to ComvolmHit ; Fortioa of the root of tuberoae JBlap-root, 

which ifl Bolable in othor j Sandrock'A GanHno-retu .... .... 159 

SjringBmn, C*H«0" » C«H'K)",0' 159 

.^fipendix to Syrvifffnin ; Sjrui^piorm .... ^.. ,... 160 

Omjiiffaied Com^oimd ^ Syri^ffnitt. 

Sjringin, C>'H»0* - C^wQ^CIPK)" 161 

OrjBtalliflod Sjiingin, C"H'K)",aftq. .... ..,- .„. I6a 

.Afipendix to Syriugonut t 

Lignntria -.,. ,... .... „^ ..,. 168 

LigDAtrone .... .... .... .... .... .... 134 

compotjnus containing as at. carbon. 

Fhmaty Nttcln* 0"H">. 

Anthncen^ 0"H>^ .... 164 

lAonafs Nitritg *ra*thriKenite, Binitrita d^aniAracinite, Hid 

Trimiriie AydratS d'anthfOi^^Ua .... .... .... 166 

laimufB Nitrite hydratS d'anthraciintn .... .... .... 167 

Compound of AnthisoeaD with Piflrio uid ,... .... .... 167 

OhlonnthTBoena, C^CIH* .... 167 

Hjdioohlortt* of Chloranthracsno, 0""0lH*,H0l ,... IttS 

Dtmatnew and Co^vgated Compouud* of jiuiAracttte. 
Bromide of BrDDUobhiMme, C?Bi'H">Bi' .... .... .... 168 


'HMbrammOvmona^f CfWBt* .... .... ^„ „^ 169 

Ounthrvne, C^HK)* .... ..^ .... .„. 169 

Biiiitivi*dthFwea«, C"1V*H<0>' -• C^S7KK>< .... 170 

ClhiTWphuae add, C^H*0*,0* ; mem torrrctlj. CP'EP^O^ — C^H'O'.O* 171 

ChiTflophazuhtM of Fot«ah, B*r^ and Lead .» ... .... 176 

J^pemdix lo CknfMtfpiaiue add. 

Emodio,— Apontiiu--^£i7tlmnvtin .... __ ... 176 

Phiaontin ... .- .... ^ -.. .... -^ 177 

Coi^agaM Compimwd <^ Cirjtop^uic a^. 

AMtjl-ebxjtophMMoe wad, O'ETK)^ - EC^HTO^.^C^H^O* „„ 177 

G«iti«iuiarid,C"HiK)» -fFH^CH.O* .... 178 

Omdmutn of Potaah C=TPK}» KO and 5CFH»0»,4KO ».. iTft 

Bi-add, £C'^»0» KO 180 

GflDtiuata of Soda, C7^S»0»^aO, -^ SO"H"0",2yaO and 

7C>^»0»4N»0 IftO 

Tw-acid, aCH'^w.lTaO ..» 181 

a«tiajiat« of BftTTtA. C^H*^" SBaO .... 181 

Qntianata of Le^ C*H>^",4PbO .... „ ,.,. 181 

Bmilnigaiitiazue add, C^NTH'O" - C^X*H*O*,0< ..^ .... ISB 

TwnitTogflntianio addP CP^IPITO" - CP'X'H'O^^O" .... .... 183 

TmbmiiioaddF CW*0' - C»H"0".0* 169 

EUafie aeid, C»H»0^ - (^HK)",0» 188 

CryrtaUiw^d ElUgic aod, CBKt^ + £aq. 187 

BllAgftto af Ammonia ...^ ...^ .-.. ...» .... 187 
EUagaUi of Fotuh, D^*K70"»K0,— C»H'KK>'*»ud ^C■H*0^6E0 

+ no 188 

EUitgftUaof 8odA,C^'Na2O>*,Na0r ud C"HrNaK>>' „.. 188 

KikgaUof Bar7(a,C*M*0",8BaO 188 

EUagatoof Lima.— EUagateof Lflad,(7^'Fb>0"P 189 


Morindone, C^H^O* = C"H«0»,0'. IM 

MoTindin, OBHUO" 190 

HftTQArnsm, O'WK)' - 0»a»0",0'P ... Ifll 

FhyiiJiii, 0*'H»*O" - C"S»0s,O» 191 

Gontiogmin, CP'ffK)" = 0»HiKy,0' 192 

Gmtim-bittOT, C*H»0»"P _ 199 

OrjriaUifled, aC*fH"0»'^EO? «. 194 

Primary JfiwfeM C'^H* j O^jwh-imk&m 0*H»H)>. 

lichmiiotcidP 0»H»^O«-C"H»K)^,O- ..,. 195 

liohmaUB, C»H'^0» ..,. ,... .... .... 196 

OliTa, CaH»K)» - (?«H»0",0" _ 197 

Hjdnfctc, C»H^"> + *q „.- .... 198 

LMd-componnd, C^HWQ^'.EPbO 199 

ApptadU io OUvii ! QliTirutia .... .... ..,. .... 199 

CjclumrotinP C"H^a - 0"'H»0»0' 200 

Oarthamm, C»H»0» - C»H'>0",CH £03 

Appn d v B to Cbrttatnii* ; Bsfflowet^jflllow .„. .... £04 

Oxyg0A-iMcUria C"H»0". 

Onmiiuo acid, C"^<0'* - CTff"0* 0* 206 

Carminate of Copper, C"H^*0'",C?uO .... ..„ .,.. 207 

SchutieDber^r^B Cantiijuc addi ..» .... „.. .... £07 

CBnniuuuidfl 9 .... ■.-. >~- -^.. .... SOS 

j^mary I/uolgni CE^. 

Kelh.1, C""H>K>» - 0"BH*,H'0' 209 

MyrirtM •Old, (?W",0* .... .... .... 209 

Urrutetet of Fotuh, C"H'^0', Soda, aod BaiTta, (?'EVBaO' 212 

Mjrirt*c© of UtgoMJ^ C*H»MgO* .,.. 213 

Hyriateto of Lead, C^BH^bO', - Aceto-mTrutato of L«ad, 

iC»HWbO',Ofl'Pbo< ais 


HjriiUto of Copper, C^EPOoO* MS 

l^riitftto of Billet, C"»H»AgO* »,- «. S14 

llixton* of MfTutifl uid with IftTUio acid : ^bla of tlimr 

nulttuf poinla ^.- ■— >r<> ,„, —> JU9 

MjTiitato of Etbjl, C"n*^ " C*H^O»,C^H*0 815 

Mjriitin. C»PH«0'» =. C^'0',3C»n'^0» ».. 215 

Bcnio-mjriBtic Anhjdride. C*=H«0* = C'H'O'.O'^H^O* -„ 216 

Myrirfoiws C*'H*'0' - C*H«0,C»H=0 ... ».. — 816 

Mjrutio Mihydrid*, 0«^*K}* - C='H<ro*,C»H*0' .... ..» 817 

Intkrin, CFH^* * 0"'H'^y,0" .... 817 

Appmdix fo Antiariii: AntiAr-raim .... «» ..» 81B 

Phmary JTwfnu C""U" j Oxy^tw-imclnu C"BW. 

ConnlWrtLn, C»H»0* - C^'H"^,©" _ _ 2W 

QiMcotideof ConvaUantin -■ GoDTallAriii, QXR^O"? „, 810 

Jppemda to CoitvallarHim awi C^mva ll aHm. 

OooT»ll»m«Tn,C«H''0»' 880 

GannUuundD, C<H"OH ^ «B1 

Primary Hitctau Cm^ i Osygn-mtuUiu C'B^'O^. 

Kinio ac]d« C^IT^O" - (?^"*0'',0*i man conoctlj, CP^"0" ^ 

C'^HUQ-^O* -.-. «. 228 

Euutv of AiomoiuA. — Elnftle of Potuh ..., .... .... 887 

Einatoof Boda,<?^'iyaO'3,laq. .... .„. „.. 228 

Kinate of B1U7U, Ci'II"BaO«,eaq. .... ..., .._ 288 

Eiuto ofStrontia, C^Il'^SrO" with 10 ud l&mq ... 829 

Kinitoof Liiiii>,C»n"CiLOV0aq 229 

Eijulo of Usgnnu, Ci'n'i)fKO^',6«q. „ 230 

KldM« of Muguine C^'H"&lnO'*. — Kinata of Zino, 0"H"ZnO°. 

— Kin»lo of Ctdmium, C"H"CdO>' .... SSO 

Eiiutef of Lad, C^H<PbKH« uid C»H"f bO". — Aooto-kinaM 

ofL«d - 881 

FflTTiD KinMe (bibMio), 8C"H">0"30,»'o'0* .... ..., 281 

Eiute of CobHlt, C^H"Co0^5Kt.^£iiiiri« of Kiokslt 

Ci'H"NiO",6^. 838 

£in&lM of Cgpper : 

Bibuio, Ci-H»Cu*Oi' + 8 ud 4Aq. ^ .... „.. UB 


Mono-actd Einata of Copper, C^H^^OuO^ .-.. .^.. £83 

Kbmto of SilTer, C^^ff "AgO" ..- SSS 

KJnid^O"H"0" - KM 

Cba/HTdtM Chtitpotmdt qf Kmie ocjtf- 

Kinatoof BllijU(?'H'*0" - CP'H^O^.CB^O 8B4 

Sisuiilido, a^W^O^ = C*H^»(C»NH^O» «StS 

Appendix if> Vol. XT, p. 164. 

1, t^rbohjdrokinoDio Kid, C"H<0" - C"H*0*^CO* «» ... 236 

Hjdrato. C"H»0"^ftq. B37 

Ammonia-nil i .... .... ...^ .„. .„. S37 

PoUih^Bait.«.Lead^aalt.C"H*PbO*,2PbO £38 

a. Pjnxatechuio acid, C"fl'0" .... J. .... .... 238 

a. Oijttiicjlic add, (P<H*0" .._ .... .„. .... .... £39 

Ettijlcarbo-hydpokinoniD aoid, CisH'OO' = Om*0*,CWK)^ .... 240 

Bfaulphohydmkinonio acid, 0^*^*0* = P'HK>'.4SO' SiO 

Ammooii-BidL — Potash-ialt,C"H*K=8*0'^,3aq .... 241 

Barjt^Mlt. C''H^Bfl'3H)*,8aq. «. £41 

Lmio-»it,0WHKVB*O",6aq.— Lead-idt,C>'H*Py8-0'*^(PbO,HO) 243 

Apptndix to Comp&UMd* coiUaiiuAg £8 at. Carbtm. 

Thnijenin, f?«H"0^< ..., ..„ .„. .... ... .... 242 

Thnjelin, C*H'*0^ .... 244 

Thujotio acid, C^H"0^ .... .... .... 344 

Thiyin, C"'H«0»" 245 

Ac*totb4inaii O^^ffKO" - C^ff^O^iCBTO* ._ .... .... 246 

Ihniftoil .... 246 


Bocoiitflretui, CPH" .... .„. .... .... .... „.. %^ 

Pyjmo,0"H" ™. " « 248 

BinitropTrtno C^ETff "O* - C^X'Hw .... £49 

BtttonhH CFH»W - O-H-Ot^O* ., 249 


Fotuflimn-oompoimd of Saxttoaiii .... .^ .... .... 254 

Sodiom-compound, C"fl^'O"^aO,H0 ..» .„. «» 255 

Bftrium-Mmpoimd, C^ff^CBaO^BHO £66 

DUciuni-wmpoundfl, C"Hi'0',CaO,HO and 2C'*ffK)',C*0 „.. ai6 

Ifignoiura-, AluTnimitn-. Lead', 4sd Copper-compoundfl ..^ £66 

Korcurj uid Sitrer-compoundi .... ..„ .„, 267 

Ohlorettnloniii, CWZPH^O* - CFCI'H^*0',0* - 267 

BnAQOflBtitouu] .... .„, -„- .». ..„ „^ £68 

8*ntalic *dd, fPH»0« - O^IT'O-.O* .. 269 

SuULitcBof PotuBhaudSods ,.„ ^ £60 

SutaUte orBarjtB, C"H'>B&0". — SantaUte of Liins. — Santalato 

of Lad,(?iHiH)",2PbO.^SAatekt«of SUfer „.- ^.. £61 

Dutuoetin, C»H»-0" - C^'O^O* 26S 

OUauide of DaiiieeH* : Duti*am, C*"H«"0»* - CF'H>^'',0aH«O" £63 

Primary I^KUvt C'B}' i Oscygem-umdeua tyB?*^. 

PipiUahoio add, (^H»0* - (^H*0<,CH .„. £64 

Bvjta-, Copp«F-, Lead', and Bilvai^nlti, O'^Hi'MO* ...- £66 

AnOTnonin, 0"*ffK)» - (FH'K>'".0* £66 

Lead-oompoimd, (^^H^C^SPbO, — SaT<iiH»mpound „„ 288 

H&iwnionio add, <F'H}Kt* P .... .... .... .... ..^. £68 

Frimaty Nmeleiu CH". 

Cftdrww. (?•«" -.., ..,. .... .,- .... ..-. £69 

Cedar-camphor, C^'H^O' ^ 0«H«,HK)> 270 

CubflbcM. C«B« 270 

Oamphm-of Cubeba^fFH*^ - C^^H^^HK)" .... ^.. »» £71 

Hjdrochlnmbi of Cabebvnv, G»IP<,£Ha .... £79 

Appendix to Cubeitt and Camphor of Cnb4ht. 

I. Oa of Cufaflba 271 

£. Cubobin £7£ 

la^tMCTiaP CyH'Ky - C'° H",0' £74 

ApptmdiM : I*ctann, C^^H^CpITO and C"H"0*,£HO .„. ,-. 276 

Lactooifl ftcid. — XACtoeopieriD -.. -.- -..- .»> B76 


Fraifltin, 0"»HaO« - C»H=OiSO» 278 

Axo-mclemt O^oiPH?*, 

Sputolne, C"N'H" - C^N'IP^W ^.. „- „.. ESS 

0*irc*,2HC!rAiiCl* „,. .... .„. .... .... £82 

Bthjl-ipdrteine, C*M"H» *- 0»NTH«<C'H*)^ 282 

HjdiiodAH 0»irH»»2m. — Cbloroplatiiuta, 0"fPH"^OI, 

SPtCl' ..., .... 283 

BiathjlflpMteliie, C"JJ'iP - (?"lf>ll" (CH^j'^H* .„, .... £S3 

Cimidc mcid, 0»H»0* - CH^.O* .... ..^ ..,. .... 284 

Ciraicatei of Potuh, 8«la, Baryt«, Tjim&> L«ad And SilT«r, 

0»H«MO' ..- 286 

Oinuca4« of Etlijl, 0"IPO^ - C*HK).C»H^O- 286 

Chiorine-nuclevt C»C1II^. 

CailorideofCSmi(7l,C3'''raH^O'-C»ClH",0» 286 


H»m»tQxrlin,C"H'*Ou - C^'H^O^^HK)' .... 287 

HjdrateB, O^BT'^O" + 2Bq. fliid 6ftq. .-,. 290 

Hft^nutoxjlm irith Borax ..,. .... .... .... 291 

MeUHic oompoundB of Hietnatoxjlin .^ ' .„. .... 391 

HcDuleiD, (^"H^*" - 0*^«0^0" 292 

Hmiuteln-rimmomii,0»H"Oi^,2NH'iuJdC»H'(NH')0»8HO .... 294 

liflBd-compoanda, (TWPbO^.PbO and C^H^PbO^^^SPbO .,.. 294 

BBta-an«IIiB Mid, CFHiK)** - 0»>E"O",O*; more oomctiy, CWO^, 

CWO' .... .... .... .... .,., .„, 295 

Gj»phorio»ddPC"^K)"-C^*B?OT,C"H'OT _ 296 

Apptndix to Seia-oruUie and Gyrophoric acidt. 

1. Boodlbiiii P C»OT*0" 206 


S, C€T^ojhjKm -. — — ^ _ ^ f97 

a. Tviokno -^ — ^ _ ^ _ 297 

P»ienM!»ftd,C«HH>* = C*H*0*,0* _ _ _ _ 298 

HTdnM,O'H«(F + H0udC^[<O<-i'2HO ^ _ £99 

liuUMft „ _ _ _ _ _ 2B9 

Co^tac, (?f5lPH)* - C^SHPO* J __ _ _ .._ 301 

Sulpbito, — Hjdnjchlo™t«,C"NH'»0*fHCL — XUr«to — SOS 

ChlonplAdu^e, -- (^tloroaonitf, CyH>H>*^CVPtC? ^^ 903 

A«ta(r. — OuliU,C>^~H»0«,C<H30> _ _ .._ 30) 

ApptmdU tit VoL Xm, p. 48S. 

Ei^iiUDe»C>'3rH»0« -:. C«XffKf»3'f -^ — .« Wl 

ChlDTopbuiuU, CB5E^K>'^aPiCP „ ^ ^ «M 

Appeadia ta Codtitf. 
Hj^nu „„ .„ -« ^- ™ -^ ^^304 

JVvaury JViirInu CH*. 

Lii]akieadld,(^H*0« - (^H'.O* --^ _. _ *» 

flodM^t.—Bwyl^'mlL — Lime-nit, C«H=€»0* _ ,« 307 

LE«d ud ailTa^Hlta „. »» _ ^ -,-^ BOe 

1. LiiiMd-<n] ^ .- .,.. «- ^ _ 309 

t. H«np-a£l .^ ,-^ -^ -^^ «- ^ 31) 

8. Poppj-oii ^ -^ .-. ^ — «, 311 

4. Walaat-oil .» -^ ..^- -". ^ 813 
6. Ormpneed-oiL — B. 03 of dAiilj NLghtalud& — 7. OS of 

Tobucc-actfd, — B. Oil of Hvabuiv-wd .... — »„ 81-ft 
9- SunBower-oiL — 10- Oil from thr twdj of ffetprrit mairtfmaSit. 
— 11. Oil of Oold-of Finanre imL — IS. Cmg-WMi oiL — 
13- Oonnl-Kedoi]- — 11. Oil df Madia tatita, — !^ Wo^- 

■eedoiL — 16. OilofScDlrbfiriHd ^ »-. .- 313 
IT- Oflof SpnuvGr. — 18. Oi] oTSilrw Fir const. — 19. Fit^ oil 

of Sprure ar -- ,.. -... .^- "- 816 

Ttiwiiiiiiiiiil mil rhTnriniifiii nili >.» --. --' — - >18 


JVijjMty A'w/tfaw 0*^H*, 

tliywtolaia »rad, C»>H*0* - CP»H»,0< .„, 817 

BftiTta-salt, CFH^bO« ..„ „.. 818 

Ooppar-sfclt. C*H"CaO* .... .... 819 

Phjsfltoleale of Ethyl, C»H**0* - CH*0,C»H»0> 819 

Gftttidinio add, C**n*0^ .... .-,. .... ..., .... 8X9 

Soda-Bait, — Oopper-Bftlt CFH»Cu01 — SilTer-salt ,... .... 820 

G««ldiiua« of EtJijl, 0»H»'0' ^ C*H>0,C=H»0' B20 

Aj>ptndiJi to Fhyutoleic add, 

1. 8penn-oiL — 2. THiale- orTraui-oil ..» .... 821 

8. Seal'oiL— 4^ Shiul-oil ^ £. Bea-calf'OiL — 6. Fildiud-oil 823 

7. Porpoifle-on.— e. Dolphin-oQ .... .... 833 

fi. Cod-lirtr-oil .... ..„ 323 

la Bftj-liTer-oiL — U. Burbot-fat .... .,-. 824 

Oxygen-nudau C^H**©*. 

DigilaIir«tiDp C"H»0< - C"H»0',CP 827 

Glueottdea of Di^iialiretin. 

1. Digitaletjn ? 0«H»0« - C*n"0",C'*H'»0'' 828 

2. Pandigitaletio P C"H»'0^< - C»WO\(?m^^« ... B30 

8. Digitilin ? C«H*0« = C«H*K>*,CS^H»0" 830 

A. Wall's DLgitalbi .... .... 331 

B. HomoQe's Digitalln .... .... .... ... 333 

O. Homolk A QucFtQTie'B Digitalino .... .... 335 

J). LebourdAu' Digitalin .... ..., .... 33S 

E. If odvelle'p DigitAlia _. .... .... .... 388 

F- Konnuui'i Di^talin (not DLi^taline) .... .... 337 

Q. Pigitalia of lAnceloC, L. A. Bucbner, ud othen » 888 

jlpptadix to D^UaUretin and Diffiialin: 

1. EofliQAna'A Digitaliretm .... .... .... .,„ 838 

£. Digitalimc acid .... .... .... .... .... 889 

8. Di^tAlio aoid .... .... .... .... .... .... 831 

4. Fattj addfl from Digitajii .... .... .,.. .... 841 

Primary IftmUiu (FH". 

Cotjlme, C^H« .- 841 

Cetjlic olhor, C3*H»0 - CFH"^0 «.. 342 

BtktX or Cetjlic Alcohol. 0=H»*0' - t^TQB^iO' 848 

Appendix to Ethal : 

C«tin or Spemutc«ti &( .... .... .... .... 847 

CetjiicAidBkj6m^<^BP€^ ^t^^^C^ _ ^ ^ M0 

PalButie Kid, C>iH>Ny - CE^fi^ _ ^ ^ 3S0 

Kiitana of Bdili Bo vlikib tb« twm ■'Hhbvk aciir b« b««a 

■ppfud _ ™ ..„ - — — »1 

OccornniK tad FomaCioa of Fabsck add — ^^ SU 

Fnpvmtioa „.. .._ ™ — -.. _ 161 

PnfHttis _ _ _ ™ -. ... Kft 

DKonpoaitiona ; 

L Bj Hetf. — L Bj CoBlntun. — a. Br !r«rie Kid. — 4. B^ 
Fetoiideaf LewL — 6- B? Aah jdKHu Ffco^hcDE odd. 

_&BjChL3niB -^ ^ — , -., m 

7, B J Lnu -^ „ _ » ^ SH 

& B5Mcth;lie,£thjlie.udABi;Ik Almluls, Mmjaaia aad 

Gijoria : Fbnmatio* t^ GlfCtrida _„ _ SS8 

.ZJKMpanfuv o^ dfjrrriJit 3fi0 

Fibuittte of Ammoiia (Kui% C*>HH(?iH<)0«,C*H*0> ^ 360 

PilimUt»afPot*ah,CH>EO<vidC"'l^EO«,C>3H*0* _ 360 

Palmiiktd of Soda, C"H»X.O' ud C«H»a»0*,C""H»0* Kl 

PabnitBU of ButU, C*H"B«0* — ~ ^ 36> 

Mv^sntc of StroDlu. — Margkntc of Lime — IGl 

FklmitAtc of Hivnenm <FH"BftO^ ^ ^ 36S 

PsIiiiitatet<rfL«d,CVHi'PbO<,FbOv>d<^H«PtH>' _ 361 

FilmitAte of Copper, C?*IPKhiO* -^ -^ ._ 36S 

Pklmium of 3f nvgj7 ^ — _ ^ 363 

F^lmiUta of BUrrr. C"E"Ji«0* ^ ^ _ 3GS 

MuluKfl of Palmitic vith Laorie ud M jriitic udi ; their 

mcitiD|( and tohdifjjn^ point* — _ .-^ 364 

Amhrvpicj Bunr, Benie, Bntjroleic, BntjToliiimodio, 

(p. 386), Cvtic, CocciiJo-itcvic, and Iiocvtic *eidB -„ 360 
Hadic, OUdic, Palmict Pdmitonic, Soluoleic, Soluoiteuic, 

(p. 396), Starophaaic, ud StiOirtavic aeidi .^ .. 366 

0alphid» of Otjl, C*H^ . C^H'^S .^ .. .„ 367 

Citjt'mBTaptu, C^TPV - <^H»,H«" .... ... _ 367 

lodidfl of CHjU (FH>I - am^Ml -. 368 

Bnnide of Crtjl, <FH"liT * C^H",HBr ™ _ .... 869 

Ghlivid* of Cetyl, (FRBCI - C^H'.HCl 370 

Con^uffoUd Con^oumdt t^ tU Primary 2fmeim» CB^. 

C«t7l«fW-n]pliiiTv add, f^EPffQ^ - (^H*,S30> .... .... 370 

PoUthiaH, CFH-KCaSO" .,^ 371 

C«tjl-uothicidd,a*UH8^ - C*H>K)>,SCP _ 371 



Potfl*h-iftlt, 0"H*K9*0' 372 

Chlorohjdratoof Cetylcne ,-„ .... -~. .^- ■■■ 373 

Pmlmitftt* of Methjl, C"H**0'- CmpO^C^W^O* .... .... 373 

Cjanide of Cetyl, C^B.^S - C«H»^Cy - 374 

Sthyl-oetjlic tther, C«H*OS - C*H*O,C*H»0 ,.,. .... 375 

Acetate of Cetjl, C«IP»0* - C*H"05, C^H»0 " ,-. 375 

Pmhnitatfl of Ethyl, <:3«H»0' = CHK),0*'H'4:)> 375 

Monopalmitin, C*'H»0' t, O^'O'pC^H'iO' ..,. .... ... 376 

BipBbnEtin, C^HT^Oa - C'H*0*,2C«H"0" 377 

TerpaJmitim C^nHwOc - C»H'0',3C^IP'0J 377 

Batyrate of Cetyl, C^'Kl^ - C^H=0,C*IFO* 379 

Bncdoflte of Cctyl, C^^H?^* = 2C^E'^0,(?R-'O' 379 

Amylwtylic ether, C«H"0» - C't^H^O^O^IPO 379 

P(ilmit*teofAioyl,C**n'^* =- C"HiiO,(?=H"0' .... .... .... 381) 

BipBbmt<HniannitBn, l7*H^" = C"B'"0'.2C=II»0» 380 

Benzoatoof Cetyl. 0«H«0< - 0»^!I'K>,Ci*H>CP 381 

Margflratfl of Capryl f C«'H«0» = CH'^C.G^^nnO* „.. .... 382 

PBlmitoDe, C«^«0* =. C^«0',CWH<" 383 

Pahnitamide. CaNHDCH = 0»AdH>'0> 383 

TmetjlBiume, C"NH" - 3C"H»,N 3S3 

Hydrechlomto. — CUoroplatinate, C"5F",HCl.Pta' .„. 3S3 

Cotylanilioe, C^ffH"* C^H^{C=n=),E? .... 384 

Hjdrochlorato. — Nitpato. — Chloreplatinatfl. C**Nn>",Ha,PtCl' 384 

BicetyUniUne, C^im^ = Ci=5H>(C»H^',H» 384 

ChloTOplatmato,C?iWlP,nCl,P«;:i' .... .,„ .... 385 

Appendix to thr* Cft^ltne teriet. 

SouiJ NinmAt Fats : 

1. Badger-&t- — 2. Fata from TariouB speciei of ^ohm .„, 385 

3, BeheD-oil. — ^ Bog-batfor .,„ .... .... 386 

6. T&t of Brindoniaindica.^ 6. Bntter- — 7. Cacao-butUr ... 387 
S. Calf' or Teal-bt. — 9. Camel-fat — 10- Fat of Cantliaridn- 

— 11. Carapa-oil- — 13. Cbinoae or Tegetablfl Tallow .... 388 

13. Fat of Coconlus-grainfl, — 14. Cochincal-lat — 15. Cocoa-ni^t 

oil ... -.-. .... .^.. ... 389 

16. Coffeo-fat. — 17. Corpsc-fet or Adipodre.^-18. Fat of CycIitV' 

daphne nbiffra. — 19. DeeT'&t .... .... . .. 330 

20. Fat of Dita-bread. — 21. JJog-fat. — 22. Elephant's faf . — 
£3. Foi-fct> — 24. Goat'a feL— 2B. Qoose-fat, — 26. Haro'ii 
fat, —27. Hog'alard .... ..., .... .... .. 391 

28. lIotM'fet. — 29. Hmnan fiit- — 30, Jaguar's lord .... 392 

VOL. XVI. i: 

(^■A\ CONTflHTS. 

ti. Jtfui vit —■ SS> lAaF«]' or Baj-&£. — 33. HAfUrm tallow, — 

>^ Fkt 0/ Bbiifl-ieed .,.. ,.^ .... .... 893 

U M»u/A'bt. — Sa. M;ri<stalIowDrMjrtJfl-wu .... 3M 

y? f^u '■' TmriAiu tpeciM of MyritHea : 

M. JiutaifgbutieT- — b. Otobo-fnt .... .... ..„ 3W 

tf. T^ILrwof jVyrt>^tca«A(/ffa : YiroUtanav.— ^ Becnhjltt- 

bt OF JtKiii1>a'b*lBun ,„. „.. —. -.- 396 

M. Oi or Ueef-rat .... .... 397 

», Pdm-oilorPalm-bulter .... .... „.. ... 897 

40, iWrm or Bmzfl^DDt oi!.'-41. Pheuut's-fat. — 42. Fichorim' 

riit,— 13. E^tofPvJfVuiXnJitcw.— 44. F&tiof Fknt^Uoe 398 

4A. I\iUto-fki ..» .... SSa 

46. FAtormiofSbellao .... .„. .„. .... .... S99 

47. TurUe-btu— 4e.Tftllowof rtf^tfriaiwlwa.— 49.FbUofWo(d 400 

Oxyffen-nvlntt C^HXt)*, 

J*Uf ^Bfllb Kid, CF H'O' ■ CFH»0' ,Q' 400 

Ammonu-HlC, CFH^CNlf^O + 0»n*0* 402 

PflU-h-alt. — 8oda-iidt,C^H»NaO« .... 402 

IkrjU^^t, t^ir^BnO". — Le»d8Blt.O»lP*PbO».... .... 402 

f!ftppn"f-lt*» aC*H»CuO» + OuO.HO ud C"H*K3uO* 403 

(tilffl-'-alt, C*TI"AgO» .... .... .... .... 403 

JulnF-^milntA of Ethjl. C^HK)* - CWO,C*B»0» 403 

JiU-pinol, C-fl^C - C"H«^,HO P 404 

GlucotiiUt of Jalapimotic add. 

J*Upin,C«'H"0"- (^■H'KJ'^SC^H'-O" .... 405 

i»k|.ui *dd, C"H*0" - C"H»0',3C«H«0"» 406 

B(M7lfr«at-, C*H»*Bo»0*MdC«n«B»0" 410 

Ijvd-pAlt, C*iP*PbK}» 410 

AfpHtUpio .rill, C**H»0»* • C*H»0*,1I0,2C>^»0W 411 

B4f7l*-Mlt, O'^^atO* 412 

MioUVuUnifl «id, C-H*^" - O*^'*©-,*^ 412 

HdTflr-ide, Crtff*'Ag*0",AgO P 413 



Primafy Ifwiau <^E?*i Ojytuo-nmclev i^NW^O^. 

Morpbiiie,(?'NH"0*- CHH'^O'.H* 118 

KatOTj. — Bourcea .,.. .,.. .... 414 

PrepftTfltion from Opiuifl. '—A- When morphine » Ow onlj or 

the principal product aought .-„ ..» ■— 41G 

S. 'When it la desired to obt&in all tha prinrnpal oooatitueiiCfl 

of the opium ..r. ^— -^.- ^.-. 419 

ISn tinHii imi pf M o^'p bi^e 1^ i?pi »m ,,„ ,„. ..^, .... 423 

Propertiw .... .... ..,. ,.., .... .^.. 124 

Decompoaition« „.. .„. .... .... ..., ,... 421 

CombinntiODB : A. With Wattr. — a. Crjitalli»d Morphine, 

C"NH'K)« + 2R0. — b. Aqueous aolutiOQ .... *29 

R With Acidi .- SaltA of Morphine ; Cu-honiOo, Fhoophato, 

njpMulpbite, C^SH^'O^Ca'O" + 4aq. .... 430 

3ulphflt«. — a. Mono-acid, C*KH"0»^0,aO*. — b. 

Bi-ftCid .... ..-, .... .... .... 430 

Hydriodatfl, C»*Nff 'O'^HI, — Chloral*. — Perchlorftle, 
0»'NHi»0*,ClH0*+4aq.— Hjdrochlorate.CNHHJ*, 

HCl 431 

HjcboOuAte.— Kitrate .,.. .... .... 132 

Chloromercural*. C"NH"0*.HCl,4lIgCl 433 

Chloroplalinate, C*HH"0*,HCl,PlCl» 433 

Fooniftto ,-.. .... .... .... .... 433 

Cjanide of Platinum vith HjdtoojaJiato of Morphinoj 

C"NK»0^,BCj,VtCj 134 

Hydroaulphocjanalo, C«NH'»0",C»HH8* 431 

Aoetate, C"MH'»0*,CHH>* + 2aq 431 

Cjanurato. — MeUitatefl, 2C*NH'^,C«H«0' ? and 
C"NH«0',C*H»O». — ABpartate. — TartraUs, 
SC*NH'»0",17H"0» + *q. and C^SH^O^^Cm^Oa 

+ Bq 136 

Urate. — < Croamate. — Hhodlionate. — Valerate. — Pjvo- 
tftrtrato. •— Picmte. — Hippurate. — Mecooate. — 
Pectat«. — Einale. — Tannato .... .... 136 

C. Y^ith AtJtalU .... «. .... ,.,. .... 437 

D. With Organic Oxidtt ./.. .„. .„. .... 487 

CfmjMfftiifd Cffmpoujidi of Morphine. 

Sidphomorphide, C"NH"^0" 488 

Methylmofphine, C"NH«iO" = C*Pf(C»H')H'«0*,H» 439 

Ethjhnorphino, C»NH"0' - (?*S(C^H')H'*0*,H» 139 


Apptndix to MorphiuB, 

1. Pfleudomorpbitie „.. .... '.., -.- -~- MO 

2. MetflmorpluiU) .... „,. ..,. .. .... 441 

3. PorpbjrDuno .„ ... .... .... ..., MS 

Krtenio Kid, 0><H"O" = C"H^",0^ 443 

PotaBh-«Jl, 0>*H^KO". — BttJTto-toJt, t^H^BftO" + iq- .« 441 

Apptmiix to Vol. XIIJ, p. 3&6. 

L BTeminic acid, C«H»0» - C''n«0\0* «6 

PotMh-Balt. — Barjta-Bttlt,C"lI'BftO" + 1 and 2aq, — Silter- 

■ftlt, C'H'igO* .... ... ..-. ™- *ifl 

I. ETcrniDfltoof Etbjl. C^IT'O" = CEnC'HK)' 446 

3, Etemitic icid ? C^N^H^O'* - C"'S"n»0* «7 

PolMll■Ml^ C»N»Kni^O* + »q. — BarjU-falt. — Lad-salt 448 

iiiDpino.O«Sir:Hy '^ C>'XIP'0*.U» ._ 44S 

CaH>onBte of Alrophip. — fiulphalo, C^NIFWiSO*!!, — Hydw 

cyoralc^ tP'SUJO'^lICl. — Nirruto 4&4 

Chloroaural*, C"NIl^H>',nCI,AuCl'-— Chloroplatinato. — Awtalp. 
— Tart rate.— Rhidiional*.— CrowoMv, — VftkraW, CSII^O"^ 

C»U»CH + oq 455 

Appfndix tt> Airvpiiui : 
HjoHjamiiJo .... .... ,.., .... .„. ,... 4A6 

Appemiix ta ToL XIU, p 239. 

Trepioe, C"MTI''0< - C"AdIlwO',IP ? _ 4B7 

Hjdrochlomto. — Chloroouratc. — CtJofopbtmale, C>*SinO*, 

HCl^PlCl' -,.. .... .„. l&S 

Aj^pfinlix to Vol. Xm, p. 368. 

Atrepic add, C'-UX)* - C"H',0* ^^ _ 4fi8 

Alpopatc of Limt, C^IC'CnO' * 3aq. .... .... .... ^^ 

Atropateof Tnjpinc, t;^Sll''0',C"lI^>* ♦ 3aq. .^. .... 4&9 

Primary yucleut C^a** ; Oxystnmtclemt (?*E?Hy. 
CulU>a-i«cd blui-, C^U^O" - C^H*<0*,0' .... 469 



JUeln. (?<H»K)i* - <?'ff>*0'»,0' .,-, .«, .... *.» 4S1 

CT7Be*mAedAlom,0»H>^" + aq. 46S 

Bmrnololn, OWBr'ffK)" = C"Br^'*0^0* ^ 4Sl 

Apptndcc io Mo€»! 

1. CblonloU ... » ... ..» 461 

2. Chloraliae „.. .... ^ 466 

GntiolBAtiii f C^E»0< - G«H*CH,0' 466 

- 1. GJratiolm, C«>H»K)'* * ^ 466 

2. Gntioletin, fP^H^O" 468 

Appendix to QratioUn : 

1. GratioKjlin, C«HO0^ % .... 468 

2. Grfttioaoletin, C*°R"0^ .... .... .., .... 469 

3. Gratiowleretm, C^iH^O' .... „„ 470 

4. Hjdrogralioflolcrctin. C^^^'i 470 

6. aratiololoBdd,CH^' 471 

Frimary Ifucima 0"H**. 

ILn-gWTO *oid, C'^H^pO' .... _ 472 

Muganicfl o£ Soda, Baiyto, and Biivor, CMH^MO^ 473 

UargAFic acid with Mjriitic acid .... ..„ «.. 473 

Jforgario soid with Paboitio add ... .... .... .,„ 474 

Boodlifl acid, C^H^O" o C^H^O^.O* .. 476 

BowUatea of Ammonia, Potaah, Soda, Baryta, C^H*^a»0* i Luae, 

C*H»Ca»0* + Saq, 478 

EocceUst*B of MftgriMia, Zimj, Lead, 0"H*PbKJ,PbO,aHO, 

BUrer, C^'H-AgK)* 477 

Socdlio AnLjdridfl. C«H»0* = C**H"0*,0' 477 

Boocellato of Ethjl. C*>H"0» - 20H*0,C"H»0» 478 

Eoocdlanilide, C»N»n«0* -= 2C^W,(P*UP0* ,... 478 


Primary W^tvlnt {P'W i Oxytao-uucteut C^H^EPO*. 

Cflwbrm, (PiNH^O* - a*ISE»0»,0*? 479 

Appndix i^ Ctnbriu .- F1iD(ipbDT«tt«d F>U- 

(L Fr^mj't Oleophoflphoric udd „-. ..-. ,— .'.- 483 

i. HUlet'i Fhoaphcntitted SFH]3-&t 4M 

0. Goblej'i Jftdi^ vuftuute vid Lecitliia .... .„ „.. 464 

A FMoT Blood » 486 

0. Fhosphonttod Oil of Pe*a .... 407 


A. Qiunetia Aad and Coitfiifat^d Omp^itndt. 
Qoomtio >md, (^'E»0» - C*ffH)» C 488 

a. With AJxtjl -. 

Bu«t<Hqua™tifl mcid, C««H'*0» ^ C"H">OVC*H»0> .-., 489 

», Witli Fhlon-glndn : 

1. QnerMtm, C«H»0" - 0^H»0". CnHK)* P 490 

2. Alplu-quHwtm, C^'H'O* - 0»'H*O«,SC"HH)* P .... 494 

QuenwUmido >.,. .... .... .... ..„ 496 

0. With Fblorogluda uid Sogv (Glucosidei of Quercotm) i 

I. Qwrrdtrui .... .... .... .... .... 496 

S. QuflTHcitnn .... .... .„ .... .... ..,, 600 

8. Batin .... .... .... .-, BOO 

4. Bobinia .... .... ..„ .... .... .... 606 

B. Croeetiu a»d OroctH. 

Ciwetiii, C^H»OU 607 

Olmcwidii^ Cntetttn : OtwIh ..^. .... .... .... 607 

C. IlixtmiAint Ilicie add aad liidn. 

nixaaUuD, C^<H*0» .». ..., ^ 510 

Ilido mad .... .„ .... .... .... .... Bll 

Didn .... ..„ „.. .... _ 611 

J). Spirtta-juHom .... .... .„. ..„ .... 611 




A. TeUoto Cohuritig Xatttrt. 

1. T^cnr of Flowari „,. 

.,-, 513 

B, Bnuous Leaf-jellow 



.... 517 

Andiria. ^^ Ourcninm 


Seemoos AnoMto-red 

.... 520 

llWgutifl acid -H.- 


B. Blue and B«d Colonrid^ lfatt«n. 

1, OfBhioMdftedof Flowers..., 

.... G22 



Kheadio acid 

..,. 5a7 

FapftTeric uid 


2, Blue and Bed Colouring HatCera of Bemea and Boots .... 

„.. 528 


Beaetioiu of Nanwtins 

Hjdrido of TridOOTtjI or Oocinyl, C^«H^,H: „,. 

Hjdride of Tetradecatjl or MjriaCjI, C»H",H 

Hjdride of Penfadeeatyl, fF^,H „.. 

Sinio acid 

Beacticnu of Morphme 

QuArmtrin-sugar or Isodulcite —. 







,.,. 15 from bottomry 

V Phloretin nod Phlorizin 


.,., 20 from top, 




..,, 12 from top, 




... 11 from top, 




7 from top, 




.... 13 from top 




9 from top. 




8 fi<na topi 




£ from top, 




£ &am top, 


, C^H^ii 

GLUCOSIDES {ooialntted). 

GlucoBiJes ipith 16 af. Carbon in the Copula, 


LSCHUNCK- Phil Mag. [4] 10, 73; abstr. J. pr. Ohem, 66, 321; 
Chtm. Cfntr. 1856, 50 i Lith. Kopp'n Jahresb, 1855, C59. — Phi/, Mag, 
[4] 14, 288; Ch^m. C^^nfK 1857, 957; Kopp's Jahresb. 1857, 564. 

— PhilMag.\A'\ 15, 29, 117, and 283 ; ah^Xv, 73, 268; 
74, 99 and 174 ; Chem, Centr. 1858, 225 ; Kopp's Jahrtsh. 1858, 465. 

— Manchtfittr Soc. Metn. 14, 239 ; abstr. J. pr. Chem. 75, 37C- 

The constitncnt of woad which fonns indigo-blue (xiiJ, 35), occurs 

in haman urine both healthy and diseaeed, and, when present In 

considerable quantity, causes the urine, after spontaneous fermentation, 

nr on addition of acids, to deposit HometimeB indig»-blue (xiii, 35; 

Hahdhttch^ Zoochem. viii, ?), Boinetlnies indirubin [the latter perhaps Identical 

«itliHeU«r'B UrrAodia (HtndfiHeA. ZaofK^m. 3^2 m»d 369), nnd Galding Bird'^ 

JVrpv^B (fftirf. 389)]. It may be detected by precipitatiup: the urine 

with bawc acetate of lend, collecting the precipitate which forms in the 

filtrate on addition of ammonia, and decomposing it with cold dilute 

adds, the filtrate then dcposifing, first, indigo-blue, then indirubin, 

and afterwards other prnductH nf the decomposition of indicau, 

(fichnnck, Manchata- Soc. Mem. 14, 239 ; abstr. J. pr. Chem. 75, 376.) 

All human urine contflinn indican, which in likewise found in the blood 

of man, and in the blo(jd and urine of the ox. When a few cubic 

centimetres of urii»e are poured upon ^ the volume of oil of vitriol 

and then agitated, a colour varying- from lilac to dark indjgo-blue 

ia produced, arieing from the decomposition of indican. When sonun 

of blood separated from the clot \s precipitated with neutral acetate of 

lead, the filtrate boiled, filtered again and mixed with ammonia, the 

scanty precipitate, if treated while yet moist with excess of rhI- 

phuric add, exhibits a red colour, due to the prrsence of indican. 

£ther removes the colourafter HUpernaturation with ammonia. (Carter, 

Edinb. Medic. J, Aug., 1859. R^p, Chint.pitr, 2, 239.) 

TOL, xn- B 

2 Gi-ucosmes with 1G at. carbon in tiie copula. 

Prtparatioii. Fry/'n KVad'f<ares, cartftdljf drieil and pnJvtrMd whik 

fwrrm, 1. TliL" Ipuvls arc eshuu&led with cold nlcuhul in u (liftpWe^' 

immt n|i|mra1us ; tlic ^reon Iinctiiro Ia prooipilari^il wLMi ^lIoiIloHc 

NUKflT-oi-lcad and u little aanrninia-wnicr, aijd iho pale green ])!'(*- 

dpitutc aflcr washing v-'itli cold alcohol w dccooipoaci imdcr wuli^r bir 

H strewn of carbomi; aoid ; it tLea loses iU i:olour. and ;ykld:* li yyllow 

wiliitii»n, wlikJi, when frt!Ejd rr*jm dissijv^'d Wd b^ KuljfliuieHi 

Lydrogcn and evo-ponilori over oil of viimil, yirldj* inilnNin, — 2. Tl 

Itnctiiri? prepared with ctA^ alc^ihol is couctintratedf after a^lilitiou of 

liltlu water, by paHaintf a Blrcam af air civer it at thu oc 

tomperaliirci thn fat wW'h Heparatt-s b romi>vr^l bv fiUraticiii tl 

(iltrnl*.* nhjikch up wifb rn-miily prediriliik'd ouprw- hylrJiU*; Iht.* liipi 

iLgsiin filt'-rurl; ihf lilLrsLU' frcDil fium disf^olvod copper by hydn^HlpJini 

iiL'iili u[»d thu liquid eo pa nit ed from tilt' Bulphiac of i'*>ppi.'i' ia ts'Lij^i- 

rivltd at thu tompcraturo cif thu air. from uit residual bixwii syn^j 

cijld alcobul dif«olvi^s uut thi^ iudicau> leaving uudisBLjlvL^d ::i liroi 

vtuHil priMKiJ whii'h L'^iiitJiitis nxrhiliiytuin. By inixing Tlir nicnHol 

ftoliitUff] Vk-\th 2 vitl. oiliC'T, fuitTicr pmdacU of d*'tnin|v»feitb.iii 

iircoipiljili.Hl, whilt^l thu indicaii is oblnincd by cva]w>ralin^ lliv liltraJ 

Wbuu iLua prepuiO'l it feliU rcUiiiiH a littlo fat. 

Prtpfrtif*. Yellow or yfllL>w- brown »yni|n wliich cannol \jp di 
u'illiiiiil it<'<'oiiirMrtiiri;^. It hjLts a Hli;^lilly bilti^r and iijmlHvr ThaI 
iiiid rui lU'Jd ronrliiXk An'oi-iliii^r Uj thf ftnalyrift iif tbr iMid-ealr, 
funrmln Js l*SJl"U** of C«NH»U**. (S^-'hiinrkO 

The following- are IJir r-mdnclfl fonjiorl dining tbo entpuratioa 
Of) aqncoDa solution of mtiicui : — 

fi, t}rifidk-'iJtin. — The mnfl* which srr|karat"^fll'y pmn1aii<*ftiieovii] 
ration as drsrHlird Eit (»d^r 2, it; purifirri by rr'|featod sidulinii iii wal 
iiiuj privipitati'^n with ahruliol ; it eonltiirm rH f^t. on^'^ni rnorr tbEtii 
bidiTAuin {\t. ■)). Browji visL'td ^oju hat iujj; u ULtutH'iiuji IjiaIi-. (Aud- 
buHtiblo. — lly biitliii^^ with diliiti? ftiiliiliiiHc add, It ia iva<dvod iull 
nidifUBcin ajjd iiidiglueiu- I 

C*Tni»0» - C^NH"^ * fJ*||i"OJ* + too" •■ 3110, ■ 

Froni its ac]npoiin tobiliftiifl, tunitrul iu;*'tat** of Irud Thmwe down ftdlffl 
yellow prrdintiitr, and tlu' lillialc yieldn wUh rnuriKinin n Btfiiml li jdB 
yrllow pT<"<'i|^lali', iijiit*jiiii[ij^'. on the iivrriip-, S3'02 p, f. C, £'£ ^| 
It? N-, -ly-SI n^-iihd ;4<N U„aTKlaEitfworiiiL,'.affpr di-diictv^n ^f 3 
U^-oi(id(% ro (hn fonnnU C"Xtl'\>«, ^ 

b- 0'^m'i*i-fl*»'«- — Pnxhir.'fd whrri nTi iiqu-***!!!* artlmloo <tf ludlcH 
in riafK^mti'd by h<ul, lh»> imlioaJi, atY-urdinjc In Schiinek, K'iiiic iW 
ciiriVfrfcd. *^'jlh Bt'puruti'^n of hi.lifjIiiHri, into iudic-nnin, (hf'lauvr, wU 
tlHUki-ftluiiL i>f t):£y;£i*ii, into i^xiiidicardii, aud tliia liu^l, btLnfr tt«olv9 
witli u«uut|Hio[i iA walcr. into oxiudicnvLn njid jndi^liidii : g 

C*Kir»0* t >JI0 - C*'X1I"0" ^ C^»0« I 

^t i* pTirilln] likir i-\hidkiuiin, vhti-h it flUo rei«r>nible«, ifl 

p r\ /mA'fiui';!. — The llqiiii] flltiTn^d from fht» \vaA compuuiid 8 

OTcindiciiain, which <4intiiiiie oxeoaa of leacl-acetnte^ yields^ when 
tiratoii wiih a }i\.\-}^ nuautily of alroh-^l, n piiJe yclU>w pixx:i})itfllc z= 
CS hi^*^,CPhO. Thf *ngatii<; biibf^taEice in the precipitate appears to 

bp a mislurc iif mdic^lnfji (Hhii-h « pointml lo oiin(ili™iiii in The Bumi miiiMt 

b jTidirv-nm to ounrljfluiiii} nin\ oxiui^csRin in GquivfiloQtproparttons, uiuttid 
wiih 8 at. water. [Sdjuiict.) 

Dfi^impoiiti'ins. 1. Indicai; decompcscB even when gently tfjarfAid^ 
ami ttt n etrons'''r A^i/ swells np and emits vapours which coiidoaac 
lo ail nil BfjUdifyiiig- piirtiftliy ia the cryetalUn© fumi, — ■£- When heated 
in fujiiocma tiolutiuii it is I'cfiohTd iutf» leudiit, iiidicanln, tuid i^digiudn, 

TL* |jfL"liicls furaicd Jimii^ thu cviipomtion iiri> draoribod sbovu. — 3. lo CODtaCt 

wiMi ifnda-Jejf vt liar-fftft-^catet; iadican le rcaalved into ludicanui anJ 
lUiii^ljcin : 

A B^ihitioii t»f indicnu left ftit ecvernl days in cotitact with soda-l?y, 
jTttrlds. ^"itli ^J^* iriilirubiu, prrjJuci'd From t\iv iiii.lit.'auiu ; after longer 
Ktiindiii^, indirctin is Wkevn^c ohtaineil, and iu seme cuaea thv latter is 
the ouly produot. 

4 liidicau IK decompfiAcd by dilute acid$ in tho cold, and Diort? 
i^iiirkly wheTi hpati^l *Vhv decriiiL|Hfsili<m i»i in<tnced hy tnrtaric and 
nxnU^ acldia, an woll at; l<y inmcrAl acids^ ii^e& GosUy by aoc-tic ociiL 
A.jUL'Oiifi iiiiliatn nn-\ed with dilute sulpharie acid, bcicotnoa turbid on 
elATidin^:, and dcpcsits Mut flocka* the fi.n-uiali"ii uf which ceases after 
lf4liiiiirH. Til'? Jiltnite, after Htu,nding fur sonns tilIlc.^ an J . si ill more 
vficn bfat*'d, dcpoKJls a bi-own pciwdcr^ while lendne anil Juda^liioin 
ivmnin iu BOhitiou, togetUer with ot-rlain vobtilo prudiicta, via,, 
carb-iiiic, fonnic^ flcetic, and pcfbopj pi'ojjioaic iicid, which tecapo 
whi'u lUv Wquid is hoiiled. 

The subftLauiM insniubh* in water la a mixture oF six iWTerent 
tH'>diL'S, On eihflii&iiJJg it, first with cf^ldj then with wanu djiute Bt>da- 
k-v. itniihumi'i^ vulifimi'n, and itidirrrin aic cIifiG<»!vcd ; the rofiiduo yields 
to alLVjfujb «- *iV fi-lndifvhin tiJiJ intfu-ribin^ together with rcfjiiJuca of 
indifn^'Jn, while imlig^f-htut (xiii, afi) ruuitiiis In aululio", InsldJid ol 
indifitadii, vfiifi'^^coitt- if* fionn'timoB ablabied. Schunck gives the 
foUcrwing formulae: — 

«. Fcncatiiin of Indigo-blue or iU Uomer, indirubiu, and of 
indJglucQ) : * 

Piirl i>F tliL' indigO'blue is said to eplit up mio Icuduc, formic odd, and 
cacbnnic acid : 

r'^r^u'o' 1- 10110 = c'=5hjh>^ + csH"-cr* + aoo'. 
h. FrtLualiou of a-iudJfulviu, mdiglucin, and formic acid; 

c. Formation of jS-indifulvin, tudiglucin, formic acid, and cacbouic 

w:«SH*0*» + 7HO - C*'S3I1"0^ *- 4C"iir^" * BCfPO' + SCO". 


dL Fomution of iodiliiiiiup, m(££hici&. pcoptonic acidy utd ckH^mic 

«, FonnfttioD of indifaacoDe. iudigtocin, ac«tic acid, and caHtonic 

f. Fortii:ition of indiretiD, indi^ocin, caHKinio actd^ and water : 
<^SH*0" -^ O'SWro^ + (T^H^O^ + 4C0* + 4HO, 

CoMimalAMM. Indicaa didsolTcs La tmtfr with tcQow colov. 

T^Wk Le*vl-&ridf, — Neutral acetate of lead forms with alcoliolic 
•ohttion of indtcan, a eolphar-vellow precipitate whicfa increases on 
addition of anunonia- Aqueonfl indican ia precipitated onlj by an 
anuDoniacal aolation of the neutral acetate of lead. When alcobolic 
iudican is mixed with a Amall quantity of alcoholic neutral acetate <d 
lead, the cfirty yellow precipitate removed, and excess of lead-acctate 
added to the filtrate, a light yellow precipitate i^ fonned, which, after 
waahing with alcc^ol, dTying in vacuo, and afterwarda on the water- 
bath, cotutitntes the lea^-saJta 1 and i. The hqaid filtered therefrom 
deponta, on addition of a little ammonia, another predpitate, whkch 
after similar treatment constitotes Uie ealta 3 and 4. (Scnnnck.) 

1. a. 





ao-ie 16-S4 

<>79 0-71 


.,^™. 16-47 ^ 

6«3 68-75 





- 1817 

^ a-oo 



lOHJO _..^ 



AJttr Omimeiitm cf Of Lfai-otidr, 

U C .. , 

V .... ^ ..^ 

81 H 



..... 4-98 



U C - 46-22 

M £-lG 


.... 60-18 ... 
.... 1-93 . 
... 5i}5 

.... 4BW 


8-87 . 


... 48-36 

„. 2-06 



.... 4T-M> 

la K ..« 6-10 

86 O 4t-Sa 

.... 6-S6 
.... 46-05 

C*NlPHJ»',aHO ..,. lOOOO 

.„. 10000 


..., 100^ 

Ijidiian in aoluble in alcofutl and in dW. 



ScirciffCK, PhiL Moff. [1] lo, IbS j abatr. J, pr. Chcm. 7-1, 09- 

Prij^bctJ, together with iii'ligluouj, by tlie rcactioa of aqiioouB 
ftLkalics or t^i^la-water ou mdtc&u (nen jiage 3) i 

Inflicau ifl Icfl in cuntflct wilL baiyla-\ratcr j tUu liquid la predpi- 
i^Ui^X with diluLe bulj'hurb n-i^kl ; ii\\\\ llii.' Jillmtn* m frt'ed rmrn l-kcum4 
of milplnirii; ft(;id by cnrb«j|i:ili" iif k'jic!, fnnii l«ad bj BitlphurL'ttud 
hirdrogeu, aod eva|.torated in & tti'eam uf air at meaii tyniptfralui-o. 
Hit reejdyi? m diBaolvcU iii alcohol; the aohitu'ii ie mixed with twice its 
Ti>!una' ijf ether, which iii-ecipitjiicsiiidieludiii ^id theJIlLratu is left to 
eva|H>rit[e. Hu* reHJJiif-fi-tqiit.'nilj i^aniaiuip jtf^a pnxluctA of dt'compOMLion- {^- 3) 

Vellciw or bi-own bitUT synip. 

lUvtfd on plfttinum-fuil, it ewylls up strongly and leaves charcoal- 
— 'By dry flislitlation it yiol-li a bruwn t>il iu which ^vhile tiecdlca form* 
— When boiled ivith acu/n*, it yii^lds indigliicin ^ud indirubm, and i£ 
impure, liki;wtM: iiidiriliu anil indifiiHein^ Fonnition of indinibin:— 

Giveu oJT ammomtt whtn boiled with juxla'ley. 

Lend-coatpouitd. — - AqtioouQ indiUQUiu fonue asliglitproctpitatc witti 
nvulra) acft^tlo uf IciiU i From aloi^tbolic ludJcamti, nn alcobotio eoJution 
of uenlial ai:etat« t'{ Irwl ihiowa down a copiourt fliilphur-j:ellow pre- 
dptiafo, soluble in ex^er^s ur the l(?u(1-acet4itu and precipitable by 

at 100°. Schiinck. 

« ..- £40 ai-Oa 31-37 

X «..«« 14 ^. tae H..,.>. 1-3S 

£3 II B3 „.-^. 2-01 ..„.« a09 

S4 O IBS IG8S 16'78 

a Pbo en - 6sa3 - aasi 

c«yir^j\crbo ,.. iiu ioo<nd loo-oo 

rndieanifi diseolveti iik aicohol and In elher^ 

AfjwvijJ' to Imlkan cfnd Itidkama. 

1. Iitdihuyiiiit CSU'O'. PerhjipH identienl with indlgo-brown ilii, 
Ig), ^- J-'onrtfilian imd l*i-qinint('^i\ of InMuihIh and the Jolhiein^ jtrodiicfu. 
— lodicfln is hcBt^d with dihile aulphnrio acid; the riooku which aopa- 
nlr iin.- nilk-tited (tbe Bululiuti wLich nnje off being preaerved for 
ihp pn'pni-ation of indigluciii^ :w di>flL'nU'd at ]iagc 302, vul xt}, 
wnslitd with ci:ild water, and treiitod fir^l wIlIi cnUl, then with warm 
ddati.' floda-ley, which distfotvwfl cno [tortion, and b-aves another onii- 
Luninij *- aui^-mUifulvin, iudiriibin, and iadigo-bluu. The alkaliuo 

I? - :.'* Tif — r. -f -.7. ctLr^rN :>■ t;:e cofi'la. 

_ \.:.. ■_ . -y... ':.' :>v -:v.^ iir r- 

;.;.. m: f-i-:r- :i 
*. *:'-"'."' 1 ' '■ ' . -.v.-A ii'i 

' " .'','-' L fr ', ■;:--'-* I'v 

.-.-.■ ' . -:/.:-' .:>::. s-]f:;:"TL i'i 

> , " ■ .'. . .- -K -\- . ^:. : oiutaiiii- 

■■.'.-■'.- \! :■ by Tri-aT::.:.' 

' . ' _: :.' ' ■- 1 vvonOi:;i-r 

« --'-■.';■ *> r- ^M'i-i* '■]' ^■Lil'- 

. ^ - H *.'.■■.:" J ::.■ -■'.■:.' ii ;!■! 1. ■!:.■■ 

^ ^ ■ ■. i-_: :■ ;:.;r^.i.--Mi:;. 

^ ". - ^ " ■ -",,»: ':r; -' -ri iJ ilv]-'":! 

, * > ^ . - - ■ --'.■: \v'.:\. WiitiT ;i?il 

... , , - .. ::. N.. :-:i lu ii>J 

_ ' '. — "' -»' ;\ p '« ill !-iliiJ^ 

^, . : ■' r T -^ '.■::■ ^ :-,Hi:]iiii;;!ii; 

. ' > s . -. . ^ » " ■ . - ■ ■ Vt;.i ^^ V itii tilt' 

^ ■ *. _ \ ^^ ' ' \ : ■ ■ ■'■ \.»!- "T>. " !"!i 

. . .;■; V. ';::■.,■■ . :...L it 

,v^ . . , " '' " ' - ' ' ^^^tit l-rnvi 

■.,. - '^ : ■■ '■'■-: ■■ >!■■■■ !^t!-i 

^,1 ,1^, ,..,1 ; ri-:\.- 11 ''N-n^'i''.. nt:i;!.. ii:..m.;, i.,M:.-,- 

^tll U.. rt"i*l ^'"^l ^^' ^tsl.-. 7^.-^^f.. sir. N., :,r.: m. fir j7 i^i»' 


— fifeltB when heated, hurng with flame and leaves charcoal. Heated 
in a glase tube, it gives off a strong- smelling- vapour, condensing to a 
brown oi!, which solidifies in the crystalline form. Dissolves in oil of 
vitriol witJi green-brown colour, and chare when hoatcd. By ordinary 
nitric acid, it is scarcely attacked, even at the boiling heat; but ft 
d[Hflolves in fuming uitric acid, and is precipitated by water in orange- 
yellow flocks. By beating and evaporating the liquid^ a yellow resin 
ifl obtained, toother with crystals soluble in water, and different from 
oxalic acid- — Slowly decompoeod by chromic acid. — Does not dissolve 
in aqueous all:atig, even at the boiling heat, or on addition of grape- 
sugar, or protochloride of tin. 

4. Indiretin. V^^WO". Dark-brown shining resin, which at 
100'— 190°, contains, on the average GG-04 p. c. C, 3-83 N., 5'57 H., and 
24-5G 0. (cdp, 66 05 C., 4 38 N.. 6'19 H„ and 24'4« O.) — When heated on pla- 
tinum foil, it melts, hums with a yellow, smoky flame, and leaves 
charcoal. By dry di'itUUitiot^ it given off slroug-Hmelling vapours, and 
yields an oily distillate. Dissolves \i\ oil of vitriol •v^'ith. brown colour, 
and chars when heated. With boiliug nitric acid, it fonns resin and 
picric acid. — Dissolves easily in aqueous atkalia, and with brown colour 
in ammonia, being precipitated therefrom by batyta-, Ame-, and sih-ev'^ltg. 
Precipitated from the alcoholic solution by neutral acetiiie of leadj and 
partially by cvpric acetate, 

5. iTidirvbm. C**NH*0*. Isomeric with indigo-blue (liii, 35), and, 
perhaps, identical with iiidigo-rcd (xiii, 45). Obtained in small quantity 
by decomposition of indican, more abundantly from Indian woad-leaves, 
by immersing them in a boiling alkaline solution of protochloride of 
tin, the liquid then dettositing indirubin on exposure to the air. The 
product thus obtained is purified by difisolvlrjg it in alkaline proto- 
chloride of tin, and treating it, after re precipitation, with caustic soda, 
acidsi and water, and then recrystalliaea from alcohol. — Long, purple, 
metttllic-shiniog needles, which appear red by transmitted light, and 
when heated volatilize in red vapours and sublime. In the impure 
state, it is a brown-red amorphous powder. Contains 72*78 p. c. C, 
10-50 K, 4-16 H., and 12-56 0., agreeingwith the formula G^'NH^O".— 
It dissolves with purple colour in oil of vitriol, and is partially precipi- 
tated therefrom by water, — Cold nitric acid dissolves it with purple 
colour, but on applyizig heat, decomposition takes place, attended with 
fonnation of resin and picric acid. — It is but shghtly altered by a mix- 
lure of chramate of potash and dilute sulphuric ucid^ even at the boiling 
heat. — With chlorine under water, it forms a bine amorphous resin 
soluble in alcohol. Ileated with soda-lime, it gives off an odour of 
benzoin, together with alkaline vapours, which partly condense to 
needles. — -Insoluble in aqueous alkalis, but dissolves easily on addition 
of protochloride of tin or grape-sugar. — From the yellow-solution, acids 
throw down dirty yellow Socks, which acquire a purple colour on expo- 
sure to the air, and impart a fast purple dye to cotton-wool immersed 
in the liquid and afterwards exposed to the air. It is not preciptated 
from the alcoholic solution by ammoniacal sugar of lead. Its sulpbunc 
add eolutjon imparts a fine colour to wool, cotton and silk. 





Sta8. Ah'i. Citim. Phjfi. 69, 867; ■^™' J^™™- B0» 200. 

U. KosKK, Am. I'fmria. 84, 178^ Pfuutn. Ccntr. It^bOj 773 1 Comft 

Cfiim. 1850, lioe. 
U, IlLASTw^rra, nVft, J^^/rf» i/cr, 17,362; J^pr, Clietn.Gl, lOb; A»i 

r/4<i™. aO. US. 

Prqiarntifn. VVlifM pLlnriz!n iH tliss-jlvo*! in Jiliile aulpliuric (hydn 
dilniic, i'xulic, or otJierj actJ, and tho Holi^tiatx k hPuLM for w^nk* lii] 
lo 00", phlorotiii ia dupoijjted ao a ia^nl allium powdur, 11 k purilioil 
by wnshii]^ and rccryfttaIlinafciou (Stua)^ The complete ciocoiMj."U«itl</ii 
of |ihloiisiii requires many days' di^'etiuu in Llic watci-latL. J 

Piopcrtiri^ Wldle cT^'i^tiilliiLc lamiiw Imvijig^ a ewuet t*i*tCi Dik3S 
uot glvi:t iiff any wi*(<rr at 160'', iditIU at ldO% and deuimpOtit'H &L a. 

BO C..„__„..„ 180 „ 

,.„ e5-69 ... 

.... 6-11 .,- 
H..H £B'£0 ... 


„ »173 - 
... 633 ... 
,..p BW94 „, 


.... fl5"ltf 

10 0. ^ SO „. 

..,. £»-&& 

twiii-O* ..„ ET4 - 

.,„ IQ&OO ., 

. 1<X>00 .„ 

., . 100-00 

t^'U-'O'; M>^n<lmii>i f«ii'Mf''i UibiB C''U'*U'^ Strooltrr"! cflJ*:ulinu>u wa* 
fmmdnl aa thi> tttpfrimcavt of Ron-r (p. ll). J 

ikromftosiiiotix. 1, Whon jmh-i^cist'd |flil<>ri>lin is li'ej»ti.*d with IrorniW 
imdiT cth'^r, a iiiixttiro of Uh"- quJ ijiiniIri-brtmiiuft^^J pblorvlin b (iro- 
diiccJ. wMrli hy nnewt'd ti'eatuiuiit wltli bioimiii% w whuUy convt'itcd 
tiiLij cpiLnhibrntiiu-phl.iivliii ^Si:lJ|nidt Jt Hc-<slv /!'*", Pfiftnn, 119. 103), 

ftrniiiJjir iR'uiid in tstvflft wilh plilorotm doo>iripoooft il, formia 
kiiFadjfcWf nmuB, }iir\\y f(i»lid'l(.' iti l"*ili(ij^ wuUt. TIh' «quoo»o Bolui 
dcpottitrt ou nx'Iirii^: «, Wliilt iuK-rW^d inrdlt'^^t wLidi mL'll lulwctn 
97 and lO-r. ■<.4ii.lify in lliu cryhlalliiH: iviia on c»(rUii|T', giv^? tiH 
S'8|i. C. wnftit III Ufl", uiL'l tlLL-iicoiiruiTi .1M i>. <:. i-ai'tjoik tiiid^-S liyiln^f 
j-iift ;— i. I'nin ri'ddinh neodit'tt whii J»"6 p, c, w-ilcr, aftiT ri'ninval <^| 
>chidi at JS" lhi*y ci^fitdu 24'1 |>, r. fnrUfn, ond 1'7 hydr<)g">n ; l-oth 
din^ulw iiJ iiirkf»>iiim-wa|(^r with lirown (idMiir, dkujLij'in^ in pvmilo, and 
tally ajr^ihi W Itowti 4jii rxpivurt; in llio aJn Wfirn tki<.' ejvstaU u and 
HTJ nj^AJti [ri'Ulrd Willi lin-ftiiHir^-wwUT, anil l[u* Eniiliin^ ih hi-nvi'd t 
exjM'L uXcvH^ i.»r broajin^*. u hutid ini&va m iiUruiurd ou oooliiii^f ooiituiui 
Sl'l [I. i.% rjfcrbitM, i\rid 1'^ Lyilruxui. lU-iicc. Solimidl i Iltti^i ri 
<f, A, EiTid Ihv ina:«4 nbtaiiK d fri^ru ihriu* an a iiiLAlnri' <if iLomv uml [ 
bromupUKiiDgludu (XV, Cn), t^clunidtdtliessr, ^na. /'/mmL Il'J, I 


By chlorate of potash and hydrochloric add, phlorctin i& converted 
intf) a yellow re^if Holuble in alcohol, the reaction not being attended 
with formation of chloranil (xi, 106). (Hofmanii, Ann, Fhcirou 52, 65.) 

2. Chromic acid converts phlorctin into formic and carhonic aeida 
(Stae). — 3. Cold dilute nitric acid diflsolves phlorctin, and decompoees 
it after prolonged action. Strong nitric acid decompoaes it iinmediatelv, 
with evolution of carbonic acid and nitric oxide, and fonnation of oxalic 
acid and a dark brown Bubatance. The latter dissolved in aqueoua alkali, 
after washing with water* and precipitated by an acid, constitutes 
Stasis pMoretic acid (dlfTennt from tlie pLloretic acid of Hlasivetz, xiii, 30S), 
a flea-brown, velvety, uncryetalli sable powder, containing, on tlie 
avera^ 51-6 p. c. C, 3-70 IL, 5'rt N-, and 35-84 0. Tha pUoretb wid 
dMMDipoaeB at laU" with eyolution of nitric oxide •> b qonvarted by Btroag nitrio Mid 
into oihUo acid aud a Iruce cf bitter Bubfltonce -, die&olToa in oil of vitriol with blood- 
red niloor ; also in alkalia \ ia insolubio in water, and in dilute »oids \ but »lublfl in 
aJcobol and wood-spirit. (SIm,) Mulder (J. pr- CheM. 33, 330) «g*rds thift bodj u 
mprocrenic acid conlaining ammoniA ; StAa gave tbc formula C^NH^O'^ ; Liebig 
OT*H^" or C=*NH'0'' ; Wcltiien {Orfj. Vtrb. Brannach*. i860, p. 493) reg&rda rt 
■* nitrophJoretiiiC^SH'^O^''.— 4. By boiling and evaporation with atron^ 

potask-U^^ phlorctin is resolved into phloretic acid (xiii, 308) and 
pliloroglucin (xv, 65). (Hlasiweta,) — 5, phloretin lb not dwompofled bj 
potoaeiO'Ciipric tartrate (Koafr). 

Combinations. PlJorotln is almost insoluble in cold, very sparingly 
soluble in boiling mater^ It dissolves without decomposition in concen- 
trated acids (Staa). 

It abBorba ammonia gas, becoming hot, mel^g, and taking up 13'5 to 
14'18 p. c of its weight of ammonia (3 at. = 15"33 p, c, NH')» with- 
out elimiuation of water. After saturatiou, the compound solidifies iu 
the amorphous state. — The solution fonned by pouring concentrated 
aqueous ammonia on phlorctin, deposits, after,a few seconds, small 
yellow shining grains, which give off ammonia when exposed to the 
air, or when their aqueous solution is heated, and precipitate metallic 
salts (Stae). 

Phlorctm dissolves in aqueous alkalis without alteration, if uot 
exposed to the air. In contact with the air, oxygen is absorbed and 
an orange-coloured body is formed, perhaps the same as that yielded 
by solutions of phlorizin in contact with the air. The solutions have 
a sweet taste (Stas). 

i^od-cOTrtpoun*/- — Phlorctin does uot give off water when heated 
with oxide of lead, — ■ The compound is prepared by precipitating excess 
of phioretin-ammonia with basic acetate of lead, and drying the pre- 
cipitate at 140° in a current of air (Stas). 

30 C 182 22'B9 30-06 

14 H „ 14 1-7S 169 

10 O 80 10-06 9-93 

E PbO 519 65-29 6830 

C*H'^0",5PbO 795 XOOOO lOOOO 

SHveT'CornpouTid. ■ — Nitrate of silver throws down from aqueous 
phloretiu-amnaonia a precipitate which, after washing and drying in 
the dark, contains 26'6 p. C. silver-oxide, and 7d'4 p. c> phloretio, but 
is eaeity decomposiblc. (Stas.) 

10 cifCosrDEs wrni 18 at. carbon in the cofuiju 

diivolvM in all pm[ioL'tIoiiB in bot c«nce&trftt€d otxtis acid, 
m ID Bhcuiii^ cryHl^hllino graina on cckoliuc'. — It ditwolvi 
a fc^ lfl J aad wiMxI-^'in'ty IB ncftdy iusoluble in coW, and si 


Ama. P/iurm. 119, 100. 
Sal >^*i^ 1^ UlMiiraliE. — Bfiiaiif^tc Bin^hfhfa rpijulriavi-hvid'* (it, 818)/ 

A vdslQTt- t»f phlr-rctir iiHd ^^iii. MOS) iiiifl drj' phlorfgrlnm {xv. fift 
Iff iVl" iu (iii Hir'hutli, mclla t'tt'^thiT. nud e"ivi» up wwtor. ll 
ImI l«r M bi'Lim lii-lwi^rij J 60^ ami IWl^, ll i.\i\n'tiil9 Si grmiubkr iilas 
M4 irfliMBttd T Ix^Ofiiiirio J|i]If'.> Hiilid. Ttip liriVTi iujl-jh, wIi<?[i IhiiIl 

wkk wmna wAlrr, and nx^ryHlAlUd^Uon from boiling wat^^r^ vith lielp 

MC-^ 396 60-73 ™. BUUi 

•V H _.- 8B 4^1 ., 4-9W 

ttO SM 04'M UW 

<l"qi"0" Ofi» lOO'OO IWHa 


C"Br^n'^'* = C'-RrirO*,C'»Br'Il\)*f 

if, KCUKICT k XltMin- Ann. Pftarvi. IIH, 103. 

yvrm/oian and J'rr/urr'Ui&a. 1. Wlion linf*ly puIvt^rWd fJiloretm 
to cvvvamI «nih T-tliiT, und bn'iiiiriir nilikij tn Uivi iiii>Ciiii< Looli^d fruotj 
vid^i^vt, tUv l.-r»rijiNo iv nlif^nrbr^il, with nvf ilutjon rif lu^nu AndamlxIiilVi 
f,^ Itf' Mb4 aUAdri'lir'.tUKkpltlikri'fiit it^ rijri]i''d, ^I'lti'-li, ailrr romin'u) of. 
q^ «flJbV AAU tho rr hLdNi>g h^>dpdiru]iJo uoi<1, may fn.^ (H>tnp]i^ti<ly coD' 

■tfti4 Art" qiudri-tiii>iii^i|j|j|>>ivriri l^y n'u<.'vvid tii'iitEui^uT with litttmiuc 
4| # ^Vtlft iMsftI- Till* piHJih'l iii Ujilud ujlli wajrr - [bi^ rrhidiw IAi 
r«l to UAltrk|^' [doiliii]; iFirHcilutioci |jrivipiut<rd wUli wnlfir ; ftDd 
j«lkfV LTy^lulEitit' pri<i'ifiita1o in punlji<d by Urtluig wif b vr<!^ 
ffCfT*l*lbna1ii>ii itvai kx<iEi[i>; ulL-obnl. ^ :f. ]*tjl<in£Ui trvnUid with 
9 aodrT ediur likuwiMi >ji.-bl» i^Uttdn-lriiiMipKlcirutiji, a (uiituru 


Properiias. Small, pale, yellow needles, which do not lose weig-ht 
at 100°, are decolorised by animal charcoal, but soon turn jcllow 

Schmidt A; HesH- 
Criftiali. wnn. 

90 O 180 30-51 3036 

4 Br ,.., 820 B4-23 fi400 

10 H. 10 169 1-95 

loo 80 - 13-57 1370 

C»Br'H"*0" 690 10000 lOOiK) 

MeltH between 205° and 210°, acquiring- at the same time a dark 
red colour, and dccompoaing with efferveHcence. — It disBolvea, with 
yellow colour, in aqueous ammonia and soda, the ammoniacal solution 
turning brown after a while. In bulling liinc-water it turns violet, 
and forms an amorphous violet substance. 

Insoluble in boiling water^ sijaringly soluble iu boiling- alcohol, easily 
in ether. 


L, DK KoNDfCR. Me'moire *ur U phhridiiitj Louvain, 1836; abslT, 

Ann, Phann. 15, 75, and 258 ; J, pr. Chem. 8> 88. 
Stab. Ann. Chm, Phy$, 60, 3G7i Ann. Pharm. 30,192; J. pr. Cfiem, 

17, 273. 
Mulder. X;jr. C^crn. 17, 290 and 304; 18,256; 32,330. 
G. RosEK. Ann. Pharm. lA, 178; Compt. chinu 1850, 306; Phat^m. 

Centr. 1850, 778. 

-Also PUoTTilrAA and P\l&Tid^», from p\ov6^ b^k and {titt^ root. Diflovercd by 
3)0 KoDinck md Bias in 1&35. 

Strttrces- In the root-bark of the apple, pear, cherry, and plum tree, 
IcBB abundantly in the bark of the stem and branches (Dc Koninck). 
In the bark of the bird-cherry tree (Boullicr, J, Chira. med. 17, 620). 
Also in the leaves of the apple tree (Diehl, Jaftrb. pi: Pharm. 2, 140), 
but not in the bark of the almond^ peach, apricot, or nut tree {De 
Koninck). Tn the root-bark of the red currant lree» Eng (Phartn. 
Viertdj. 3, 9) found a bitter extractive matter, which, according to 
Wittstein, appears to agree with phlorizin. Old apple trees, no longer 
capable of bearing fruity likewise contain phlorizin ; but the root-bark 
of trees which have been dead for some time, contain but little of 
it and that of f^rtly decayed trees none at all (Diehl, Jahrb. pr. 
Pharm. 2, 143). The root-hark collected in January contains more 
than that which ia collected in February or in the spring, when the 
sap appears to carry the phlorizin from the root into the leavoft 
(Diehl, Rqieti. 66, 225). Little or no phloriziji is obtained from the dry 
root-bark (De Koninck), 

PrqKiration. Most advaniageonslji fiom tJte root'batl: of tita apple tree, 
which contatna kss colouring moUer than that of other trees. 1. The fresh 

-■- -V- i^i si-.iiji ilierefore 

- ^ :— . — ^^1^. Dc 
- -- -^ : rl r iL-ure; 

:** --:r^ Tr.*l-jct- — 

•-T - ,-■ T^^:'-. xr.'.t pre* 
"- ^ - -T^z; li'i ^iUie of 

^ . . * -^ ^ . -o-^ .: ^. -^Ic? i" Tie v-:«^I; ud 

... . ^ ■ . * . , '-^i*! , ..i-;::~ i A^^^ai Kid uen- 

■::-i._7.': ..^, v ,..*■- , *-: ':.- r^viij.i -. r iaiporide*, 

,;' - "a-'^ * . ■ ,. ■ ' ^"i'. . .y **;«i:^" a < i few dropi 

?v'^-' ;■ ...... 1 .v^ : ^: » — L:i. J.^^ ;:ill' r_±i Ss «Mi]j 

T': " *. -' - .1. N . i.'i. . - r » T^vi^-■i .'7 lilt £rst motbod 

-'- -— ' ;■" "^' \^- :.■. ;. " L -'--^ ~ ill '.:o :".» c-Citri c * venr old 

:-.v- 1 i -...-■' .:i -.: r ^ i v*»: iitL»- :?<.*:. *S?ai -f^ p, o 

." -- . - - : '^■; ".,..: "? y..l'- 1 •'' -r-fvs i^ water, 

^- - ■■ ^■„. ::■ ■- ....■.-■■- w'^.*.i: x-^lt^ at lou' (De 

i- ■-. .' »,- .■ 1 ■ . i' ' , .. ." " " *: ". V rTjff- :.' a ot^ooricw 

■ ■ .. ■ - .'-_ 7 .• ," ■'■ ' :j ', ■:.Lri'-'^ ^^D i.» a mtM 

r- - .,.-,■ _-,...-»_-i 1 . ;: > 4,-,.-. U:-v\-.:i t^**' .4^d 1<X»'\ ["Ol 

'.'.--;...-- -■ T ,,■,'■'' :. i" Iv - ?;it _ F^' riiiu meltod it 

J*''i" i:. : - .. ij-'.-i i: ; . Ty7i:u:ijpi.s 'iiu'^nvi fn^ai H.>lDtii>a in 

Will' r : 'j,^: ''-:..:., '..i.^'-' .'_.':■.■: it trV-', *:i^l \U'l\'^ with acid»aitd 

li:icij-'*;ti.l'-. ri,- :-:■ , . , -.-, , ^^ »! x;* , f ^Ll,r_±i> bill ii no longi^r 
c!issnlvi-> t<A'l.\y .;. '.•.i'--.\ ii, ■ ^varj^i:* ir.Ui itjf ^-latioD without 
cry>(!illiji'j f'Trm. T ■ :.ii:. > ^..-^^lollf^^l jpraiu, iho ^^lutiLin^ miut 
'jrhri- Im- iriiH^'l ..r I-'-- t.. *-..i:,^ <^' liijr.i ■■[>!>■, l^u#V :?iDiilar 

i- MiltH w*-n' i.hrpii].'"1 i / [t.. K ;.::..'k. — r!:!.>nii[k aftor dehvilraiiiXL 
'! — iMft iilt^H,H, u,.rif :.■..-„ u.-.l-i.iir \l*c K-^muckL PtJ-^riaii ia^Im 

- "'^'^ "I iN'^ti Mi*ri l-irf-r. J? j-^Eiy i.-rrLiip-iil (IV Ki^ainok); fint 

-^'i.tly riwnJi'.li, rli. !i j^t., i-'-TJily, Jilt ii<n hili'iist'ly bittiT. and 

1 -iMn.i-Jy |-Trrj,ri|pJi' ii^ji \u-^i-iiry (Uri^'crji ii-t Mt all at^iniip'ut 
vi'-rj. Tiihd'H irj'lhilirj'ily birt<-r, ihcii swcvt (-•^ta^V Ini^il-iniuw, 
iL — Mftl'vular rMftt'rry (»nvur to ihc-lcft: [i]r for ciy»iaUiicd 


Wrllieliny* Li^h. fkiypp'9 JnUrfnb^ JS50, p, 17fi. 


■<s c - ^a r>7 7t) 

K4 H 24 561 

20 u Ifio artTO 

PcEfT^i-n, ErdmAtui. F>dinDm] ft 

, EG'IS B6-M W31 

6-31 6-89 .„ 5fll 

. M-Oi »7'2l -, Bfi'Ofl 

c*nr"o»,... *3a „,.,.- loo-oo „ loooo loow _„.. loo-oo 

C ,.^, . 5037 ,.M^„ , - fiOSfl 


. DflOS .. 

674 ,- 

37'5S „ 

fl/ 100-— ISO*. 

H-,.-,. 555 ,.. &-m 

., car 

100-00 lUOOO 

100^X1 ,- 


jrifWi#/yiirfrt4*7rt ." C^IPn- (Pj>(*T"on, .Ipi*. r*fnfl. 15, ITS) I C^ll^JJ (Kriliimiin, CAp'n. h, 100) ; f^lf^O" (Erdinnnn A Mflrrlmni!. J. pr. t'hrjt. 15, aiS) j 
C'*iPO* iMiirrh»r»<|. J.jTT. CAm», K\ 357); C='n'*0^'* (Muldpr, J. jit. Cfv'm. 17» 
109 I ond MiiTcland. J, pr. CArr«, 17. ^(08) i C^EI'"©'" (BUm) ; C^E^^ fLk-blg, 
Am^ Pf^rrmt- QO. ±;i7> BiTA-liiit, J>Ttrr'£. 10, 535^ looser)- This luL funnuk 
diffcM fpom lUflt t»f SiiNwlifp (-Iflfl. PAfli^fti. 7mMi>, iiow uuirpmnllj mioptf d, onl/ 

jyflrontfxviitihjiA. t. Plilorizlii which hati hevn melted at IGO' bo^ria 
to boil briflkly at 20ri'', giHng-npwai^^rmidboirigconvortoctintoadnrk- 
rwl siibfitflnfc, and dotcom pon 1^3 compIcU'lj' tit almuj 350". Cryeliilliaei 
Lililoriziii, thiifl tri:aT(-d. Iuse8, on tbc wholr, ljj-3 p, c. wa.ti-[' (Slas), 
(8 til = l.V;?;» [t. C. HO). Plilm-min bnila at 177"^ dffMmiMHe* nt 1117°. gHi^g 
ul «t llir Bime timo. a nnaJl ([iiantiry of heijzoic ucid (? Om-J iijraicptii' Bpirit, iXH^ 
botrk- uid, and h brunn br;iv) od (Bu Kujilnc^k). 

TTin tH>rlT prodnrKl villi iMl of tll'ft l<^ 16'fj p.c. WAt«F, nti limfing [cry^fuliiiiMl) 

r' kiTulii lu 2^3'. is Mulder's Rttjln or BufiUrt. wliitrhi Hcciirdlna in him, Ia b!liuil [o 
pnjdufi i*biniiipd Uy Ibi' aciioii tif uil of Tilriid on iJ^doriiia, and in lln» hcMlir* 
fqi-nLCL] uiiJi^r bi'inJaL' (ircutEJ^lArv^L'-i ftijm •nlii.'iii (it, -lU-ll, u^id ctiin^n rhim Ihne 
trrrtvA horViff only b_V tbs AmanTih of nnliT n]|.ii:b it j^ijiitDirn, — \V1ipii plJjruiil i^ 
bvhtfti] ill ibp oil-ba(}i to IIK)^, il tioj;in» lo pfFi."no*("r, frain rtoiinj of nuui^aiid Tftiioiir, 
md in hulf nfi Jump fho n-flidn*' ai*iJrm>j* lUi* nppnurim'^L' of Ji i-L^Hin hui'Ui^ ll nrn.- jvd 
opkni'. Mulder's /v/ji, irhLt'b in brjttl^ li-inbK 'oKibh «i1h di>j'p amii;(p mloiir in 
■lrt>hal, but in*olublpi in rtJifr. Thi* reain \s rtiMolved «id rl^'fllopispd hy hflifing 
wBtcrj Ihr «jlu*ion tn-fMifuiia niiHv a> it tixil*. It is inwluWo iu hvdroo}i[i>rir flciil, 
di*0o]vD4 111 «r&ni] miTir ocidf M'ithdcoi:p|i]|ioArtioii,aiid in tid of rjtriob niOirurumiiun 
of Mulilcr'* rufi^f^itrip aeitf (tec b<'lol^l, whicU ia ^Icooloridrd by n-ntor, but furnia 
wilJi bm« A red ufiiblo mill - Cl^jrU^,<.'^0,3S^U. Il dinolvi-A v»th flno red <u]cur 
tn oqueuiu arnmoDin v>d pol4flb, nn'l iv pn><'jpjlHlar] h* ddutH aulphiirid a?]d, Tliia 
rrlu ronUin*- ai^Kpnliii^ To MubFi-r. GilH p.r. C, and 5'j^5 tl., HirrmDndin^ lo the 
fcrmnla I'^FI'D*, anil K fupmnd a* ivj.ri*jpiil«l bj llieoquiTmn: SC'H^'* (MiiliU-rft 
binnidii fur cnsiidliBal iJdrtritiii) = JC'Jl'O^ -t 0HO, TUa ijumlvn nilculiuM 
from Uiddri-'f MihU^m ivr iu ':\uitf<\iieiii-s ft niJii'tiai^'^) in 51^ oU nud 00''i<> C, 
SSI IL i fhe fsnniila C^lfHJ" ruqiifrw Da p,p. C, nnd S H. (KrJ 

fi, AuhvJiviis suljihiiic iicul colonrfl phloriEin yellow, Ihcn browii, 
jinri [-hnrn it u~illic.MJl f.'^ixiu]; fitt tiulpliriif.iud a;:id (Do Knjiiruih)- Oil of 
vilrinl iIoooKtjHitiCM iu tvllli rarliniiii^Llutij. aiu] fr^rnis }i n-J ^kdiiiinn (JJ<> 
K'>i»fn;k>. Ciy^itsittint^'l [ildcn-li^iii, oa which mI of vifml in pourod, 
turiji* Yflbi\\% tiHd wuU-^r then produe^i's u wluti.' predpitnlc (Buchnor)i 
If ihr icniptruluro riw» tc» 30^, Cluj miAtur*: tururi red, but b dncolor- 



isvd by M-ftt<*r, rhlnrldn trvntra wiiL o1 of vitntA ut to* lo 70*, 

■ I ■ ■ ''.'hI wilh ('hfllk, ftli^iliol Itiruvrr iJ[*i(fii &om Ctr nst-bn^wn HI 

« ill* i»t' rutliiiljiltJiU^ I'f limdi coiitaiiEiiik. S>^'C1 p^fi, C, S~t 

Ai- L ^< '- iiLiHi I ^ .'>^ C'kO, iDkil ri-w-mbltrg Uia mil abtoinfd m Li^o i<< ' 
MJii-in V tikl'r i^riiTAtM llio r-ofthin liigli^ tiinpofinff lh*t >oniv u1 < 
■adrviiJUituM wiih I V limp, lUil ^iv.** tli^i fonimU aC^!P0*.8O*,SAji ^ ,a, '. - -» 
IV vMno null !■ oliiijiitl, hlviiftIiiiie Ut M»li]cr, bj ihfl ution nf gQ of vitriol on Ihr 
mftq fununl f\>riu Jililuriiifi by Ih.<iU. 

iMliiti^ Atilpluii'lr iuM (»|rti> ptioHuliirric, liydriijilic, liyrlnic^lilnriir nriil 

ftif^ ih'rH |i1ilnrl/;iik III ihi' cirM VL'klhiiit ulururiori ^Ih- KrniEiirk, Sln« 
Ai|vi»<iUH uHlplmno m'M of thf «lrL>ii^'tL of I \t-r ct'rit. i1<»oti not uli 
\h\' mt^lr^ry (xinvr ^if Hii' AituLiou m 48 bours (BrhiLdmiiliLt). Tho 
^ilulLuii, luiitcil tn ^0" or W't bouniK'^ turbid, and dcjfoaitA i rj^iUtll trie 

Hi«L»^f<ii|r Cli' vi0f prodiiwd in ihi« nutU>iu ■» it* BlT> 

Wlii'ii 1 ^> Mw] [ihli^rixiti \« hriilcd nvor iht wali'r-hbtfi ^itl: 
i;rK. wnUr kutil TiO lIlmiw L>f iUUiU^»ul[ihuiii;juid| lljtMiuLxiiikULtiiniuiilii 
iif mn^M, airiiinriliTiL', nn ilut iivrrft^i^JU» 4l'7l! j"- iv m fiTiiirJ in U'\ 
llttj'n, Ui)'i<l |k I'. iJiloitiiii Lx'tii^ M>|>!Lmird uf liu- haiiie tEinc (I{uw> 

2L StiiniK "'!'■' •''"' wl" miTTiodifttH)" cm plitariwn, ovotvine' nitmi 
IFM nnd milrtiiiii- mill* Ami nirnlmnn^ nxAlir tu-id, lt^^<thr>r M'ilh 
iIuiIi-itM i*iil»i*hiv, Siiui'ii ^Jif(in*fk' m.'id ip. flK whio'i ix'tuttin* nni 
kdvmL Mi\>U)i iihlnr iioiil ]ii>HJm^4 ft bUi'k<bi%)V7i ivisiaf wLk'Ii iti 

on funhi^r Uillluif* niiU di^>>li until *u nud wolnli^m nf nitn>(i» 
(iVtilvw). Wx\U' ititiK .-unil dinhilvvK j>1jlonj^n nt tir^t tun u-tUii 
■Ui'Tfttliui, riniUiitf a \tal- \\-\Uv t^AnX'u^tK wbkh, if \tfU ovirrni^i 

to I miiMkUfy >if liil^iti' iv mnm 1 

mi»l ,. - *v tUiibn>un ^A\y iT ' ■ r *- '^ 

(lE<|l^f, nil, i^i^ « feulllllLiEl nl ti 

R_ n-Wa iliMidn U UiinnW wWh |^ »rf He ^me'^ -/ . j^ , 
t atftiw ia tiinttptt. (iMOi viddi HAttT fkfar-L ^<Ik» 

1"! L I'- I ^^\. -«> WttmiiUrciiin B t>t\' .^- -.-^ ^llur 

—^y-** w^akutfi Ukd «« m|iQtBUii( Uhj 


^^ . . :. ' 



viBcUl rtsb^ Aqueous dJi-riue ;tJJeil to a*iueoufi pMoriair forme a 
yellnw piwipiUTe (De Kunincl:). — Wlien |ililitnKiii ih trr:Lted wiHi 
rhh'ruif t/time^ carlxiUfllt ol limt' sirul rt'sitiM nn? fnrmi:(J, hut nnithcr 
ohIonmiJ, nor a xobdlu oil, ni>i' crybtAle (SU^nlioutiCf Ann. Phtrtn. bb^ 
4), A qa«>ou3 chloride 'if linic tulLHii'S iinuoouB pyoriziri light yellow 
:it lir^U Itrrtwu afU'r aunic days. wiUioiit prcd|.ijtat;oij (Di5 KoiiLnok). 
Willi cttLiruXe nf poUish Hiid hifirudthrir. nci'ij pKli»ri/Jn lw.'liJ»Vi."H lik'i 
plikiivliii (irufuiaiin, p. 9). Plilori/iTi dlfllilM with BUl^^hiiric ai'iii 
Liud IjjuUroinuto of polftsb, d'.iofl »fft ^itild any f>il aji3Jog^>ii& to sali- 
cyli>u3 !idd (Mulder); but it yiolda forrnJc aoid (Strcckcr). 

«. FhlorMii, eaturaicd wflti rtmmflnw sind tsposcd to tbo air in thi* 
laoUt HtUhtin, ;icui»ircti Gdcwflfiivolj nn rjrnin^^e-red, (jtirplc-rcdi uud dark 
btu^ ci^iour, atid ia couvcrtod into fjltlurizolii-aiiHuoola (p. IC). By tho 
cimluiiied *n:Liin: itf llit iiii', iiud f*ipei:hll> *}f o.\ypeii-^^j.s, tl(t blue 
CdinjjuiiMd is dehtniji'il, and c'liivi^riLHi i]it<» a bmwu-ri'd ftdli- 
FtaiL<MS bpariEi^ly ooliilik iu wutt^r (Siab). Un ovA]viratiii^ The 
Wo wii-tva solution, rodissi-'lving-, inadpn-cii^itntiii;:; with neutral nct?ta.t(3 
of Wd( Ujt: ueai'ly colouiltHft iillmt^r c-siiibita thu i"eattiti»B of BUgai', 
;ind lenvif, after rii^mov^l nf tlii: li^td-DjEidi*, a li^vj!Toiinr|ii^ iitnipid 
ulims, wliich biini^i wilh thu udour uF siigiir (Hl!LftJAVi!t7,. Ann. Phtirtn. 
119,211). — T. Boiliiij^ jwtaith-U>t of 4j>^ B., forms with phloriarti a 
liWk iR^idi octiiit^i in fact T like aa at^id, nnd prijiduciu^ j^lui'Ofii-, mid 
tlit'ii fuitlicv d<.i.i'Ti]pi>Hi«i^' this :^iiV>&taticc-, — TliiH soliitiou of phluiiziii 
hi dilufo mtiU'ou:^ iiiku]Ji4 mpidly sib^urbs i>Kyg4?:i fmni t[k' sklr^ diiingi'H 
frctn yellow tji rod-hmwii; loatp its orig;irial nlkalJue ri'iictum, HMtX ia 
fouftJ to coTitaio Li'U'Lw.mio iicid, aciilic aL-id, JiuiJ u rod-bi'own cyJounug 
mJittcr <i^tae)» — S, Ou diwlilling' pldi.riiiia with Ime^t the ainn; pro- 
diit^ts uiL- oLfaiiicd a8 iu the di~y dlrstillikticia oF pldoiizja /tcr st^ but 
nwllirr lunizifir nor iMirlntnii- iitid (IV Koiiiu<^k). — d. Plihiri/Jii dut'B 
not n.»dU(» pola^o-ru/irir trirtnitf tKoufi"). Miiud nHfh PUpl-ir Piil- 

eiufcto aod (jotush'loy, it fomin » jrrt'(?ii rrunpilate, wliidi is colomod 
Itio by uxcesB uf poiadh withimt dirtaulviiig, tind whi-ti hcftli?d tuma 
gnspn, and lliially brown (Laseuife^iie, J, Chinu tried. lfi> 417). 

10. No euj^' in iortacd hy emtikin. (l^dd<?der, Wien^ Aknd. Btr^ 

21, ;j^)- 

0>mi»VMii'iWp — With W'ltcn Ihj'iraud Pli!'-idiu White ^Iky 
iirfd!*.'6 often imJtcd in radiate ^oii|ffli by alciw crysIaUisatiiJn fmm 
diliilr t^ilijtEOiiH it ia ubLuu^d iu larj^v lluttcncd iifedh'S Lavrug* & 
pturly Iu5[re(lV Krxiiuck, Staa). Sp. gr. l-l^flSatl^' (Oe Konin^'k). 
liivpfl olf "'*ti»r of cryst4illittalitiii nt llW, lunru r|iiirkly at UU°, 7 |.». c. 
(Uc KojiiuUO i <I-82 (hidiiufcrm *md Mai'L-liaiiJ) ; 7-7 (Mardiaud) ; r-81> 
^Uulder) ; 78 p. c. (btafi). i oi, = 763 p, c. HO. 

41 C ■■- a&a ... &3-39 

M H ... 38 .™ 5W< 

•I O 193,.- «M 


6275 . 





U«inK)» + 4«)-— 47» ,.,. lUOtJU ,.„ iOO'OO „. lUOOO .,.. I0f>00 .„. lOOOO 

Cfj ?itnlliscd phlorizin disflolveB iii 83il ]»U. u'"itr«tS"2' tDu ^^.►iiimjk) 
iu 1016 pitf. ould v>'^aU-r (B<>ullkr). It die&olvea very abtu^daiitly In 


^^ of M% nnd in all proporlioiis in l>oilmg trftlor (Dis K^mm^k). 

mk AmmMii'i, — Ci'yfllnllia4."ii phlitri^iii aLk^orbe 10 to 12 ]\ c 
~^^*f Biclliij;;' at thfl same time and ecrlidifjiii^ Ut n colourleea 
^^^ i>Dn n iiimtli'Vrtblc \n lUy air, but iu crintaet witVi inoiAl »ir 
nf^K fnfcjriii .Tn- iin i ni nn i a fSiahJ. — PbKiriyizi dieerlresj <wwJTy in n.qii(yMiit 
■Mnaiii, anil in iiTcrinjtat^d hy a^ids (De KoiiLnck)/ From th« 
•w>li'*t wttch turns yullow id 24 hoorSf no phlorizin cah ftfhrwda 
Wmtntcd fBoulliiT). 

Phl^iriKin dipmnlvfiH rnsWy \n anupnui; ;wj^LtA aTidVflfffl, fonntn^ ft pnln 
^*#ffw "fiCnlionj whicli <loes h-^t. fleooMij«ifl<.^ if tf>|>l frum ooulact with 
dM ak, arid xiill yicUlH pldohziu wiih jictd^, cvvn after at&uduif? far 

Barinm-ciimpfflin'L — A flointkin ft \Ai\i'rmfi in wood-siiirit in |ire- 
cffiMftM l>^ tivrylii fllf*o ;tTMfl*>lvcd in wi>'jJ-tfpjriT, Clu? ]jtvcipitAtO » 
vanhcd witli wori<i-a|iiril, tlioit |(ioA.>srd. nml drir'J out of coutftd 
tfiJt the nir. WIr-u litim pR<|uirod. it rcHactiti n ftmall qiiiintlly nf 
wuojapltit, luid oonUiiiH, i^n IIlo avem<^. :Ln< (k o. HaO; t1i« 
Mmk; flnhHliinoc (<3(lii1>ils ttio oi^mjux'ition <>f dHrd iildon^in (SUti), 

flinP^^, tRkO * 30-15 p. f. B«0, 

Jtirontut Albii iinitOA with plilorlxiii. 

^1 Cai4^m't-<irapotin'l. — Wlicn phloiiiin h added In miHc ijf liitj*^, (Lc 
^■nw iliMolvr* lln-iju^li the njt'diijnj of thr |i!ili/h/in. Uii cr\ajH>rHtint' 
^|Ki» nAlnttnfi ill viu'iLt^ ilic'rc' romaiiiH u yidliiw mjihvii, ciiiitiiiulug'. r»n Uu' 

f^Aiit'rimjiofmfh — Agucfiw phWiain isprcdpiUk'd ^y l«*-it; acrtftl^ 
fjf Iftttl, liiit iii'T by tuiT ni'ikLud uivTuli? (!><' Kuniiu^k^. Prom a 
l^tt<iiv ^i f\^\'i\'y/\\\ :iiid KxMo of Wd hi'iih'il !<» liO' , unnlifiictl 
nhlrrinn mny 1><' eei^aiufrd by liydri^RuljOmric udd <M»ildi'r). \K\Wfn 
(jftMr ATtiljLlr li lortd is pourril in'i'i (U|iieuiw pblmij^in, pn timt a lur^r 
i|uftnliiyi>r tln>liillL-r imiy U'tHnin in rxc<*aa. Ani tlir prrdjiicaln j« 
%f»«l>cd' uhd dnnl, il nmlJiuiH fr*imr»a tifriikpiTL-L^iit ri>Oi but at ti>wrr 
tomiit-ralnrTrt, prvd|>iUTi"- nr*' fnniuMi, L'onlainiiiji^b<-tw' j."i and Om |K>r 
n-ni. of |f;wl-i>Nidc- Tin- ^-nlo y<.'llijw prodiiitAt** ovNi wbv" dnrd at 
IW hi vttt'uii i>r iri ei Btiruni <.'f dry fti*'. etill Ntmna wuicr. which diX'* 
WA m nd ri>mpl[-li'lj IjoI^w 170 '. !i' wPTirlj l*-nip'raTurc Ihrt rcAiiiDt* 

|i. <■, C 2-13 H., "W^ T'jOm luul 13"21 O. <Stfie.) MuLW fouhd 63^U 

A.|"j*'n[[*t jihl<*ri/,in i*' nM iill^'n-d liy/rr»7"/" pulplinto. Wth^;WilB 

■■i/yk'Tff. it fifl-riiM u y<*ll(tH'"lir'*wn i^rrripllntr i Willi f^-rrio <'hl<»ndp it 

('«iM tt *lnrii hmwn-rcd li<|nid( iml no [n^-oipilrvt'^ (IV K^minrls), TJip 

t'-ijuf dvdJ'f^Arri nn iidiliiiirTi of [unrcuHJin (Muldi-r), Tfir mjiirikini 

«^»L^« {if llif i.'ulciiini-<.'"mj«fund 'd jdiln'inn ihsHidvi-* n//ffw- hydrmt 

IL Jftrr'f'n*' rkhfitie M\A nttr'tle "/ a'tfff d>j not ultor ui^nouUS 

Vh Mh- k'lnJTiik). 

fBin dl-^iiJ-.r%rrtMly at nil kmpfTAtmwi in womf-^inV 4ml m 

b: K^'F^-i^'^- ^^'^I> ^'^ - (lU, uVolicd it, forms a fttdl]_\ LiTpild, 

\ Wftt'^r jtri^-ijiiEnU-ift Uki' itfpii'OUB wohitioiu rh^tiiiin df«- 

PHLORlZblS. 1? 

solves very easily in strong acetic acid, and is precipitated tbercfroni 
bj alkalis (De Koninck). — It disHolves very eparingly in ethfr 
whether cold or at the boiling heat, but eaaily in ftker- alcohol 
(Stan). It is not proci[Htated from ite aqueous Bolution by gelatin 
(De Koninck), 


Stas, Arm. Chim. Phy&. CO, 393 ; Ann. Ph'trm. 30, 20G. 

Produced when the compound of phlorizin with ammnniii ia exposc'l 
tr> the air in the moist state, till it acquires a dark blue colour (titaa). 

C«HX>M + 2OT? + 60 = C^WH^O* (at«ckw), 

Ast}iar«actic>nmurt be attended with ^llMinotiuii of water, WdCfiflnfOr^aH. Vtrh^ 
Brsunicbwei^f 186<^ 493) supposM that phloriceln cont^iu 1 At. wftt«r. Tho behsTiDur 
of pUaruinto ammonia (p. 15) rraders it doubtful whether phlomem stUl coiittuiv 
the ndical of gluroH (Hlasinetz, ^hh. Pharm. 119, 210). See alu tha naction af 
pUorogluciD with ammonia in contact nith tho air (it, G7)i in vhich limilarly 
coloured bodies *» formed. 

A number of capeuJea covered at the bottom with a thin layer of 
moist phlonziUf arc placed above a dish containing a dissolved 
ammoDia'Salt ; lumps of potash are ttirown into this solution, and the 
whole is covered with a glass hell-jar, the edge of which dips into 
water, 80 that the air iu the interior m kept moist. After 4 or 5 days, 
the liquid being stirred and fresh htnips of potash thrown in every 
day, tne phlorizin is converted into a thick, nearly black, syrup^ which, 
besides pnlorizein, likewise contains phlorizin either unaltered or com- 
tuned with ammonia, and, cspeciaUy on the edges of tlic capsuli'S, 
a brown-red bitter substance resuItLng- from the decomposition having 
gone too far ; this must at once be carefully removed, as it could not 
be separated afterwards. The remainder of the product is placed 
in vacuo over oil of vitriol, to expel the excess of ammonia, then 
iTOfipended in ahttle water, and dissolved in a large quantity cf alcohol, 
which dissolves phlorizin and an extractive substance, and separates a 
predpitale of a fine blue colour. The latter is washed with alcohol, 
pressed between paper, and well-boiled with alcohol to remove foreign 
matters. On dissolving the phlorizein-ammonia thus obtaiQed in the 
smaUest possible quantity of water, and mixing tt by drops with 
alcohol, acidulated with acetic acid (carefully avoiding an excess of 
the latter), phlorizein separates, and may be washed with strong 

Properties, Solid, amorphons body like a red resin in the mass, ai»d 
liaving a shining fracture. In splinters it is transparent, with red 
cobur. In powder it resembleB orcein, llos a shglitly hitter taste. 
Not fusible, 







.., 48-65 ,... 


- >' 

- 2S 

... 5-10 .... 


ft* u 

.... . 3^.> 

,.» 5-7I» ,... 


Si! O 

... . 21** 

... -lO'lG .„. 


i^VU"^>>. . 

... 51S .... 

„„ 10000 .„ 


St*- v^'i-^^-^l t^-*' tl'r",:»:U »,*^NJI1»*0". Sin^ikor (An*. J^arm. 74, 187), (he o» 

/^ I, ■•.•.*!• :.-it^. I. rhlori/om diH''»m|i«RftM when heated^ without 

UK'liiiiii '*t \<'liiiil:si!v^\ ll is iusiantly Jcrompcwed l>j' fA/onW, In 
»viil.»iA ''Will .■ ic',' ^tul .:/j\ U l^rii's ittj rt-il (j<>lour, and is i'Oiivcrt<.Hi into 

ll <liswUri( III VoHJti^ ii'.:\.- with ivU c^iluur, Icsii tnt^ily in cold 

V'A.'v- Krf .t.u.n-:-it>\ - I'ho I'liu' eubst.-incc obtained as above- — IF 
It U' Jii.^'Kt'iI m .1 *:MijIl .jiMiiiiiy i»r" amuKinin^ after luring washed 
Miih i<t<>li<-L .tii^l t^^' 4i'Inti<^ri I'vupirjiod under n ^Wri jar in the 

ii(LU'rki^<iiil -I ^-1 -ivk^ ^'f ('o[,(sli« k T\-Mi;iiiL« in the fi^rm nf a Kolid 

.Mii>><r'**'^" r'" 1''^' ''''^'' ^ul'iiiuiuv. with LMf^^ry reflex, having alMtter 
4iiiiii<<»ii^ -tt K I ill-. i^i<t iEtvilii't:i1>h^ \\\ dry air« — gives off ammonia and 
,t ,iiii x( Ilk II hk-.t^L-tl 1 1 t< MisiaiLlly dtvi'lorised by clib>rinc. Strung 

itii>1<<, \^iib \\\\^ ^■\<s-) 1 A n\\\-\\- and. dis^ulve the i^mtxmiid with 

|.i..,til ii'il t tdoni . .Jk Ji^ <^i'p.i:stti- uniinoiiia t'n>rn the Boliltimifl, without 
il,,.,ii,.iM.L- ih»' ,»>Ih'im, TU' v.isily i',>nned, spU'iulid Mile solution f»f 

If,,, , t hi I 111 \^ itli'i. >;i^i'?^ I'lT uMuni>ni:i ivhrn heated, and de|>cwita 

iii.l i>hl>>ii I'lii, tikf^ir^r im ;kiUUii<>u uf <)i]ute aoidi*. It iH Intitantly 
,h., oLiii-'il bs lisdu^iilplinm' arid. hydi'i>»inl|i1uite of aninioniu, tir 
iii^iiiriih' ■*! i-t'i^i'-k bui (uni*4 blui* iipnri -m i'X|ii>sun* to the air — 
riii-Li»iii'i ll""" n<>(^ III i;»"l.'i j>. e. C-, \V-i\\ ir., fi,'iO N„ and oxygen, 

\i.\.w. I '"- /■*"■" ■*•* "-^ KnviH nK-ftmiuiln C'-^N-H-O^.MlHl. wLicli. n-mid- 
, , i V. I (oimiil.r. plimitd .imtuhi 1 "I. h^iii^ipn hk-pi' t » I'^X^ll^OS), *ud 

^^,„j,i 1 1 i^Mir Ll! ;iJ |i I' *', T Tii .\. ni»i (> :;j> iJ. 

Hiib<ili' ■■' iiliuiiiiiii LihtiuTsed in ;ii[ueii\iK {Jjrnim'Iu-aniiuonii^ 
I ,, Mm-, ih-Mili'ii'ii^K iIh^ tii[uidt and si^tr: amtJM'nja fnv. 

/ ,,n/ , ..,.ii*.'ii»'t t4f' l'ti/-ti:'itt.^ Fi-t-tn thi' nninionia-eoMijHnind, bawio 
„. i.ImIi "I h 'lit lliX'UH iliiwna phripElate, vvhieiN afler dryin^i in vneun. 

I fill- (iMnij.",i\ :t(>-7l (». e. h-ad-oiide (f^taB\ uiiswerinfr, 

Ii,i»< (..:.hi-'kir, hi llu- fimnul!it**S'JI'V,2PW(culc. 30'l>ii.o, 

I'l-tM ... 

\,.„ I |Jili.ii^'i"ii»-iiiiiuiiMiiii prtvijiitati-K :i/ic- and tran eiifu. 

.1, , *f»v,„„t. 'riimuN diiWJi frnni llie animonia-i'omjiound by 

iiMii' '*' ' '' ' '■ "" '^ ''''"' ri''''^i|'i^^'*'' whii'li IK diTAmifnt^ed by wa>ihin|; 

,, i,li »tii ■. ■>'■<' ^l''^'i drii'd, ufler l)t.-in^'-|iivssiHl, n1 rnoau temiH^rfttnre, 

I ^lJ>lil>»^h IdiK-k niliiur. Wfii'ii ihiis prejian^l, it auitamH froni 

,MiiMl".i/r„ (., I-. <■-» :r \'\ il., riV* N"., and ai'Ofl b^ J2'75 J^g. 

Ill vaindy citlnurs iViwi i^iiritf itlo'fiifif orclhfr. 




Mufon (18fll). ^. Arch. 3ft, ISO; £(ff'i. JuAjm^ct-. jG, 274. 

J. P. TftOuu^DORFF. Atrt. F/t.irm. U, 18D; £n-j. JaAr^fltfr, IG. S83, 

Rocai.EJ>ta & ScnwAMTZ, M't>7i. vilW. Btr, 10, 70i 4»n. i^harm. 87- 
ll^U ; y. j/r. Vhtvi. h% 103 ; abatr. Pharvi. Centr. Ittoli, 306 i N. J^ 
Ph^rm,U.A'lAx N, Am, Chifn. Ph}?. 38,373; t'Anr*. G<u-. 1853, 
ZCW.^men. Al^ntl /ii-r, 1 1, 334 : y, ;jr, t-'Acw, tiO, 291 ; fkbHir.^Tra. 
Phiruu 88, 3:>G; J'/firm, L\ntr. Itfa^S, 72tt. 

Zu-KSiiEK, jln/i, Ptuirm. [iU, 113; Pfnmii. Coitr. 1851, i3S i /-;«■. 
<'^frt. 02. 282 ; O'lr,.*, G'U. H<5*, SOL 

ItocHLtirCR, tTi/vr. Ahfd. Ber, 13. 1 f.y ; J. pr. Chem. 64- 29 ; Phm-m. 
Cfi^tr. ifi54, 72-2,^JJ^ien. Akad, Ber. IR. i; J, pr. CA™. fiS. 208- 
— IFiVn. Ahi>i. ficr. '2i\ S.M ; ./. ;?r rArm. Gl*, 211 1 CArf'fl, C^tr. 
IftGC. SfiO." n'<fl^ .1i«rf, B^.r. 23, 1 ; J. pr. Chem. 71, 4H ; Chem. 
Cailr. l»jr> Sfifl*— >r.tfi» jIAck/, Ser. 24, 32. 

ft-JI*r^Wrffl^ (Rwtj) t ffrfw/uri* (Mirtitu) « Pllfyn^r|m (XMtfiBr). SwHiiM, — 
FiwlmiBiJii (Onrf^. Chvm^ J. fi, G) abfem'd ih^L thtr iiifutiuLi of horW'CliLvlnut bark 
m ir«k#™iil i Biciumlyr (Taachatb. ITftj. Ii4^ i'aiJiwTuiirtJ k? iauUL« tlie U'ldtisccj^E 
irriiiciplci ui<i af jimro Ur Wi7p obtikincJ Lulembl^ puru lUCLiUn, SubscqiicnlJy iCAruiiu 
■nu rctfAfdcd its a BQliElnblc biiA*, of He saparota idi'ntity mu doubted. iiJl Raub 
{K-fti^. Jrvfi. Hi, 1^1) diji'VTpr^d it uei*, fend Uinar Qbtamtfd Lt in lliu piu-e Hlatp. 
— On Fremj'* rx^trf^ ftm/iifitr, see ivi, , 

^loffrrw. Til th" biii"k of Ihe hor!!<?-olicetniil ^f^p/'w.< /ftj>;i^/?fl*?flwjm 
(ffitJvlhucf't xiii. Phi/t/'rhr>itie. 25.) Most aJniQilantlj in Mdreh^ before 
tho opening <if llir Imilc* {Joniie). — In Tf^nMrtr gnHka (p'^»"r/ 36Jt C9j>e- 
ciJiily iiL ll)L ftvbh llii^vcre (Lnuiltvor, fitpaf. Sit, J*77 1 84» 72), 
AV*i'.>nicr fht* flnoTCsci?nf'? nbsijrred Liy Loft«?fc^ (.lAzr. Mfrf, IT,'?) in the 
inftiHum of jirivi'l hy Ki^*<o!jmauii m that r>r log^ooti, ilehI by Ncdde 
;'CW/, C^fni. J. .1, h) \n Ihiit of rod aandul-wiKid and of <|im9fiio-WJod, is 
tlut (o ihe jn't^BL'iiw of ftjK'nlin, mapoiiit iioi yet JnvcBtiguled. Similar 
t>>jiiijrtMnjijplv U\ iJip iliuncst^fQt, snbstjini^u, wbidi, ;it:i:(jrdunr toliiaiidia 
(i/r. Amh. ItN, 130) esists In any;cl[ca rofit, and iii Sfn'iu Sfrtnnfynii^ umA. 
ftCo^nlirig lo Rif^btnv [J. pr. Ch^m. 11, 3U), iu R^idia Siilbid'>H'>iK. — The 
fiiit>rca(V]j ( pfiiicipic of the Lark of Fraximm otitus (NoAiifj'J^^i viJi., 

"^ A<!i-^.r(lbg t.i>U,0. Sr.itkt'M [Ch^tn, Soc. Qti. X11,17> thtibarkanf 
llic viiriOTia Bpociee rjf Jwufwj and Pnvia contaiu two IluoreBcenl snh- 
s-UtttceBt viK,, ii'^ciiliii, wliir:h cshibita a sky-blue, ami paviin, whicb 
fflJiibiia it bl"ic-g:n!en tluoi^isctuce ; the former prcdomlnaltu in At^culaa, 
(l)if Intlcr in Puciti. Puviiu lx)afs it very ch-sG resemblance to jt*K:nli», 
Imt i« dideii;g:uidljod from it hy uiudi greater BuluLllJty in ethei.f 

pffpfttutiion. — Ten poiinda of piil^erlsod borBQ-cbeetnut Lark is 
iliffi.*er**d with BJic lifiifls ibc oiiaiitify oi alcoljril of 80 p. c, the liquid 
l^lkd up Odd tillered ]n>U und (Lu ruflidue again Ueatec with half tlio 
iioiintity \ji alcoliij]. After J of tbe alcoW Das been difitilkJ 'jff from 
Wii- liuclureii, tijc rtsidue la kft to itself for sodjc WL-eka in an ojicu 

C 2 


J itth«ii dt'iKiaitfi lm|^rv**9«calm, TbU cruder |«T>dDCt, &ft«r bctog 
^ ioe-cold water ffwn wShehng tioiouiiag, tmi palrcnJvt P^i^y 
Bftd from tilTactiTc matter, m rege^lbediy SmdtttA tft Ih^H 
powible quaDtkT of mIcoIk] tnnlAaimg el^rr, Mhrw it^^ 
OD r<>nliiig' ; it i« ihei [ PCMc d Lrtvwn UbakMs fi^n- Ttw 
piriikitlioii IB ropeati>iJ rill tbe aceroEu ftppean Bunr-wfatto^ Ukd bnrvtf 
tntbmt leaving a traoc i>f ft&lL — ^All Uw vMt«-&4wd obUincd in tk« 
together with ibe vatecs whh vludk tae Mper hae bc«n 
arc predpitate^ with solotioa of gtoe or JgnipaiP. The pre< 
dpHace containing taanm » repeatMlr kneaded with hot 
tfw Uquidatbiw obtaJaed are ooiio^uir^tod, a frwh qnaati^of 
theft cryBUliifiiiif; out. By this trc-atmcQl lib. «f the bade 
Z 4raju« of a:g<:uiiu (Trotiunfidoiff). A umilu^ method ia pmaaed 

2, CommiDnt^ borse-c]i««tiiiit l»aHh i« cxlianated vrith cold wil 
(boiling, according to Roehled<?r Jt Schirarti); the infusion 
<vpitat4^d wiLh neutral aci^tato of lead; the filtrato is freed from Icttd by 
hjdrosolpliunc acid, and evaporated to a ejnip at a modetate heat i 
aad ihifi ^Tup i^ bft al r^st for several dayts, wbetenpju it 
to a brovni mass nilxeA witliwbhe grains. Tlik mam » wa«h«d wil 
oold water^ and the white graina ate ooUooted on a filter- (Minor/ 
A sJmilar ^)roccBfl b tfcdopted by Eochlcder & Schwarts, who f* 
CfTfllaQisc lUc prv>d act three orfoor times from weak bi>ilin^ *pirii,ai 
as oftcN from vati^r, and finally naxb it vitlU i»ld waU'r, till { of it 
crjBlaItt ia dieRnlvci : that whicb then retaaina undtsAolred 

3. The diwoctioncrf horec-chcetri^it bark is pHKipalaled with aolaticai 
of alum and a sljp^ht ciwas of aruHinim; tlio o ream- rribn rod prt^ 
cipilatc 19 removed; and tbe tXLle wiiK'-jvtlloAv^ltr&lr cvjip:nitrd or«r 

ibo waier-lialh; It thon leaver a rvwidm- i u-utimg suljiliBlr of. 

putanh and ammonia^ togfoihcr wlllk a Pmall qnnntity ft iht- Acytatetif 
and the whole oi Ibe JCAciiliJi^ Uu biiliu^ tLis n^tOdu<< with Etti 
nimiiol, all the leanilin -iispii-jlvcri out, and i\tny bf jmriHi"^ hj t^ 
t-rj>li»llJrtiilUm from alcvjlml. This ii(etU<>J yk-iij*i a Ur^^er iiuaatily of* 
H<a[.-(ilm ihaii an/ iillier. (Kocldeder. Wien. AAti^L hrr. 3^^\.) 

4. Tho aqiiii'ntiH <»xtrart pr^pan^d hy [Tifiisinn in f^xhauatJMl wi) 
ftlcnliol of 7^ p, (.: s iho lincturo m ovapomtod; ibe Mtmct djcaoli 
in p\». of aleolii^tio finl-mnmotiUts tht* oleihr t^L>1utjo[i l» aiippi 
■atikratrd wilb diluto Rulplmric iK^id, ami llioit Jivo^iu ujtb acnmoiai^ 
•otbat it hRielltf Htroijgly nf aiiirmmj^L, unilrJ^hrbitr^ iulrii^- ^uvjmiccTKrA 
ff tlif prci|H'r {|iiarifil.v f>f niiinuuiiik hnji b^rn itddi-'J, tite linuUl fjn^Jtni* 
Ivbifl itnuiodiafolyt or on U-iuf; Iieu1c-d, d<<[.v>iii^ itrsonliDi au niM^ 
Eional (|imMUU' of wluoEi in rj1itat:iL-d by rt^i.K.'al^.vl RiiprtXEktuiiblma willj 
#«l|ihltric add and ummrtuiu. The mi'llier-lium fis art' ov«t>iirat«l m 
tWo-tUnli» a iiaiatl i[iuirjlilv of ^■Utin-TiLtUtiii.uj iri nddi^d, andlin- pid 
^fAtmXm In iMiki-kl^ retu'^viii ; i\w filiruto thvJi n^niii jivlrU ONH^lfdi 
TW raMinilrr in oljui^h-il by ei»ncH'Jj|nihii;f :itid iiilntcliug with i>lh<n 
Uimonia. (Junius, A«n. /'/.inn. 15* V4^C0 ^^B 

R^H^pfif. TryiriiKimil jiHCulin f|iH t*2) iifNlJiiiih ^^iikr, bttt incM 



litmua }M!rjEiaDvutlj reel. 

Eawnlicr. Zwetiget, 

U - flisa 

M H 24 

29 soe 


Taodoi'oiie, Td&tos slightly bitter, Coloiira 

««-!,- W 100'. Scbwiirti, yUfoA 

., Gl'Gl u. 51^ ... M-U ....... fil-H 

.-,-.-, IS? -. fi'28 ..,. 4^ ..„_ 4-09 

., '13'ia 4£80 „.. lS-90 ...p.„ 43-39 

C«IP»0»., -104 ,„. 10000 .„,.,.. 10000 - lOOO.!! ,... 10000 lOOOO 

KamUJAt {Tnm.Aliti. Her. IG. 1} luuUitfcJ Eraculiu di-i«J in a -lUoiuii ofchrbcDia 
aatL Avporduig 1o '^v^'rtif,et, nscv'\hi liriuil a1 LOO* bliU rdliuus vBt^rr^ tlilo aitXe- 
mnt ii^ hatrerL'F, ut yunanpc vrilh l^ii raiulla cbtiLLuc^ by olht^F clii'mutii, Ri^klodor 
A Bchrmitit appe^iT 1o hiwn ii llraf arorloalcrd Lbs whE«T A>Dlam«d m i^rjBthtliMd 
wmJin ; iuhi4>i]iionll7 Kwhl^PT ntaled thai Bewulin driod for a dm^ at ICXT nlilbJU 
ilic abuvp ann|HHiiiu]i. 

Tnniuu^dcrff givrt the form i-U C'*E180'^^ i DeltTa (ft", JtiArh. Fhtinn, II, 353) 
DT0 €°FI*'0", ffl[ii:!i blliT Jin-» uul. Btffte wilL the ouolTsia, Zncn^'r'i ftirniulBBi 
C=ni''CH^ii'rfuscd, ^[iill5*Ii'iO'? 5110 for flrjHialliHcdffflCidin,dh.Ho( Et^'-^ti with th* 
qaiuititi« of Biicnr foam] h? RocldL-'drt i SdhwurlA, Tho aboTC fhirm-ulik is lUnt prtt- 
ifj Koflde^l^r- A: Schwarrz, Mon* rocentlj- ( {#';?«. Akad. Sir 20^ 351) Rwb- 
llu girpii the fomiiila C^fl^O^ {cole. frltiJ p. p. C, SOI B.) dedutml from the 
lit/ of mgar ohlskivcd by tha dnminpDEitiini of eicidin. 


Ueanttpc-Bitiont. 1- vKtwuliii heated above its melting poiut turns 
ycI!ow or brown. The tiiyatallinu lua^a to which it Ihcu aoUdifics on 
OLKjIiiitf, D'ntaiiis ccs>L"uktIii uiul the dec otu|rfrfeititiH -prod note of glucose. 
Bj- rlry liistilliilkm, ri^stals i.if watuk'tin ur« obtaiued, togother with 
oitter proJuL^tB, (Zwcrtger), Dark yellow vapours are given off» which 
oondenfle to un orange-ydlow xaasa in the iie<!k of the retort ; after- 
wiirds a little bn-jwu f mpy renin atli.; oil tjubbcb over, whiJet & small 
tjuftality ijf }^tiii K'scwin^t^ atid ;i i^hialit^ uLiarcutil reuj^kLtis. The ilidtil- 
IftTc disfli>lv(:n ill W!iti:r Ui it tcirbid !ii:id li*|util, in whJt^li all lUid yi'llrjw 
flocks float (TromruadDrff). 

2. jEwciiTiii Imrf'i i.m [tlatiimm foil pmlls an odour of caramel, and 
teav^a a carbon itceoim roBJdni? [Zwenger). In a cmcible it melts tn 
fc dark bn>wu lu|md. which gives oft' wLJ to fumes, emclla of caraoiel, 
barns with a l)ri^[»t tinrnc, and loaves chaicoal (Trommadorff). — 
3. The aijufotM hoIuIioti, when kept, loaes its fluoreactnt property* oud 
iliiw iJot rE*covi.-f it Eirider che iiiflnem* of alkcliA (which ciihmr it blue) 
(KalbnmrT). — 4. Cold dWatc Tiitric ncitl dissolves teBculin, fonnmg a 
ytjllow sylulion, which tuniw rod when flnperaatiirated with potash 
<CalbrNiJt['V^^rj. C/i/inii*c-utitci- coloui's aqucoua leacuhn red, then 
broffn-red, liiially deep yL-llow, and dcaUoya the fluorcecence. On the 
addiT-idTi of lime-wnter, tbc Holuticm lH?c*mjea darker and reuovers its 
fluoreacpiil power (Troimntidorff). 

6- jEsculin, heatttd witli dihitfi /ttljthnric or htdfothhrh acittf Is re- 
ef>lvcd into itficulotir» and gbjcv.ihic.* (Riwhlpdpr & ^^t'hwarlz). B™p*wimff 

Uw fligvrtliiiH prrMiua-d, mv rr, 3-LL With luirU, Riji'tilalpr oblaini^d (from cry^Ul- 
liKd i*widln > K.r.\. fmm S3'i>l to 5270 p. p. ghiia>p#. wirh nnidirin 70'7 |i. o. Tluj 
IbtmtfT rtaionnrnt lircordt with Roohlcslpr'a fonnula, C*n"0*'. lie LlumnipoflELioo of j 
*fhlcb, tti'L-rdifjtf to ihf ftiualic-u C«IPH}* * snO = 20"U''O* + aC«H«0"- 
■houlJ TiiJd S-l-G p. c, ^lm-"?o. Arfarding to tbo fannoja of RoclilHlcf 1 Sobwojix, 
^itfjjMCPB J GEO - Ci^-O" ^ aCi^'H^O'^, drifld mi-uhn should rifid 71'3 p. p., 
tftntAtJifPit ii'«r-Li|in 70^1^ p. c ^bicoii^t apra4*iiif; vitli (bofli->toDtl bItiT f^vuinr. Zwsiigflr*A 
fomiulfe c^nil'^nw ^ LMT^U" * t:"-J|i*Ui', prejupponri (ha fuTmaiioii of only 

atucoiiDEi vmi 18 AT. cahbon in the atnajL. 

7. Ilr imrvitt'trHtivr tnnc-iillii im di'composed in the ambv WMnttr a» liy 
t^i'U^ iHir. rhct Hii^kV imhI n^Mulrliii mL(ii'rg4> fnrtlirr altfTtrina, m 

]fHll'*ri i't ^nt\-\\ into iihrtcnilotin rund (|j. 24) (fioeUetel. — Iw i| 

fjt'fttflv I'* ll«i fjiniiikl inn cif irm'ulrtLii (Ri'i^blu-ricrr At ill»Wl) > b 

f'rprri*'! iZ*r'rt|ci'i')- — H>. A huIiiMoii *tt u.-airiilm in mid «mt«r, Wl 
trrMMi II \ti t'l'itlai'In ^^'ilK rriirfbpN nf ii teuipvmtun^ Wi«c«» fft* 

I ;irr, flii|iriiillfi irmnli'liii. A muall i|iiuiitit> L»f wliicb Riftftkifl In 

A' f V^/iJ'^'i' /fC*''nUtt^ Kiia^il aninrjilioiii as^ulin tinunin i n il#|fci ■!■« 

. 1 ., ... II {'/vn-'Ugvt). f^t "lirij; "liiTr nlrnirTiin iTIiii iir|>ianrt 

< III it|iliri'iiTi'?«» ti|4<cHnuif to the noiko'I cvo «» » lugM 

w^u t. i I Mri"iiroLlii<j|ii(joud it atpftmlea ingtaioe (Truuavduffl)) 




..» MS ^. 

.- Aitai 

.«« 49' lA 

. IT .... 

... &n 

m ^^ 

2S3 K., 

HH «&4l 

».». ^ 4eu 



I'j iiiifih>r[T}, Uk 300 (jtrs. (MinLrr)^ II UuiaLrlvoA in 12-5 i4b. 

>vlti<ii ]ilurf<il rifvit] u IiIUt. ullrrwa nrtly mke-fitili'tli ^iif Ui^ 

in tifj. Tf»- ri>li1 4fttirrntvit iirjMf.ius »u.tliiti*'ri in t^i^l*>iirI«Hc, 

Tpilnl hhut NiiorPHM^noo, uhich l>rcoinos much strnaicvr 

■I* ffpHri^ watery I pi. 'A leiKulm imymrUi tiuon-wrara 

u |<itrtJi iif wtkirr (TMniEumJitrJT). Tint priliiUin kiHCB ila 

nrf ^UiAUn, limo-wftttr or baryU-WBtc-r (ilinut-. Tionjnm* 


''ih^rir H<H(.-iiJiLi y<>ll'>Wp and iticrawvits fao^ 

:ri40H |ittrliiLll> lie oomp(kHxJ by tUo alkAH. 

\y ili-L^iiioruud by zbc-jiLiv but Iwvca oil 

u tin^wEi liitEc^r mtmSy which (liAt;<)lvf'f» tu WtttcY, 

;i'rf jfroHffltuk'Tl by mrt/iflic valtif (JoniiK, Trotnm»- 
-t>iir -if ioith fiftuiii^w' » ytU^w |krLvi|>itntL' (Uincrl 

. ^'Britimg wiib Wtttct or tIcoUol lEocUf" 



- jr Aqnrv^UK rrnn-Jir/Ur (JoRM*, tfd vnrV 
lit*. b[»>i4>UiL(i akvbii] ; 100 |it» 


iilcuhttl of 

"4 (Tnjmaifld^nfl). 

£9CULBTIN. 23 

It is insoluble in ether (Minor); nearly insoluble in absolute ether, 
bat fiomevhAt soluble io ether coutuning water or alcohol, in 17 pte, 
of ft boiling mixtore of 1 pt ether and 5 pts. absolute alcohol (mora 
dbmidiuitlT th0n th«a in pan mknlutl f Om,) ; when the Bohltion oools down 

to 10^5 f 1 pt* of »sculin lemaiaa diBBolved m dO pte. of liquid 

Appendix to Vol. XIII, p. 345, 


C"H*0" =; Ci»II*0",0' ? 

RocHLEi>£& A Schwartz. Wieu, Akad. Ber. 10, 70 ; 11, 334. 

ZwENGER. Ann. Pkarm. 00, 68. 

ROCHLEDEE. Wig^ Akod. Bei: 13, 169 ; 20, 851; 24, 32, 

The componudpTodooed bj tho dccompoiitirmof BScnliii (p-21). 

Preparation. 1. -Esculin is immersed in a quantity of water Buffioent 
to dissolve itODboiling;aqnantityof oilof vitrol equal to 1 of Uie volume 
of the water is added ; and tlie liquid is heated over the waler^bath, 
whereupon the aesculio first diBSolves with yellow colour, and the solution 
afterwards deposits needles of oesculetin. When the evaporation baa 
been carried bo far that the liquid begios to blacken on the edges of 
the baain, it is set aside for 2-L hours at S"" to 10°, and the se^^etin 
is coUeoted and cryHtalhsed from boiliog water, with help of animal 
charcoal. The tesculetiu thus obtained, which is Btill slightly yellow, 
may be rendered white by moistening it with aqueous ammonia, 
waishin^ it on a fitter till J of it is dissolved, and rccrystalliaing the 
renuunder from boiling water containing hydrochloric acid (Rochleder 
& Schwarz). — 9. .^aculin is dissolved in warm moderately dilute 
hydrochloric acid; the liquid is heated for some time to the boiling point, 
and the ciTstaUbe pulp is diluted with cold water, and washed to re- 
move the hydrochloric acid. The nearly pure cesculetin thus obtained 
is dissolved in wann alcohol, and precipitated with neutral acetate of 
lead, and the yellow precipitate, after washiug with alcohol and with 
bcHling water, is suspended in boiling water, and decomposed by a 
stream of hydroBulphuric acid gas. The solution filtered from the 
eolphide of lead at the boiling beat, and left to cool, deposits »6culetin, 
which may be further purified by recrystallisation (Zwenger), — 
3, .£eculin dissolved in cold water is left in contact with emulein at a 
temperature of 35° to 30° till tesculetin separates out, and the solution 
baa quite lost the bitter taste of ffisculin ; the liquid is then evaporated 
over the water-bath, and the residue is treated with boihng alcohol, 
which leaves the emulsin undissolved, and takes up the sesculetin and 
nigar. The two latter Bubataeces are separated by evaporating the 
skxiholic solution, and treating the reaidne with cold water, or more 
completely by precipitating the boiling solution with neutral acetate of 
lead, Bltering, and decomposing the lead-compound of a^sculetin with 
hydrosulphuric acid (Kochiedor& Schwartz)- 



Prttp'Ttxri'. LVvftflllfHed lesriilotm Ikm^ belvv) hofttod to 100* ^r tof^^ 
oyer nil of vtlrtol in vacuo, givca <ffF writer, and irt ci-nvoi-ted inCd^| 
aiiiiydrourt a'AcuK-l ih, aajuiriii;^ it yt'Uowipili i-uknir at Ihf sumc tinu3^l 
AiiliydrijUh it-Hfiiltliii imlla al ii temjit^ml iiic -tImvi.' 2r;j^ lo a yc'lcw- 
brLivFii oil, which milidifioa in llie orjfltnllinc form, pn-riTy volatilUiui; 
ftt the samo tjjuo thatitiDt^ltB. lU taetc is bitter and Irritutiiig. Ntiutral 

la C -, 106 . 60-67 

a H 6 3-3T 

B 0. _,. M 35-90 

Ai C ... dM 

.., 6o-«s 

.„, 3C'G6 

1 WKdH . df 100- 

1 ftO-fiS ^. 

fHfdn; at lOOr 
,„ flOTI 

-.. lOOUO 


1 j'sa 

1 35-70 




■ lOO'CO 


Hie fonniJB cjf RahJpJprA Scinrarta is f\ip|K:Trlcd fcj tb»t liebariourof 
In ehli>tiJo of accif If lE ij kIw hidtc ia aftsimiiDCu irilb the iai>dr uf raolului 

J)«roiji/>cjrVif>fu, I, ^EsculetiD, when Ayvrf/f/, moUfl, tnmslirowii, cliara, 
and Ib for tlkti Tn^t purt dccN:in]pOBcd, Bmn^l jiuantitit'g of a jolk^^ oil 
puBSin^ oTer, tngetlier witb trjetalH* probuN^y *.if ijiialtcriL^d a^scidrtui 
(Ftoclileilcr k SiliwarlE). — 2- It i^ iUi>'jni«ifei:ti by hot vil {•/ ntru 
(Zwen^'er), — 3. By mrrir irrid ie, \s ^jxiiliKcd in ojulic fl*:iil (?-wnng( 
■ — 4. lUtTytt-tttitrf LtJiivprliJ a^wruU-liii ijilu ii»stnlof it' sicidj C^H^O"*^ 
whitae buryltt'Wiilt le rtpunrhlod ly Uii' funiiulu C'll'^BnU", ami ita 
K'ivWdt, 1^5 eC^ni'^VS loPbO (UmiiWrr). — 5. il-iiL^idctiia itdu 
a buiUu^ alltihu-. mltitttin o/uufittc i/jidc tit i'U|>nm« (laiJi;, nitrate of ail 
1*1 iiii^lHflic Mtlvi'i', ijiiLi' uiili nid nl bi-iLK iifitr i^nmidcrriibltr ti; 
ordy, in the cold. ^ Ik. ^!Jiriiloiiii di^eMvoe R^udily m a boiling eouce 
tnfctt*d imiKfJiift furliiiirnj tyi t'ifNiphitu irf ftHimiffl/d, and doc* not H<^|w»ra 
on txiotn^, Tbc _rrl|invififi etiliuioii nilxedwilh aikubv, rnpicily aJ>**r 
(iiy^i'il frniL) iW ihir ; it ta cidniin?d dai'kcr liv iimituMiia, ami \l lln 
Hltaki'u Uftwilli idr, iiH^ttnii'h a bh»'>d-n>d, htuI nltiniQidya i\vv\i indi^ 
Llila c<-»l<>ur (twr^u-VTBlof in jiUlv uf nnunoDiis piv\']|»ji4lr< fidphil^ of l* 
fefl«r rvmriJ «f whivli ibr IJijuid 4|i|>ran n til-XKhnilK » bfttU|n»U, bKfjtft 

li/jid-sihitb lhrn\^' down a dt'L-|) vioU-t or durk liidif^o-bbK; |>i t-ctpjl;(tii 
ntf^ijuliiij/ Jts liir 1h|n)d hftn an Ai-id i^i u iK'iiIi^l ivui.'1i<ni, Un di<i.iiiit* 
|iniiiii|j; Ini< |i-;^l-^i ^vilh hydrormljihiiiic nch], ;t lii^nid in nUnUn 
colourli^HH u'iii'ii ddiitts fcn^'n wlirn concviiti'MrdT utid ncqinriji^ 
AfJi^hdid 1>Iii('i|-n'd ^-idoiir mu rx]Hiniiti' tn thtuiir By i-vu|Hiriiti')(i, diy 
diAlilUlion, or tiifvi|rilutirjn of (lit^pu.^ iMjiiidH wilb liKmrh, \'viV v'lv^'T^ 
blur ^idwtiLnei'ti ^l[^' oMalm^dT all oi^nf^inin^ idlmgvn nud hid|iJ]iir, b 
Ihc niir^t^on uot ib the* ff^mi of uiimioiiuL. aiid iht: tiii1|jbiiT iioithrr 
nulpZiurfiiw unr ilm hydrv^tilphuhi] ucid (KiH7bli.-di.-r). — T< -i^^idv 
heated vith chU'tidf of acrti/i wmUinuit' Innoo uf tt-n-Uk^ridu of jJiuff-' 
liborUM, in CJtli\nt(Hl iiun iurty1-n^8iM|leliPk. ("uns rhlonaa of HOM^I HpjHn 
iult4irt,4lliwUiifiniilufVM (popip. nix. f U-) (Nftchbaur.) 




CombiruUioNS, With Water, — A. Ct-ystallised j^aculetin, GoloQT- 
leea needles and lamiute, with a silky luBtre, Ufae benzoic add, and 
forming a silky 61m when dried on the filter (Rochleder and Schwartz ; 
Zwenger). ^Koletin pnpu«d bj the action of emulnii is wMtfl j th&t which ii 
abtained with scidB is aligblly j«Uow, *Dd CBcmot he depriTod at itfl colour (Boch- 
ledo').— 'At 100° or in vacuo, it loses on the average 6'7 p.c. water, and 
is converted into anhjdroue seBCutctin (Zwenger)> 

36 C 

. £16 „ 

. IS .. 
. 1B3 . 

.. 66-39 
. 393 
... 39 69 

64 C 

27 H , 

33 O 


.. 384 , 

. a? . 

. 264 .. 

... 60-88 

,.. 4-00 
... 39-12 


.„. 56-67 
.... 418 

19 O „. 

.... 3915 


. 3S3 „ 

.„ 100-00 


.. 676 . 

.., 100-00 

,... lOOKW 

ZwffljgfT giTM Iha fbnnula h, according ki a, tho ctdcuhited mxomit of water in 
irrptAlliBed ffiBculetiii ia7-65p,c. ; Hcoording to h, it i«6-6 p.o- 

j^^BCuletin disBolvea very slightly in cold, more eafdly in boiling 
water. The cold saturated eolutioo is colourlces.; that which in 
r^turated at the boiling beat is yellowish; both exhibit a faint bine 
colour by reflected hght, becoming stronger on addition of a small 
qnantity of carbonate of ammoma, whereas acids destroy the colour 

Dissolves in fuming h^<h^tioric acid, and crystallises therefrom in 
large latninte and iteedles. 

AmTnoniQ'Compound, — Colourless oesculetjn exposed toaircontam- 
ing ammonia, acquires a Qesh colour, Uke that of nydrated sulphide of 
manganese (Rochleder). The saturated solution of eescnietin in hot 

Xeous ammonia deposits on coolbg shiuing lemon-yellow lamlnEC, 
ch when exposed to the air for a few hours, give off all their am- 
monia and turn white (Rochleder & Schwartz), 

jEeciiletia diseolvca readily in dilute acjueoue alhtUt, forming a 
gold-ycllnw solution, from which it is precipitated by acids in needles. 
A trace of alkali or of an alkaline earth colours aqueona eesculetin 
intensely yellow (Rochleder & Schwartz, Zwenger), 

Liad-compoand. — Neutral acetate of lead precifntatea eesculetin, 
both from its aqueous and from its alcoholic solutions. The precipitate 
obtained from boiling aqueous sesculetJn b light yellow and gelatmouts 
becomes darker after urying at 100°, and cootalna 49'34 p. c. lead- 
oxide (Rochleder and Scnwadz), 67-54 p.c. (Zwenger). — An alco- 
holic solution of neutral acetate of lead added to alcoholic Eesculetin 
forms a preeipitate of a fine lemon-yellow colour containing 57-66 p. c. 
lead-oxide (Rochleder and Schwartz), 57"33 p. c, (Zwenger). — The 
compound when set on fire, bums with a glimmering hght, sometimes 
with sparkling, dissolvps speedily in water when freshly precipitated, 
easily in acids (Zwenger), 

Koc4t]<der Zwenger. 

L SchwM-tB. mean. 

IB C 108 28-13 28-71 28-38 

4 H..».- 4 ii>4 .--- 119 i-aa 

6 -« « 12-60 12-44 ia-B6 

aPbO .« 22-4 5834 5766 B7'55 

O^'PhW 3«4 lOO-OO 10000 100«> 



f-^ftL-m- ffirpi (heformiiU inCU'rv^iypbtJ, ilio bi«tr C^lV^^f'JP^O. Rwlili 
& Srhvriuix HIli'WUj^ njinlyfu'il aEooii-nKlt ]iri^Lip3ljiTc<J from iqui'^Jiu eDtuLion. wbl 
^U-ldL-d SO05 p.r- C,h 317 U., 20 M C, and J^fl'* FbO-^ whmcr ihfj drdur«l lliA 
r^rraLilB SClI'H.T'J.llPliO. Zwcd^DT did not obtwn n nlti n^ftcuig in DoountDf 
liMul wJEii this fuciuulik, 

Aquc'^iiH jeflciiletin is colonrcd dark greon hy Jam [attthj fei 
>al[is, **'iMi(nir jinrijiilafiim. Thi^ oolnuif J is rlii'stroyei by licida. 

jT*8Ciilt?lin ie eli^hUy solublo in col<l, caaiJy in boiling atcohotj 
tjolubli; ill c^AtfTi 


NjiCHftALiK, Ann. Ptvzrm. iU7i ^3; nbetr, licp. Ckm^pwr, 1, 107. 

J&jcuklin is tcaW f)Vi?r tbo walt^r-bnUi with cblnrid^* nf ncol; 
Cf>itluniiiif^ tiucoB ot tcrdiloiick* of |>hi.«pboriii9 (r. 24)i Thn mittiii 
l>uil9 tit Sr^t witli viirleut perun^^ioii, but ^a'Juully yiL-IdH, with tliji 
Million fif b,v4ivdilonc acid, a tti.»lutioH, llu^ f^hidin' nf wLidi, aii 
romuval uf tbe eiceas of chbndo '>f ncotyl, tioliiliflt's in iUp c^r^fttallif 
fr.init. It muy bo purlfiL^d by rf^crYvt&lliflatioii front boiling wkiter. 

Siu^lII diL^^zIiug ut^cilloB vhid} diosolvo in alcohol citid c^Lh^r, wi<J 
uot uoloiiT aevqaichlonda of imn. 


■0 0-,.- » 180 w-21 « wj-oa 

IS H ^. ^ „-,., li .- S'SS „„_„.. 4'17 

14 ^ m M-ai d«^-TT 

C^SCH"0^>U'0« ...304 lUO-00 lOO'OO 

Oiiit*MM witJt 90 oi. CW-frmt m the Copitttu 


A^. I'httnt*. SH, fiOlU ri.*r>», Tmfr, I8i3, 70,'* ftnd 7:^4.— TKi 

Cim. tAu. l»ai. 46. 

OceBrTTmcr.— In iKr i*f»cdlr*, innorbnrh JunNtitcr bmV ijf Uio Soul 
Hr, Fimt* rytoatru. In tbri givr'ii [urLii uf TAt^ii cTftf^ri^ii. 

iVrwtiftow. — Tbo rumiiiiimliiJ iiri'dlcsof tbo Scotch flr(orbrRnf.hi 
(if ThujB) mm vxhmutied with nk-ohol ol 4it' ; thr tloohol U (lli4liUi.«d 
from tn« d^ctK^tiou. and thv r*-KirliKT in mUod with w»t<>r, wJm-h ^k-ji 
nt^ A green m^Aa of rc^aUi L»naft^iti«pT«|j«iaoiiarki>aTawMl4 k* Mji' 



while the supcrnalnjit tuvbid liquid rt^tnins in Rrilntioii piuipicriHf fiiij^ar, 
tmces of cEtric acid, oxyphil taimit; add, and pini tannic acid. This 
Bqold la miicd witli a few drops of neiilml acetate of lead, wldcli 
renders it filtrablo; the filtrate is mixed with cscosh of that rea^nt, 
which thn>ws down oxypiuitjHinate of lead ; then, after anotlier filtra- 
tion, piintaimateof IcadiH precipitated by the basic acetate ; tldaiealao 
■eparftted b^ fiftratiou after the Kquid has eocTled ; and the filtrate in 
Mtnr^ted with hydronulphtiric acid. The liquid, freed from sulphide of 
kftd, and evaporated in a stream of carbonic acid, loaves a residue of tln^ 
ooaeisteiice of an extract, from which anhydrous ether-alcohul extracts 
ib& pinilHCTTn and leaves the eogar. A small quantity of the foreign eub- 
tteoce la precipitated from the solution bj basic acetatd of lead; the 
fltrate is treated witli hydrosulphuric acid; the anlphide of lead ig re- 
Dored, and the liquid evaporated. By repeatedly dissolving the residue 
left after the ether-alcohol has been distilled off, in fresh quantities of 
nlijdroiiH alcohol containing ether, as long as any ioBoluble matter m 
hht Aod evaporating tlie solution, pim^cnn is at length obtained, 
itfll, howover, contaminated with acetic ncid^ which adheres to it 
Obftinfttely, but may be removed by agitation with a little pure ether 
(iriui^ however, at the same time, removes a little piDipicrut), — > The 
ledleflT after eihaustion with alcohol, still rctsuu a llttio pmipicrin, 
iMch may be obtained frotn the aqueous decoction in the same maoner 
■■ from the alcoholic. 

Frap^rUfs. Bright yellow powder, which softens at SS**, bccomew 
vttdd At 80°, transparent and mobile at JW, and solidifies on cooling 
to m browowh yellow, brittle, friable mass. Hygroscopic. Tastes 
itaDttglj bitter. 

lit AUW. O. ««■- *. 

44 ^ «. 284 W-46 55'46 - M'iS 

|6 H »- 86 7M 7-61 7-62 

82 170 36-98 370* ■-■■.■ Sfl-TO 

C"H"*0" 476 lOOiK) lOOOO 100-00 

m. froD [nnfl-iwedln ; A, ^'om Thuja. 

Decompositions. 1- Pinipicrin swells up strongly when heated on 
|litfanin)-iofl, and leaves a difficultly combustible charcoal. ^ — 2, The 
aqnootu Bolution, when heated, instantly gives off the odourof erlcinol 
fp, S9)> and is completely resolved into this substaoce and glucose ; 

C"H*H>* + 4HO - C=*IPK>" + C»a«0" (Kftwahsr). 

b eontscf ^h emultin it emits an odour of volatile dl, but the action 
woaa ceases. (Kawalier, Wxm, Akad. Btr. 12, 549). 

FiniinGriD diasolvefl readily in wattr. It dissolves iu akoM, ether- 
doobol, and in aqueous but not in pure etha-t 

'i>. i.\,K»Ai>AUie% irtJiH *£U AT. CABBOH IN THE COPULA, 


K,s .1 vvi A >^ ^ <^"^ ■■-'(.-,, ,i::,/_ Bxr. 9. 308; Chm.f^ 
, >.. ^■'^; i"- -:. Vtntr. 1652, t\2.^WifH. 

'\ Ti ■■" » I .'r"' " p:y..!t^. leea abaiidoiitly in tbat 

.-, .v^ * ■ - -, vuk^::'^- im<* the loother-liqnor fd 

*:.j"-. :. T:.e cfji-p|x^ Wtcn arc 
. * --■ ' '■- ' slTi-jI lifurw- the liquid i* 

- ' * '- '»^- *■;-"■*''. : U-ad; the filtrate « 
-: ':» L.; l.t.>.i :V-ni ibo M*|iarated 
- - ' ' J^' ■' ■ zvir-isuit-hiuTc arid U OTB- 

-^ * ' ■ ■ ^ ■-■ :"';'\:i: i# dis^ved out by 

^ >^.'L' t-: ir:-:r cvapuzutiou of the 

^ ■" J^^ **^e solvent till it nil 

^ ^ - — - r:-: *:j^>=# decoctioti d 

..TK^. ;'.t ci'ooy; tbUoitncZ 
. . ..^. ■■:- -:■: tZra:^ i« precipitated 
' ■ ^ "■*■■ " t!<^ ■: buium ta sepi- 
-'-^ > :::,■;: ii-atral and buic 

-->^ ..* -,^-.-**.>-i> ^ded; udtbc 
■ ^ -' '■', T:-i- flirtto miied 

■ ^ : ■: "* i..'.- A:;d ^ .. Jltering 
'1..* .'^ :-: C ^ * *tTV4Un of car- 

i: -: ,ii.< :-c-:ibcr at IW"', 

4^1 Ij'-il:- i ?vh«Vtt. 

. .. _^- vx .V. - V .'- -■ :.. i.f*:. .ji C*H'S>^. 1: u 

■ . . _ *h ■ ■ - * 


Appendix to XIV, ario. 

c»ir*cp = c"n^o'? 

Diflbront &om Uloth'i Ericinoaf (Aim. Pharm. lilt £l-£)i ^ product from 
crk*oeou« plimtsi mnakigaDB to hjdrokinoDe, 

Fiuipiciin (p. 26) or ctJcolm (p. 28) boiled with dilute acids, 
yields, together with sugar, ii parti^ly altered oil, which, according to 
Kawalier, aud Rochleder Sl Schwartz, coosiatB of ericiaol, a copula of 
these glucoHides. The same volatile oil, hut likewise in an altered 
state, 18 obtained from Catiunn vulgaris, and Bhododendron ferrvgineum^ 
according to Rochleder; from Arctostaph^los noa vrsi\ according to 
Kawalier, from Ledum jiolustre^ according to Willigk; and from Erica 
herbacca according to Ktiberth (Rochleder & Schwarz), It is a cou- 
Mtituent of the volatile oil of L&lum palustre. (Frohde.) 

1> The oil obtained bj' heating ericolio with dilute adds, is colour- 
losA, absorbe oxygen rapidly from the ur, becoming dark-brown, and 
then contams 68-15 p. c. C, 9-^7 11., and 22-18 0., agreeing with 
the formula C*n"0' or C'"n'*0' + 3 (calc 68-18 C, 9-00 H,, 22-73 
0-) (Kawalier, Wien. Ahad. Ber. 9, 297), When the aqueous decoction 
of Ledum is precipitated with neutral and baeic acetate of load, and 
the filtrate, after being freed from lead, ia distilled with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, a resin separates out, while a volatile oil passes over, 
and carbonic acid is sot free- The volatile oil contains 79-08 p. c, 
carbon, 10-33 hydrogen, and 10-59 oxygen, is therefore C"I1^*0' (calc. 
79"47 p. c. C, 9-93 H., and 10-60 0.), and ie produced from ericolin 
(K Willie^k, Wien. Atrad. Bet: 9, 305). — 2. When aqueous pinijMCTTn 
is dislillea with dilute sulphuric acid, a volatile oil passes over, which 
tnma brown when dehydrated in a half-filled vessel, and then contwns 
73-66 p. c, C, 9-66 H., and I6'0^ 0., and is therefore C"!!*^'* (calc. 
73-77 C, 9-84 H., and 16'39 0.) or 3C*H"0* + 4 0. In the rcaidue 
there remains a rcBin* likewise produced by oxidation of criciooL 
(Kawalier, Wien. Ahid. Ber. 11,350). — 3- The IcBxes of Rhododendron 
firmgineam {ffandbuc/t, viii. Pht/tochent. 64) yield by distillatiou, a pale 
yellow, volatile oil, which, when distilled over anhydrous phosphoric 
add becomes colourless, and acquires the odour of oil of turpentine. 
(R. Schwartz, Wien. Ak^d. Ber. 9, 301.) 

80 C 

.. 11-26 

.-., flM9 
.... 11-2-J 
.... 4-5!) 


80 C . .„ 

, 85-71 
. 11-48 

. £-86 

.. 85-^ 

«i H 

6^ H 


. 11-73 

8 O 



., 100-00 

„.. lOO'OO 


. 100-00 

„.. lOOW 

«, and A. wen from different preparations^ 

4. Bydifltilling Ledum ptttu^tre with water, a pale yellow oil is 
likewise obtained, containing 6^-35 p. c. C, 10-89 H., and 6-76 0., iden- 
tical with iJie oil produced from ericolin, and agreeing with the formula 
C*fl"0* (calc, 82-33 p. c, C, 10-80 H., and 6'87 0). (Willigk.) 


5, The voktila oUof Lffdum paiuetrt (Hfvvibuch, Ice. cTf.) obtftiacd 
Ly distilling thi; herb with wal^f. In tx mitlure coatdnia^ voleriaciic 
ucifj and oiLlt volaljle auid?, an oily acfd C'*R'°0", au oil i*iiviieric with 
oil of turfiontirip, hnilingnt IfiO", and GiidiioL When fre-^d irijoi lb*' 
aciJa by rtpe^ttd a^plaiioa willi EtrO[ig' polfteh-ley, then w^li4>d nod 
<ioliyiiraUd» it ^rcfl ofE between 115° and 1G0% a misture of tn 
ij\y i^i^ui{<ii} oil and cricinoU between £30° and S50% chH 6y eiidDoli 

Thia oricinol, whidi boIU bMween SiO* and 242% Is b]i]e-| 

]ie;»; riti ijuplt'ridaiit odour, and iibumijip, naiifit-'OUfrly bitloi" IjiKte. I*y 
dialttUUnn Willi Mlii^kBof jjot&^b, it id pj:krtiiilly di^i^oloiiseii i^iid M 
t-Mbiia u jtpL'citii: tr^^vity tj( \y67-l at Sif C, nnd a u^mpuHitiou ciii 
Hpoiidin^ \s~itli lltL- formula C'^li"U*. By mhobLkliuri wilJj eicnvf 
fxit;iflli-hyJmL4f, ltieioouvertediutoaiion-Q:ty)rcriate(loil| CH"(Knolido^ 

n 0..», IBO 78'OG 70-e& WHfl 

L6 H --.. a« H, 10-sa ^ 11 w „ n-ofi 

K U.,„.., ,. 16 lO-M ., y-ia 888 

0*K*0' -.—.... US «...« 10000 „ lOO'OO .,„.^ lOO'OO 

WflligV* BJ^JjM »1« ofiflj agree* with tlua rflTTOul& (-w pt^ 39). 


2. Wlh vndmouivcl Lv Kpo-mir ibv liiln- [irJiKiiik* of l\v rcraiiii«n Ini^^nm 
(MrryifitUr* tr\ftiIioial . ilhJ ubliujjcd j1 ui iUc iWliJ ufih juHu" i'ilni't> but iiufiun. 

/V^frirxfi'im. 1> Huckbean w rPPCftWly<TiliAiifltod withTiot 
i^ncl lhr< infumcti cotitxnitratod and ^hnkt^n up with itriimi! diarri 
vbMi iakvn upxUty n\vnyni\{]]\n. Tin- riKirLsml m «n%i\i'i\ with 
waK'r< Mill Iviilrcl u'ltli nlo^lHkh iJir Hh.'i>fio| j* .timdlod fmiri tlK^titKl 
tht* icBtJu'.- (iiliit-'d with WrttiT, juid (irt'H|ii!iil*"d wiili lm»it atvtftlc 
K'iijl n^^•\ thr lihniii- iw fn* d U\tm \i-aA b_v Ujdiui^ijljflnirii' m^id. 
\hc idtrnlf iiri]tiLdi>ii'd VL'ilh L^iLrUtiinliMif iJmt*. \\tv iiirii^vJiiiUiiti In 
|»rr*ijpitatod \/y Imtii' ihiimmt, and (:ifU'iMllL- i'Ihh'chhI liftH b<:i.'M «fu** 
M'tth otild vL'jiUir) Lt iH n^^nin <?Xtn;cted by bniLii);^ ttJc^ilifd. i'Ue 
inr'uiF'uiirhiit ol^tuifhrd by ovaitorutin^ tiii< nU'lLitic Holiition Lt im 
|PttuLV'lfniji lii(7 a^^ui'uUH m'biEi'Ui by timni*.^ nuidi clihI t Lil; u^irtUt'd 
HjiiTuU' i» lUtikLn^fJW'il by dl|^r»tii in witb Jilndird und l^'vij^alod Lllhaj 
'Tuf inixlun* in i'fc'a|iu'ul<'il 1<* dryin'ti^ hvit \hv wnliT-liflUi. thn rt*i 
U i\'oll Uiiltd witb ftlcohid, uud tin? ftl<v>liulic ftipluticiii it «tv» 
Af ti r (Ur ifTt-aU-r pJirl *jf Uic olcoiiH^l bun eva[K»riittil, vily djo,^ 
iTTil'' iMilt h'IjicIi mufll U- TriMtrd *^itb L'thi'i, tn fii*i' tbt'iii fpHii an t 
tulbii; 'itiSi^Jivnri^, nnd drii*fl in vanii^ ovrr 'i\\ rif rllnnl.-^V. Uil^k 
f» ?**j-> Dthniint'-d with bi.i ^vjilor; thi' cxtmi'tii, after 
dAnUi^i nndciiEu:vntra1'.'d, ari* jTirnpitnU'd witb mfuviuii of ^Iflt 


precipitate ib washed, mi^cd with levigated oiide of lead, dried over 
the water-bath, and boiled with alcohol of 85 per cent. The alcohol 
is distillijd off, aud the filtered residue left to evaporate slowly, where- 
Qpon menyaDthin ia separated as a browDish mass having the consiBteQce 
of turpentine. This ia waHbcd repeatedly with water and ether in 
succession ; the residue ia di^aolved in bot water ; the solution pre- 
djirttated after cooling witlx aqueoua tannic acid ; the plaater-li^e pre- 
cipitate is waahcd^ and again decompoBed in alcoholic solution witJi 
oiido of lead; the solutioti evaporated to dryness; the residue boiled 
with alcohol ; aud the liquid^ after being decoloiiaed with animal 
charcoal and diluted with water, Is left to evai>oratc j it then depusiU 
ineuyanthiu aa a colourleas turpeutine-Ukc mass, which sohdifieB when 
dried over oil of vitriol, 

Pft^erties. Amorphoua, nearly white friable mass. Softens at 
00^^-65 , becomcB transparentat 75°,toughatl00', mobile at 115°» and 
f^oliditics to a hard, yellow, iranaparent mass. Tastes strongly and 
purely bitter. Permanent in the uir. Neutral. 

Cali'ulation accordiitif to Luilwig & £!rainaycri Z>iidwig & Eromftjer- 

44 C aw 65'46 56-68 

36 H m 756 7-67 

22 O 176 mm 36-66 

C"H»0=? 47G lOCKMD 10000 

Or perhapB O^U^O^. Json^eric with mod related to piiiipicrin p, £6- {Ludwig 
k £>oiaajer.) 

DecfUiiposilions. 1. Menyanthin melts ou platinum -fffllf emitting an 
aromatic odour and aeiid bituig vapours, and burns awatf without residue. 
— 2. It dififiolvcs in oil of vitrioly fc>rrning a yellow-brown liquid, whicli 
becomes violet-rcd on standiiigT and deposits grey flocks wlicn noixed 
with water. — 3. Aqueoua mciiyanthin heated with dilute sulphuric acid, 
is resolved luto a volatile oil and a fenneotable Kugar, The quantity 
of the latter amounta to S2'2G p- c- of the menyauthiu. A brown resin 
formed at the same time appears to be an intermediate substance pro- 
duced by the decomposition of the volatile oil, — The volatile oil result- 
ing from the resolution of the nienyantbin, Ludwig & Kromayer^a 
mentffvilhol, is colourless, heavier than water, smells like bitter aUnonde, 
and is shghtly acid. It reduces an ammoniacal solution of silver. 

Menjantbin disaolvea sparingly in cold, easily in boiling tuater^ 
the BoUition saturated at the boiling beat becomes milky on coohng. 
Henjanthin dissolves witliout alteration in aqueous alialuj and is not 
precfpitated from aqueous solution by rnetalUc aalta. 

It dissolves in alcohol, but not iu ttk^r. 

TatuiaU of MtnyanthtTi. — From an a(jiieous solution of menyanthlji, 
•queoofl tannic acid throws down a white precipitate, which cakes to- 
gether to a plaster, and driea up to a grey friable mass. Tastes bitter 
and astringent. Dissolves readily in aleohol, gives off 3'29 p. c. wat(-r 
at 100°, and then contains 52-77 p. c. C, 5'89 IT., and 41-34 0, wlieut^o 
Lndvrig calculates the formula C>*H"'0» + aC^H'O" (t^imc ivcid, *™rd- 
H to Lndwig), and in another place, the formula, C*H*^,.3C»'H'0". 


Second Body from Buckbean. 

AVhen tbodr^x'tiiiEi of burklvfiiD, aftrr prtvipiLitionwiLUiafnw^n of 
tk,aod 8ep:irationuf tlfci?t:iniiaif?of mci^vanfhi!! byAHraUon, ismix^ 

li Le4^-oxid& and Qvu|ri:iEnti^ to u ^jrupf and Iho latter ia exbs 
vr'ith ether, tlie ciher talcee up a substAno:-, wbicft, after cvapora 
uf Ihe ctbcr, ruaiahsas u HlJt''"ll>" aokl, broTm, viscid oil, lia^iijg 
irriuitiii^ljilltr ta^U\ and not vcilaiilc wilh vapour tif wafer. 

ia b/dM vitli dJule calpbmic acid. dop<:taitin^ a sinaU r^nautJIj ^H 
reaiii, and ^ring off & lieuvy, add, volntik' tiil, Imving- liu aromat^^ 
odour (but nnt that of bitler abuonda). No niig^r Ia finrmed in thi? 

Tbiit BDbetancc m in&olable [ti cold wat^r, but diasolvi^iv in hot iMiVjjU 
lUidm (;i7w*oi«o/iTa/«, It is |trcdpitatcd by lajfii^ fxrrtaif of Iffa'i^ but utit ^ 
by galU'- tannic add. It is soluble in ulcohoL (EromajXT, Z^ 
BitUrt(oJ't, ErlaQgi'iJ IML 30.) 


ED.ScnrxcK(1S47). 1. lud^t^ul: Attn. PUrm, £€.,17 i; nlwtr. 
CWr. IttiS. fWtf aud f.3;>i CoFH/-'- *■*'""'■ 1 ^i^t 1^15-— Sfeft 
tanf'ouai^, anfl in pari with difforvat (and uicu«'eci)etalcmon»; 
Mvff.J. 33. 133;J. ;»r-, Cftrm. 45, 2;*(4.-^]ti pttrf^ ai:d with 

i^tiTT/u frwfr, I»|l50, IGL — Pn?li ni i nary Not k'r* cf the fvaiilts : 
J/<y. J, ai^ 4Ct /, pi-. Ctwii. 42, 13 i abalT, /*W*i. CVr*fr. 

2. iV. Phi. Mttij. J. 5, 213 and SM ; m jart J. jr. Ctrm^ 
4S0; ahstr, Jp«.i^'mw. HI. 3aC ; PfiOrm. Ctnrr. |Sf>a, -lor* ; J\'.^ 
Cfi/m. J'/'VJ. 65, Jie4», — rri'lin^inarv Sctka i A\ /*|7, J/^» ^. 1, 
CVn. Gci*. IK51, 117; /a*W, lti5'l. 217. 

3^ A'. PAiL Miiit. J. 5, 410 «ud 4!*:i ; J pr. Chft». 50. 453 ; 
j*M. /*Art™i-W7, 341, — Pn'liTiihifti^vNntiix^: y. Phil. J/^/j, >r. 4, 47Ji 
C*™, GiL*. Ift-'ii. 4:i»;i /n*^,/. I85ft. i;'L 

4. -V, /'^/. Mfi^. .J, Itf, :fno atij 27(1; J, pr, C^^fa. 70, IH.— 
Prrliraiimrv Ni»tiwt t'Afw, (/oj, 1855, 357; J, pr. Ctinn. C7, iMi 
ubnU. I'hunu. Cnttr. Ib05. 7«-'i. 

,1. C'Aem, ."^xf, (^T^ J. li, l!W j nbatr, Zfimhr. C%. Pttnrm^ 3, CI 
ftAd 158. 

ScoAlflO: LAiiiti^T, ii'fainnl^LTin'xrK'p forrnidw; N.Jmt,C%im, 
Phjft^ 86. a2^ i t:ciiL->CK'fl tvp\f : A'. /*/j.V Ma^. J, 6. Id7 j J. ^. 
CkniK 6I« G.r; Dtuu^a^aJnHt SciirxcH: A nu. Phiovt. 66,117; JV. j|aB> 
Chitti. Ph^t. ZH. 430; laiitly^ CitRHAimT, Traiu'^, 4H'X 

Occvrrtncc. In the root of maddrr (Ftvbi't titKtvmm). 

Hcnidffi piir|iiii-iti, aln-jtd^ d(WTilH<J bI \ti%^' ^2.% ml- xIO 
ubiuiriri- nl jinK*' I2!t, rol, \lv, |lki> rnH^^wtDg *ubsfauotH mitv bo 
diriH!fty npfiariiU'd fr-^m Diaddi^r, m obltunvd by di>oon]f>oait!on of 
ir1aiici*« otiMlnini^d itj iI. 




a, Ohi&»\deat yielding by tbdr decompDailion, alizarin fsoraetlmes 
togelJier with msuny i>t}ier bodies) and inlruflucotl hpre on thut account. 
Rubian. Riiblliyflran, Eiiliiriebydrrm. 
Rubianic acid- Euboiythric acid. Chl^roiTibiaQ, 

&. Subet^iccs arirting fiorn the; dectJin^isitioii of the glucoeideB, and 
in part erisTing ready formed m the madder. 
a. Prodttcad For tho moet part from rubian. 

Rnhiacin. Ru hire tin. Vcnvntin. 

Rubiadc acidn Rubiadia. Rubiafiii. j 

Riibiagin, RubiauiTi. Riibiadipiu, J 

p- Produced fiom chlororubiaa. I 

Oxyrubion. PorchloronibiaQ- Ohlorabiadin. I 

c. Rubichloric acid, a comprnnd nl]ii?d to thra tannic tcidfl, and 
perbapa identical with chlarc"g;eniu s iledecompoaifiDo-prodoot cblorora- 
bin J the ferment of maddtjr, crytbrozyra ; ond^ lastly, tho santhia f*l 
Higg-Jn, and that o^ Rublnianni both appareutiy of mbLi^d nature. 

Tt irill be baiter to di^vrib^ hU tlifso iniuldaT'-subsu.i»»fl (agethap^ tlint] frt tt^ttfir 
thetn Ihrougli IIib Handbook, on account q( thair IbnDidiV) wkicU m Aomc injiEAitfes 
%n but bipi^L'LTiJy ^adibLshed, vid for tho iljdsI port iwro aob in m-Erordiutce wi[]i tlio 
ftuidiiiacDta] principlM «f the wark (E.r.] . 

Prfpnriition of Ruhifiti, 1. Coaraely pulveriBcd madder-root (gchnnok 
iu» it DAer it haa beca gat}itT«d for Bcmo weeks) ia well boilod with water (lib* 
«f the root to IC quarts of water); tlic liquid^ after several houra' 
boiling, ifl fttrainofl tlirough caliLO (the rwidiwfoihinifferl with w^ler, itiU ooml 
Buhb AliibTin aiid rubiapin, to bo uparated bj Tlio uiiM'IloiI duuTJlH^il uiidi^r oliEariHi 
lir, 133) : and the liqnfd in prfdpitated with dilute Hiil[)hnnc (or Iiydro- 
chloric) add. A dark brown precipttatc is thus ohtiLitjed, wliicli, whea 
Mpurati'd by detantatiijn and liltrntton, and frcod From o^icc^e of ad4'| 
by waabiug with a t|iiatity of cold water juat autlicioat for the pnrpoae 
(• largDF i^iuuktJiy diuotTfa rubiAcii])^ coutoiua flevcTi sulietaacea, viz,, nibiaUf 
«1i:£arin, riibiacin, nibiit-'tui, verantin, [Hx^tic adil^ and a dark biciwn 
pmdotrt of the decompowtion of extractive mfttw?!^. iiie aitnte retnini 

chloro-ciun und b raiill quantity of au«ir. The preci[>itate, wllilo Btill moittt, 

is boiled with alcohol, aa longaJ^ the alcohol acquirer a yellow colour, and 
the liquid ifi fdter<id hot, lntli(!r™dHPthi?njromB4!i8pttTticTi*i:lii,amt uxiJiai^d 
rttni-:»i»* matlPT- The dark brawn flecoelicio, on c*ooliiig, frecjiieiilly 
depOBitfi rerantltx as n dark-brown reBinous powder, which miiet be 
«cpar*l«d by filtration* The afcohchc eolution^ after boiiip again boated 
lo tbe boiling point, is mixed and digested with recently precinilated 
hvilnite of alunabia till tlie eohitiou \a nearly deeoli>ri.'^ed, ■wuereby 
alirjtrin, nibuin, nditiLCiri. ami part of the rubirolin and voiontiu are 
precipitated, while loi^^ther portion of the twolast-meriLinnedHnbHtJiTiccB 
romaiJiA diaBolvcd in the alcohol. 

a> ^ppttrTtm^ of Ali^firiit, The alontina-rin^dpitato after being 
wnsbcd with ^e-^hof, iw added to o conccntralcalynhng Hfdutioaof car- 
U»i|[ite of |Ht(UMli ; tlirMti.-['|j red aolntion, contaiiiiag all the other sub- 
vtflfiwe is filtered from Iho undinaolved eomponnd cf alizarin and 
tlitrDina; this aubstanco is repeatedly boiled with aqueona carbonate 
of jiota^b, tit! the liquid, which rtma off on filtration, exliihite only a 
Fiuut pur|jle cnlonr ; and the leeidue ia dcconxpoaed by bt^iling hydro- 
chloric acid, for tlie prepiLnktian of nliza-nii sa dcEcribed at pago 133t 

VOL. £VZ. D d 




^ OfEMtm. Thedee|>[X'dftlkalineliquLd[ilttR*dfr(unthecciinjjoiBiJ 
cf feliivio and aliimtna, etill rouii^a in snlution^ rttbi;in^ mbiaoln* nib™ 
rrtim uhd Tcr&utinf vbicli may nil be prot^ipitfttod by hydrrx^blor^ Jkd 
iLa oottecti^ ^nd cashed with lold wnt^r. till the liiijiud wtdcL nuts 
off k free fniiuaciii Ab e<:rt'iL as tbis puint in aU!*iued, llio nilujin, wtli^ 
li ncAnble in aiTidnUl^d witli^r, Ix'giriH In iliK^hr* hi Lli^ pim- wa 
itt|artiDg tA tbut wlitcli rune nff ii tcIIow c^'lniir and bitter laRti 
tut at length it ie complotcily dieiBolvcd, aad may bo obUviuoU 
jeBrvw extract by eTaporatirig the filtodc. It Btill, hr^wevpr, rutAJ 
pectic *ddf wbicU remjuoa btiliiud on diutiolvm^ tlie eitra(;t< ia ukuh^^T. 
Sftdfnm fi tn a p. f . hhIi, Trnin whicb it i\innot he Kcpar&ted. 

7. Of Rubiacith Rtibi'refin und Verarttip. The refiUme left oSttft 
ndwui haa licen wnshcd out, i(i mixed witli tbat whioh remains 
erafiorAtuig llic alcoholic lii^uld abr^Tc-mentJoiicd, cotitiUiiiDg^ vr 
*&d rtibtn^tin, and the miituro istEeati'd with » boiling sirlutrnn of (• 
deride or nltnilo. Rnbinnii] iinii nibiacin then ^Hsflolvc (Ibo k 
MLHiy ttB aoch, partly coiivortod, with ne&umptioQ of ojyf*(?D, 
feme mhiocot*^), wliilc vcmuliT) tcmaina Itcbiod in ccmHiiiition 
iernc oiidc. The deep tod-bivhwii wnlutiiiu i& Oliorfd after boiling 
fioiue tiifio : liw* rvmihic is Vijpi for tbr pivparivtioii (»f vtrmutiti. 
rubmniir rubiific soEd and mljirctin ntt* thrown driwn from the filt 
ft* a j^ellow procjpiUtet lundnfi brf>wn dunnc w,iebiriiv! and Uu« 
cipitatc, while still mobt, ia dissolved in V'iUn^: alcohol, which t 
iijr the rubuidii ^Jid nibirolia, iiud deposits the furmer, ou cooling. 
Email lemuu -yellow cTysEnlti. (The rubiadc iidd wliich romaiut 
*oIali>»n 18 purified in tbo manner dcecribod below, — the cry»' 
mbiftdn by cm vert in ;:? it int? rubincic acid, fn.iEa wjiit'b it luay 
Anlik obliimed oa rubiaciij). By further' cTapomLiur tit t|jc r\li>ihi 
future of ndiuuuiL kud ttihlrctln i^ obtiunEtd as a durk Imwu 
ro«idijc, whirh, whoM Ui'Wfl with WBt*ir, defi'>^ife dark brrkwn dr>:ip» 
rubirotiiii wbJMt rubiooin j^maiuH Ri^peudiKl as. a tight fiowd&r, 
Abd mny be rL'movcd by ilccantalioii. After b'rtliiii^ B,?veral timeewitb 

nitil llioi dc'cuDtiuff 
rc<l-tii\>wn maAs. 

2r Otiti pound <^f A^^i|^>on madder is exbjmatcd on a cloth fttiuncr] 
pouring font ur Gvi? ijuj^ttH nf boiling water upon iL; tho clu-k.yoll' 
mb bnitfu, ulill but fillrnl*?, \h rrjl\id with aa oimei' of boao-chiir 
ntirri^. ^nd loft in nellli^; tbo slill bri^wu bi.|iiid isdr'^ank-d; 
rrpJdiie tfi coIlod.<?d und washed with cold walrr» till tbo \ji\w 
niHft i.fT K^comcfl ffrt-eti wIm-u boil-d with hydxTirhbmc atid ((ttm 
prepenee rhf <'blar>gt'i]m\ TI10 wiLhbc-d bun'"-rharc^fnb if ItJilt'd 
alenbol, ft* b-mgns it efkWrn the IL^uii j'dh*w-\ yiehln to it the robi 
whinh it hafl earriod down, aad on ovnjKiratJnjj Ihr* aleobolic aoIui" 
\\iv mh'uiJi in h*ft bebitid, but still impiiTO^ ojntainintf cldorogcnin- 
iinrfve Ihr hitlfrr, Uu: inipum rubititi obIttino<l iii tbe luanupr 
df-^rrilH^d U Bj^ibi prnHpitaled Tii tlio aitmv mariner cin ilu' pn*vit 
B*<^d eharroLiI, which n*iw latc-ft rtp otdy the nibhm tni>ebl<>r»>gv 
0i4 Ntfalu eXlro^Hecl [ty bnibii^ ]d< obni. tbc i^r-tie^ i>f o|Mrutii^ni) 
■iMn tbiH liint wiHi the sjiim- Irt^nc-ehkirrmil, iuwiw ihti 

iituiiifl t'blnroj^Tiin. A* fnuli Ixmr^luirrflihl fmnjuUIn 1«A 
"^■ouLn. cLEul hliiiv^v ctiunxal. Hbir'h hot jiDm boon lUfnd fa 
I'^v ft^J l-uUn1 mil irtlti nlcrctlinl, tirri^L|itmtr^v imlj t}iri £inmt« ^^H 
C*« up dnlj tliL< fbiiiLi-f lo btiilujg fllroltcl, it it h^t n«>t to <'j^i'^^^| 
uf purUbfttiini, Ibo ili^t pijrljtm vt rvtwo Ukcn irp Irf frt^^T 

Wfltiiir. ad long as any yellow powder reuiaiiiB. 
nibirvtiji allhriutety reiiinint^ in trie fonii uf a durh 



DAtE^cliArooid, bui to lue tJiti oLnjcmt for lLc prepantiou of purer rubinii. 
On evaporating the alr<)lioli(;_ anliitfi.mft, tlio ruhJan remuSiis Iwhirnl, 
still nilainiiig ii rtmall qnanliily of n flecom^iOBilidn-prortijcl fcinued by 
the actioQ of hoiit, Tbie k eepaifltcd, eitiier: 't. H^ eviiporQtit;^;^ 
the greater part of tlic fllcoUol, mixing the eolutiou whoii told with 
dilute sulphoric add <whicb throws down the dcc*^inj3onitioji- product 
in browu tt'sinuus ilrojis), nsmovijig the aiilplniriu add by cnrbonate of 
lead, thin filtering, nnd^ eTa.prtrating' over the wnlei-hnth ; or h. By 
precip[taliQg tlii> solution with neutral acetate of lead; tiltcriu^ frc-in 
the brotm-rcd ikjckt wtiich eoparatc, audaddiug boeio acetate of lead, 
whereby a coiniKruad of rubian with lead-oiide ia prcdpitaled> which 
must he wasbea with ult^ibol» aad ducomjxjsed l)j hyilriisrdphiuie nr 

dilute aulphudo acid, in ibp kttor case the picth of fliU|ihvric aoiJ niuat bo 
remoTMl, u in a.— 1 cwi, of mndder jielda 1000 grammcA of i-obiiin, 

Pt-opcftk^. Hari3i dry, brittle, pprfortly uinoq^ilirncs maBu, renpinbliii^ 
dritii vamifth or ^m-flrabii*^ uot at !ilt aeliqnoi^fOTit* trant; parent aad 
d*epy»*Uowm Ihiu byore, darls brown in thicker moflscd. Hna lui 
intcridcly bitter taste. 

CWcH^iificfi aceordiaff fu 3vhiiuubi Sckimck. 

AS ....„ 3dA SS-oe .^..^. B+'S5 

»i H ,.,. a* - 5-57 &'67 

40 O 3« 39-aa 3958 

C>*E*H)" .„, 610 100-00 lOO'OO 

l^uLal^ lo 100 ptt, after deiluL-tioii of 5 33 tn 7'fl5 p,c. tuih, ftmaiBtitig'fijr Uto 
moat po^ cf oikrUiiiQtL' of \\ma [i^ahuiLcb), RocbloJcr rvgaTda mbmn tm iiupurp 
mberTlliric H^d [ vhemtflSohuDcL «oiisidi>n tin* bltw ai q proilootof (ho dDcam- 
potfitioii oTrubiaTi f be alaa rogimli u decompofliliaa-pi^diii^tB nf nkbifln and cbl^rc- 
feoin til? folloving dubAEan«4 >— tha lontfiLn of KuhbtiaDJi, Xha iDtiLhiii of niggu], 
ood fhf mAddrr-jcUovr of KuTLg« (a«i bflair). 

Oerhanlt iiiKgtsted for rubiao this fonuula C*H'*0"',iq. We. SSSI p.n. C, 
4-91 Q., wad S&-S50.)» accDrduiB to which, the- format ion ofaliuHn ond glucoAS voutd 
bo r*pn»n(oa bj Iho ftjufltioD, C*-U»Oi^aH0 - L^H^Ofl + C^HU'O's ; but tiii* ftp- 
twiiA -luH not aiplBLo iho forumCioa of rabiuuc aciifroni i^bian. 

JJtttyrnpusitions. 1, Rubrati Af^i-Jjaa toat-tubo docoinpOBGB and ji^vea 
off wat«r At l^O"*^ at a higher toiuporatui?, it emits o ran g-e-colourcd 
vapotirs, chiefly oorisifliiuf,' of itlizuriu, smd leaven much dmrcoa!. — 
S. Healed ou pljitinnTn f<ril, it meltH^ «wellri up, hums wiLli Qmji[^ iLTid 
leaves a mixtUTG of charcoal and ash. 

fl, AqiicouB nibiaji evaprjrated by beat iu contact with the atr, depo- 
fiitd dart brnwn i^^fflnons drops^ the quantity cif wlitch im.'i't'rTSt'H uti 
pouiiag water upou the roHiduo. and again evaporating:, Tlie dropa of 
reaia melt in boihn^ water, become brittle ou cooling, yield when heated 
la a teat-tabe, a copious yellow, transparent eublimalCT resembling 
mbiaciii, and l*havi(ig'iii a aiiailiir mamier lo fcnie chluridoi Umyare 
probabiy, therefore, a mixture of nitiirotin and mbiacin. 

4, 0(7 0/ viiri^l diflflolves nibian, \Tith blood-red colour, Dud hlackfus 
U qh ioiting, with evolution of nulphurous add. 

5. When luiucoiia nibian ie boGed with dilute s^tlphitric or ^j/Uit'- 
ditmc arid, the hi*lution firal becomes ojjalescejit, aud theu depiiHitK 
oriTigc-eoIr^iirrd iijvkfl, eontaininj^ ali'/iinti. ruhiretln. vemntiu, aiid 
rtibiajiin, whilff «iigar rentaiaa iii eolution. 

^ 2 


c-n*o* - 4C»*n»o« + who. (S^biKic^. 

d vvnotiQ and niUivUD; 
C<>^0> - aC«1PO> 4 SO'IPO^ + UHO. (Sdinuk). 

€, Wli«i M)nni jvsifl pttsdcd into aqaeooa robiui, ihr lifiuiJ, 
vUdi ia ftt first toRovt, dcpoeits l^znou- ajii orang^jellow floc}^ oE 
^lonnUui. xniiril witJi a ^nudl qiinntityor easily fusible reain, till it 
b««D»MCokiQrlM^ &ud ihcaco&iUHAaagu, together trith exc«sa 

Thr onntSanedifftMni of tbe ci&kwliw M leutK produc«e , 
rutiajt, — ClittSdt o^A<M coii««TtB rabiia Mo pblbaUte of limi\ 

7. A'ltii'OUN mhiiui is oot nhend bj cnid aM: addr but at tiift 
bollbiff lifai. iv*i fvmfw uv omtrvd, and tlw Tubiu ia ooinpleu?1j cf 
vcHoO in^> t^hil^ftlW^ «cid (^ii, 10) witiMmt fdfiMlkii of oxaiic uid^ 

8. lit ooiitAOt irilh thr aqiwoos MololkMl id mitatk, aJtafiu «an>dbv 
tbi> himr^aitni** «>/«ttwlwtf MrlAi, a»d ^ir, t^Mia tak«« up <utjg«n, 
ifi A^nt-^od iiktt>mbi»ie wid. nUdelgr^ntft, uid niwivdrtiD, nni 
iiuantktipfl of Ac^tio Add* rabiadok. «ttd ms^ bdn^ ronDC^^ni tbc 


fK FmBAllon of rabiuic md; 
r. Of niMhy^ran: 

^ritfcWnoJ.fip4<*Jnrttff^ cbM ig fa cto | w n ii-cfd>aftdbyoi tt twBrf 
b nm^^m^ mvolvW uato afiwia. nUntsik T«nftCtik attd nAUia. 
arliidi arr fncipdUl)lr< bv *riiK and Mgw vUob imbaina ia «diiiiiiL 
tW ««M intorta m waK< ^htmg^ mk^ <lMrt7t bj boQlBf vttk 

krpia.— ^VkVMUitM of 

Iku <if nbi»dia b itytw^ a lrf t^ tfcc cqtirtkm. 


iiMh^Ia ttttd venduB {i 

• tno- 




ilfteir ILroiigfi the liqiiiii witlioiit liianohiTi^, ronJoruig it tnrhid 
and gmnray, acd cflnvei-tiiig it, after sUnding foi' aomu lirjn: in ft 
mod^ritleij warm plocc, into a browu joUy, liko coacrobfcd blood, 
containing ycibw stritK and dix^ka foraicd of lang- capillarj i^tystals, 
till fiuallj (ion™ oiTthKnym >itin^ iMld«l if ^ccpMmrj) tho iiiiwid becyimtli 
liLsltlosa and iiolftui'ltes, and a golallnotia mass separatoe, coiLBiating 
of aUIziitiii^ verantiit, rnUu-utiii, mbiufiu, rubiagin, a[!d rabiadipiiu Tho 
fioIulJoa I'ctainH eug-ur and ncctic acid. During the fornitiitotioru Uic 
liquid remains noiitra), ueillicr abatnbing Jirjr ^viug thff ^anefl: auMiHrt 
of ail" lEi likijwidp uuriL'ujaflLuy- -^ Funnaticiu of alizftrin, verantin^ 
rubirt'tb (p. 36); oF rubiafiu : 

ForniAtioiL of rnbia^n : 

When ft solntioa of mbiau is boik'd witb i^ryihviayttx^ no decom- 
l>oailiDU takoB pLaci?. i^rytiirL'^ym, aftor loin^^ dried and bcati^d over 
the walei^-batb, decomixiBca mbiaii after two luontbH onlyi into sug^r, 
rabiafiiif rutrirctiit, :tiid vcraotiu^ \fithuat foruiaCion uf aliziLrin. Whcu 
drifd aL tnt'ttJi tuiuptTaturo, il decouipowiH nibian in a f<'w days, 
fonning sn^ar, lul^ialio, rubiagin} and alizftrin, togotbor with amaU 
qnantiucG of nibiretin and verantiu.^Tho action yf eiythroaym on 
rubinu is aomcTvbiil altered: a, Bffavefygmall^aniili/offufpkuricoaid, 
Partial dL-compusitioa alowly set* in, yielding large <juantitit'H of 
niLirL'tiji and v^rantiu, with trao/H of au/^iviu and rul.ilagin, — li^ B*/ 
i:artc/Mte afmda. It di&HoIves in tbe red liipiid. Tbc ducompoflUion 
which *«>on folbwsT yielde moro alizarin and mbialiu, no mbiagin, 
moderate quantities of rubiretiu imd verautin.^o. Bif caustic ooda, 
A moderate quantity of caustic floda retards tLe action by which tlio 
nibiretin and verantin are diiw^y ^rtii\\Xixd. — A. Btf ntHtrtd acvtiiii of 
itatL The pryUirozym is precipitated in bmwn (tocks, but detom- 
poeitioa gradually si^lij in, resulting in tbe formation of rubiafiu, with 
usees of ali^atinT and very large quantities of rubirotin and verantin. 
— C. i'y riKfctinc chhridt or araeriWit^ acid, A portion of the nitwau 
rciQ»in?4 uiuIccon^iKJPcd, even aftpr *M;veral days ; tly ptrniucta nf thil 
amclion wliic)» takea place are diiefly verantin and nibiretin. — F. J?y 
nkohol ijv oil tif ttiijientme. Tliey retard the docompok^itiou, but in- 
cn.-a6c tho umaunt of rubirttiii and verantin produeod. — It appoara 
ibcu that relardhtiou o! the action of the CTythi'oiiyni tttide to prfidnco 
lew alizarin, and moru rubiMlbi and verantin. When e^uol liuaJititiii* 
af rulnan mixfd with uarlHUiatt! of Rodn and wilb dilute Kulplinriu 
Mid, wcrt treated with eiythro^ym, a laTg(?r proportion uf the lubian 
rcmxuocd undecompoeed in tlio firet eaee Ihsin in tUo Beeijnd ; nevei- 
thcleee, m tbe £ist caae, tlie quantity of alizarin formed ainonntrxl to 
17'7 p. c. of the rubiaii employed, wuile, in the second, it waa only 
?'5 p. C. 

A eolation of rabian la not decom|>oftod by yeaat, ffelalin, or 
putrefi-ing albuiiiin. It Is deeomponed by emulsia, wlioi-eby, in ono 
matancf, large quantitiea uf aii^ann, rubiretiii and veriuitin ^cra 
obtained. It ie partially ducuminjscd by the Ldbujiiinons matter of 
tUlumtltti4 Ubtroffusj witb formation uf i-ubiietln and vui-anUu. 

i r -^UDT 3- 

1 v:^ IBE »«>^biA 


** . E- 

'^*'^~ J -T-'" IJS lUK-M 1"J(tW 

>-;^:.i ' .-. l:- :.-- —- ;_. i.? !==■ cr^ii^t v -^ ri^nii na? piB icM ;- " ±=^ ~'. -'- :-^."- "i "^'^ ."■i^i-ry- ;cf'23C*w* is from ibe 

"l"' ' 1-;*^ -"-' 1^7 '7 '-i-^ -"' _-''*>; .' rs; k^'i r.'*w^> the acikm of 
ih-iSi roLi* >_i- i." tt T' t-tt:. ti-rr. uhj *r>f f:r£<e<i m tbe M^uiioa 
i'Si'.:'; "' V ->■•'"- *^ '- ^'-' ~'- ^ -'^-^^^ "J ^'•'5'ti' jij^.-ii The rabwi 

Uv^i ;:as1 10 A liT^ ;:ii^r-:T : V:;-li£- RabuQ imparte t light 
onm^'V i>^!.*:ir to s:^$ trvjar^i with ihim m-.'^iinW; bpit faron to 
tlnw iiii>nltn:ei irith ift/fl; nix^-^ preparcd wiih other mordutB •!« 
Lnit faintly dvt'J by it. 

Bnbianic Add. 

VHK^K (1856). X 7^x7- Miy, •/. 12, 200 and 270 \ J, pr. C4#w. 
I^^^^^PnOimiuary Notice:: Chem, O'az, 1855, 357) J*pr,Chtm^ 

IhrmctiM (p. 3G)^ HuViatii lu contact with air und Aqucotia am- 
ttji>in;L, cAimib scaa. barjto, lime, or bJcnrboualc of batyto^ ia re- 
eolvfd, with assumption tjf osygeii, into a rubinnalc, rubidi'liydraa, 
atid mbiliyiUaT]. A 8iTnilnr> but less piwcrFul acticin, Im eierted by 
oxid^ of lead. 

Preparatioji. I. fYtftn Ruli'an. CarbonJ'.T acid gas is pasacd into a 
Bolulii>Q of nil^ino mixed with eiceae of bar^'ta- water, Cill tlio baryta 
IS converted into bicorbocfllf, and the filtrate is left to etaod in coctuct 
witb the air. Tbi; lli^uldi after eQinc tinid becomes covered Tritb tbiu 
scaflct filrue, juvtienliog a cryHtalliai; apiiear^iijce imdep theiuIfTDSCupe 

(cDmpoundo of baryta with rxLhiaajD avid and rubidclijdrftu) , more of whiuU OIG 

obCiLmud after loiigiLir eitALiidiuc;^ and agaiu on ovaporattuc^ thi: liqnid, 
fiaallj in the form ot red dricks. w^liilttt i^uLihydran rcmaina diBaolvL'd 
m tbu bruwuish-jcUow liquid (b(Hjielime& aleo eugiir R-flultiug fronj a 
swii^inliiry decompoHiLion). The rxiUt'cted filfiif^OTid flocks are dei^oui- 

Eoacd witb dilutt Bulplim'ic acid; tbc oxcgbs of tlial acidia [irocipitatL'd 
y carbi^iiato of lead j the precipitate is repeatedly boiled with wateVj 

u1l it cxhibild onlj a faint rcddiiiu tiut (iu mIiIl^Ii sLuk it cohUUiq ilu bupuriiy 
TiLc^it a buuU ^^uajilil^ of tuIjIiuUii, piojuc-dd bj fcamiltLrr d^xpuipoHLLicii), mid t-bc 

noliititm \H Site red and evjijiorated ; a ytrlktw-brnwiimHsstbun remains, 
uiixL-d n-itJi yeUow uecdJea, from \v-liicb cold water oitToete rnbidtfliy- 
dit^ai Ica^'ing^ nibiinjie acid in tho form of a yellow ptiwdtT- Tllis 
pri>duct ifl waabed witli cijld water, aod recryatidlfscd from boiling 
water, if ueeeBeaiyi with aid of aitiiLial cbarcoal. 

2- Krota Mtvldcr^ withmti jn-eviofia prqicrotiati of ruhian.-^ Eitract ot 
madder prepared wiUi b^t water m precipitated with neutral acetate 
vi lrad> l\\vx\ llii' fillnxte ^nlb biLsk: ac;etate; aud tlie latter precipi(,iUo 
crrnlfliiiifig nibian and cblorogerfin, \s. dfpomposed with cold liihit*? sul- 
phuric acid, digested vith carbonate of Itnd, :ii(d iiltcrcd. The filtrate, 
ircDtcd with baryta-water, tbun with carbunic aeidt a© in the Urst 
metLod, dejx>Hiia, after ulnading- ftu- »jiao time in contact with tbo 
ain nibiaiiaTe nf baryta, and \\yv. baryta.aira[iound wi rnlrtdehydran, to 
I)*? treated as in I, while nibidehydrftn and cblorogenln remBiQ in 

JVvw-fwJ- Lemon-yolbw eillr? noodleBi in tho impurt fl;nto, enmidca 
■ad OTTsUlliije maai. Taelub aomcwbat Litter- Kcddcne litmus. 

CatPvUlhn accoMiJiff to St'tiimik- Si^hnnct. 

63 O ». 312 .„, 56-01 .,., fiSSg II. 66Ba 

SQ H. H as .- E-20 . .. S'36 .... sei 

. 1TO-. BIS .... 36-7» ... asia .,., 37-81 

<^BPCP -.. «. 6B7 .P- 100-(X> .,.. lOO'OO .,„ 100 QO 

BDhmiAk uidf lod rubioidq: and prirpfirvd -q^th iLniiaiJTiIa, C^oi^tic loda, lime and 
oirlKmato of bbryla, — It is p^rbuiiB identical ynth RachhAa'e rul>or7tlm« acid 

Ikcompoakiow^ 1> MeJta wbtu fteaisd in a tube, or between two 
mlch-glasflefl, to a brown-red liquid, which aobdifii^n in lie ciyetal- 
linn furui ; at a 8ti'oii^r Jivatr it givL»s (iff va(Mau>i, wlucU curjdojiBe to 
arsnp»-co]oijred needles of alizarin, and leaves tiharcoaL — 2. Healed 
on pEbUuum-foIl, it melti^ Euid hnrtio away ineomplctely, witb a ^moky 


in cold viMr, aiid Mania in tlie aj^talbm 
withoat decompoiSlM En boiaqueotitf^iMpAcnbt 

With Boliiiuhlo tttMfl it fonu tte JMfiVMM. 

liithiaiiote (f/A mFAORHi. — HuLuiuc add f omM vilJi uvmoftiiit k^OAiflf 
limn with ajjii(>riiiA Giod alkalk, m ivd BolutJoD, vthkli b not nlUft^ t^l 
iH»[Iii]g, aii<! wlicn cT»jKjnilt'<! Loa\<<-« Ihc Aininoiiia-adt in the funn A 
a red ^m, mix^'d u'itti alinlL-frt-crnbiuiic ackL — Jty ftddinf ctHnAftlVj 
I'f [ifumouia ta LulIijiit ik<|iic-r>iw rubbnic Mid* And cmtUn^ Uic 0o|«lio^ 
ills ohlnincil ill mt'dlen, Lkc iIil- [KrtJitfh-Kalt. — ll <Ws nol ^veoff 
uurnouia in Urjriug. lu hut water il w (]<«ofrijx«e4 Ukc Uu; piilMfa 
Mit. ^ 

Abtinmiirff r>/ Pv^isAh— n<iiL<:i-iilrati?d a'^|«<^Jii0 rulMUio add BihcoA 

wkkt«utki[>ot(Litblt^y.acquirt>4 a cherry-red {''■lirur, aiidit'maiafidpv; 
«u^<ittiit« of ["ntaeli |kroci|jitat<>s frcini it diirk rod iitedlc'S nf njbiantt 
irf paUah, whkb, after WiiehniR iujd drying-, cxhiljit u sJky Jiwtrt and 
IcMtown citliinr. miU <jver ibr watcr-LAtli ci' in vncuo, Ofioniina • 
li|{lil n^ ciiliHir. Jt IM ckx:i)ru|i»iL-iJ liy cvid, luoro cM&ly bjT 
rater, vrllU eopamtiou of five mbiaoic uid. 



CtfU-KtatiQH aca/ntirt'f to Scbiuick, 

□' ICH}' ; mean. 

« o . 



,-.». S6 

..„„ SOS 










10CK»0 100-00 

Rvhiaiiijta ofSodfi* — llot aquooue I'ubionic acid, mixed witL cauatic 
eodft i>r carboaatc of aoda, yicltla on cooling- light rotl ^riuiulee of tho 
ecida-salt» which dieflolire sparingly in colJ wutcr, with red cohur in 
hilt wjfclpr, uTiJ he|i3iratcf uu couliii^ iii the fonii of a tLiiik jelly, on 
wLicI] ci-yetala of rubiaiiii; aeid graJv^lj fona. 

RtthiaiwiQ of Jiiayta* — a, MonO'add. — 1. BaryU-water friinia u 
oriiuflori-roJ pra^ipltstte wUb <u|iiiimi8 nibtanff Jicid, and docolnriaeB it. 
Thf.' fii'ccliutatc diHHuIveR on pasRirg carbonic acid into tlie Liquid, form- 
ing »yoUow Holutiou, which, on elandiuff ia contact with the air, 
deposits the salt ui hltus, eshiljitbg' a cryptaHine chaniutcT midiT the 
nucros<x»[ic. — 2. Jtubinrjalo of |X>UBh in precipitated by cLIerida of 
biLnuiu, aud the red precipitate is wanliud and dried in vacuo. 

Jjfvordi^ t» 3, 

. 40-fi4 

..M 43G3 

9» H _.,-..- 29 


... l-re 

.. a4"ii 

... a4'9a 

BaO „-, 76-6 

«. IK'OS 

-,.- 11-69 

c*BiH^o« *■ M- "" caa-fi 

., 10(KI0 

.... ItXJW 

b, S^qin-acidf — The red precipitate which fm ammoniacal erjlutirjn 
of mbiauic acid forms with chloride uf barluoi, lusca harytaia washuij^, 
atui tliuji ctintaiiij* 3 at, add trj 2 at, baryta. 

i?uiMi7io« of Litiv;^ — Limc-wntcr added to aqueous i-ubjuiiic add 
foniiei^ light red preoiptatc eoltible hi carbonic acid, and uot reappear- 
ing in tilt: solid Alate ivht^u iho carlHiiiic acid chcajiea, but only wlic^u 
UiC Gobitioii IS cvajforatcd. 

Rulntuiaf^ af Ltiul* — ^UcohoUc, hut not aqncoue, nihianicacid thr'^H 
(bn-n fiinFj a Hiiliiliiiii of ueiitral accbitii of UwL vnd llihiks mihibli! In 
piire Wiitor, — Atcolirjlic rubiaiiic acid iniscd with ammonia and an 
iiietifficMit qnaiitity of neutral ficotatotl lead, 3'Joldi4 rod di><.ikf^, nhich 

:r waahin^' with alcohr.ii, dryinj^ in vaciio, aii<i tbeu over the walet- 
rrpiitaiii 7rM},2C"il''0". — From hanic acetate of luad, alcoliolic 
rtibiHuio noid (hrowH diiwn a (irii'i|jih*to = 9PbO,C"II"0*, wliidi. after 
Bnlutinn m aloolioljc acetic acid itTii pnxHpilation with aiiiruonia, con- 
Uune C at, li?ad ifxido to I at* ammonia^ 

AquooUB rubiaiUG acid ie precipitated by h^-at&, but not by acduW 
t^tUutninOy hyfirric htfdrtitc, hut uol Yfy ferric chloride. — Cupric OL-ctata 
fijrms, botli in »iuutma Jiiid in akailnjlic ndjjunic acid, a brawnish red 
prodpitatSj soluble in hading acetic acid. 

iiuVinviitt of Sikei: — Nitrate of silver does not alter boiling rubianic 
nail, but on adJili[)ij n! SLrnmonia it throwH dowu rcd-lnff\vii fluoks, 
v\ut\i BMHrar crjhr^UdliiiE! iirulor tlnr inicroKeo|ie, and form with ammonia 
4 rtfiwjfatioHt which dmjn not altoi.', L-vun at the hoihng hoaL Tha 

*;k"',- j^ize^ w-jisii::^ v -_- i *c-iZ I'^iLZ^rL— c in->=r_ ^bi±=. with akohol. 

,;i^-» . ■ _ ..' i^.-j,"-. J- ' .:."". ; '::. V— .:' . & ,-. uc-jr:-: a a £Iter; ud 
-.i-: :.' --;.. _> — ■-.,: » .J ,?K, 1..*. Ti ', .* "..j,L ^. c ^ riors** whii'fa 

Vj.i... ,; - ..:r, 1* -;. ■, 1-:: -ii." .-. ': i^ .in \-. .: -;:.j*1 ;iaa:^ct* i din: 

,'.'.- -:, ,■ -^'. :'f :^ .:■ ^l:;^ :."■ ^^ - :- > i';n i; .■iliirdT' ■* -■- ' .t^Jn^ 

* '.:; '^ I. ■: »-»>: ^ / i ->' ." :.■ . ^ .'j.:^ -vi iIi.'* ii L. The 
i.1.' i: "■: 'H li" -t. • rj ■ -. \ -^ .. j.-. j. :.ji -■ -v^ji *^:^r *ad 

. .. -:/_, *>■ : *.-vv/ '- ... ., 1 .. ;; *?-; > v-4^atfl with 

i: ". . i.L' _ .. t.- : ^\K- - *^'- . i.. . ■■■ ;" >:* >Jiiijdiir!i_" ji^liL 

■^ " ^i - - -^^ ," *-<• >--** _ ^«s 

. ■ * - ■ i'* ... *!■* 

i.^--w . I-JVJW 



(man nfN^nTJ^ nrptiu^) mhiaDui fir'id, ibuuDh it is lud ta diPrF tbfiffl&ocD in ooto- 
porilion and in tUn ilt^ree of iu toiubility in othw. 

Dtctmposirians. 1- The aqueouB solution bccomcB turbid when heated 
with hydfocftioric acidf find fonns, ou boiling, a ycUow joUy, which 
cakcA togethet into fiocke oF nlizaiin, while eugir rtiuaina in sdIuIjoii. 

fPE"0« ^ DIP'O" + SC»H"0> + ISEO. 

OP, (?*H"0*^ >= SC»'H''(>* + •C'^H'K)'^ + 3B.O tKochledi^r), 

2. When the b!ood-rcd eolutioii of rubciythric acid ia boiled -with 
aqwotia fUkiiiin, it acquires the colour of nikaliue^ solutiouti cf alizafia 
lud depoeita alizarin ua flddilioii of an acid, — 3. It Ib not altcri^d by 

CfmbmfrlioTts, Riibcrytliric acid diEeolves Bparingly in cold, eaatly 
m bot tpator. 

In aijaeouB alkalis It diftsolvcs with dark blood-red colour. The 
mjufvutf acfd U.'imn with hai-ifiti-n-tilcr m dark tberrj-red, floccolcHt pri."- 
dpilAtc^; vrilli HoliitiurE of iiIiuhj afti^r addition of ammonia, u uiiinabar- 
fvd jji'cf ipitalo. 

lit/be i^thratB of Lciul — An aqueous Holufion of i"uberjlLric add 
nuEcd with a lirtlo almhni, i^ jrreripiEat^d tiy IuibIc iicetate of lead, 
thi.' liquid K heatoJ, ai^d ilic ]jri^cJpitato wuahed with water coDtaioing' 
ulcoLt^li Cuinubiii'-tud powder, 

Caleulittioa ai'PordiHff to Boahleder, SoL^Uudi'r. 

earrtitfr^ later. ■« ramtf, 

^1 C 43B „„ 2a'93 14 C ._ 84 .... 23-Sl .... aa^?* 

a? H , 37 -,-. V96 J H .- 7 .... l'S9 .^. iflO 

37 O 896 «. 1C70 7 O .,.,. bfl -,. 1500 ... IfiSS 

10 PbO 1130 .-,. 6fli3 a no S3A .,-, SO-afl -.. m-4A 

(TO^O*'.I0PbO„ 18&5 -.,. JOO-OO C*H?(y^FhO... 371 ... lOOIXJ ,„, lOOOO 

RubcrytUnc acid diBsalreB in bcdling &qucoua/*rrr*c cAfonrff;, forming 
1 dark hrowiL^red s^iluLioE, whieli in prttipilated bj alcohol. 
It dissolves with g^ild-yellow colour lu alcohol and (a ti^fr. 

J;ifW»l£r &i Ruhiani RabkituG Acid, tutd Rubaythic Add. 

1. Rubihydran> 

Ed, Schlkca. Chtm. 70, 1C6. 

Whtij rubiflti ia dccompoeed hy Liearbonate of bftiyta for tlie pi'e- 
puralioD yt nilinriic ncid ivtkI riibidi?bv<b'ttn, this substance remains in 
fioktioii after the barjta-compouuda haw beco BOpwalcd, ajid is 
as followH:-i* 


J, The brown-yellow flltrale,ol>U*Dod as described jit pnpi 39, l|tf^ 
aguin DUxedwitb baryta-water to Heparate any still uudLVomiHjHxl 
nibijm; corbouii; acid is once more poeecd ipto it, and the roJ tlc'cto ■ 
which Bcpsmtc on cva^atiou arc removt.'d. The fiiti-ate mixud withHj 
littsit Hcetale or \e!ul jielda ft red preoii)Jt!it<?, wliii^li h to be wafiLt'd,^ 
discomposed with cold dilute sidphmie acid» and treated with carbonate 
of Itutd to remove tlio excess of that acid. The precipitates arc Uioti 
removed ; hydiojsidpburie add ia passed lulo the Lquid i Uic eulphidu 
of lead is separated by fiUiaitioii ; aad the Qltrate ia evaporated. h 

2, The aolutioD ol mbihydraa and chlorogeuln obtamod as alwady^B 
dcBcribcd(p, 3&, 2), iaa^iii precipitated with baaic acetate of lead^ aud 
the precipitate ia wiidhctl with WEitcr, disHolved io agetlc aoid, and re- 
]jiveipilated Yiy ainmoiiia. The h^a<l-pre<"if«latc Ihiifi prodiieed ia fnje 
frora eMorogeoio, nnd is dccompoeed for t be prcparalioii of nibihy* 
dnm, like that obtained by method 1, If the nibibydron etUI rcli 
eULi.n'og'uiunf ita solution turns greea when boiled with hydicchlgric 
ealphuric acid. 

Prvp^rtict* Brown-ycUow, Irauspareiit gum, having- a bitter tasi 
Tl ilrwjB iKit give off all its water till after prolonged heating \t\rj I 
wiiter-batli, fhen beeomiTtg^ brittle and eauy to pulverise ■ on efpu8i 
to Uje air U quickly becomea moii^t and t^oft. 

M C 836 .,.,-,-. 61TO ftl6 

WH.«. sii - osa _,.»« CD 

as o ■„■■■ , 280 4a-7c ia-6 

C*H»0» 6b& KXfiK lOOD 

Ritbihydnm « Rubiia + 5 iq. 

In otacT at^nrnfiUH Siihiinck obuutied itamtwrH bgnwing vith Uia fomiubi 
C-ll^O" i-3ikj.tmd *-6aq, 

JJetXf'tjKniticma, 1. RubiLjrdrau heated in a gloBs tube yif^tdA a 

Birmller quntitity of crytitalhno publiaiate than rul'iaUn — -J, Whea 
boi-led with dilute sftfplturw cir hmtmthhtrit: iicitK it fmitis a tii[ijiil M»1e- 
tiitii which (lej^-silfl yellow flock^j and ilrnpe of hmwii resin, luid after 
Iwiiling for Home time, become** c»loiirli*sH and id eornjiletely ren-ilved 
IuUj nibiV4jtin, yorautiii, rubiikdin. a t^mail i|iJuuti1y i<f ulizann, and 
BUifflri — 3h iitnled wiihaiiueou«c«i/jJi/>of'WM-r«>ti^iLfi.'nuHix &olutiuH 
which ia red at iirbt, bnt noon deixiKiU a few purple dmis and bf-eumeH 
yi'llciwifth-browiJ, and wln^n trentcd wilh luids, InscH it* eol'mr aiic^J 
di<poAtt>i % vi-'llow Hoeeulent pieeipitale ooiiliuiiiii^ [hi< ^wmw r<^nbf;taito^^| 
an those whii'h nro produced by bviilin^^ rubihydmu willi bydn<dJ<dV^ 
aeid. This reaction doca &ot yield n]biniiic acid liketiie corrcftprjEidtJig 
rcjicliou witlL rublan. — 4, With cfiloriiK it yickhi thu aainu produeta 

C^nthnatiotif* Huhihydran disaolves itradily in laitrr. It in 
a1t4:rcd by hti'illng ph'mjiMtr i^■, ^'.l■^t/i^\ ftf^ftiir, or ttir'taric aviil. It ia 
urecipitatijd hy meiallic nalta, with tUc eiLerj'lioti of Laaic acetalo 

X«H^-arQV*iiM^ — Bmic acvtntu uf lead fonaa with a(|iiL-oiifi ruU- 



hviran tt brown iah- red predpitfttc, lesa fiery than thoB^ wliicL it yi^lila 
ivith rubFmi &ad nibidcli^'draii ; the superuatont liquid ia light ydioxv, 
and is priMiipitatod ljy nnimoiiia in pale red flitcks. — When fllp<)holi(5 
nibihydr^Lri [& pn-oipitiitoi! with animfjnia und aji ineufficient quantity f>f 
neutral aoctatc nf loitd, the prcoipitato, after being wasliod with 
alcohol, dried irt rftciin, nnd then over the wntcr'tath, coiitaiDs 2f>"98 
p, c> C, 2'48 H,, and yS'lfl PbO ; therefore carbon and liyJnigen in 
the proport:onB reqniT**d by rntiEhydraii = CH"0"t but tlie leail- 
oxide not in flinipli? atomic proportion. 
Ktibihydnui is not very flolublo in alcohol. 


2, Btibidehydran. 

3T<CK. J,pr. Chtm. 7C, 16B. 

TJie solution uf ruliidehyi3raii obtained (p, 39) by decomposing mbian 
iritb bicaibonflte of bnrjta (arnmoninT lime, or bnryta -water), is pnrj- 
Bed by evaporation^ re-solmion ia cold water, and precipitation of ibe 
solution CTapfjritcd bi a Byrup, with alcohol, which fleparates u reddisfi- 
yelhiw, g-urnujy luass, tO;^etber \rith sulphates. The Pfilutioii, Jilu-ied 
ihercfrr^rn and evaE>'irflt(!d| leaven njbidehyi:lran» wliii^li ln)W(.iver hlUI 
retains the tiulpliates of lime, niiLg-nesia, and Boda, from which Sdiuncic 
does not attempt to purify it, fot fear of docompoaijig it. 

Pr^)^rtiet. Roddidb-yolIcwT transparent gum. Not dohquoscenl, 
Oas a fltroiig bitter tadc. 

Cuhnlat'tjn aeconfins to Sohunck, Bcliimck. 


SO c ^^ asff .^ 

...> 6-40 ... 
... 87-66 .. 

».. M-fiO 

,-,. 6G5 
... 37'9& 

c?*h"(:p» .... 

&93 .- 

„„ lOO'OO ,., 

..„ lOO-OO 

RubidcbT^ran *- Bubinn - 24q., &flor deduction of ae}u SimiJAt reBiilt* vfte 
olt(unc<l frit'L rLibidohj^driui prcpuvd v^th bicarbonafo of bu^ta, or vrith amaiouA, 
Minis '>'■ t'ai-'ilie LiiUTjlfl, 

Ihc^tnposiiioM, Rnbidohydratx boilod with dilute sulphuria or h/dra- 
(kioric aci'U i« resrtlTcd into a niixture oE aaj,"7ir, aliKivrin, rnbiadin, ii 
KinaO] i[i]aiit.ity of TemnLin nnd rid^relin, witliout produeliori nf 
mTnnnin. — Whmi ImlU'd with afknlin, it fnmiH a pnrple-n''d HohiliVin, 
Jrcitn whidi aeida throw il-.iwii yellow floclcH. No rubianic acid is 
r\>njYed in Ihis reaction (ext;opt when caiistie baryta is ii^edj. — With 
fcqneons M'rinc it yields the same prodni^ts an rubiaii. 

CifmhiiuUions, Subideh^draji diBBoIveB in w&tcv, forming a yellow 
liilioii which ie not precipitated by any metaJlic baII, e^tcept Imitic 
rtate iti lead, 

iMd-cctj^ound. — Alcotolicnibidebydraafomia a yellow prooipitato 


with alcohoUo central ooetftte of le&d. To prepfixe th^ salt, & 
Mrong aqoeoofi solution of rubidoliydnkn ia mised witb Ehlcikbolic bul 
of left<L ttie red precipiitate is e^paraled by filtration; liie Uhrnle 
precifiJlAled lij' aminriiLJn ; nnd thf^ pivt^JpiUif i.s x^iuiTipd wiih hIcoI 
Afl'^r drying a^^r Ihe watpr-balh, it coniaiiin 29-A p. c, C, 2'^if 
•7-73 PW>, ftod 14-7 MffO.i whioh laltM ScUiiock rcgtrdd u 
th'? p\acc of a ct^rtaJn porticiD of lead-oxide : hence h« giveft dm 
T&uta 5PbO,0-II"0". 


Ed. SoiTr>:CK(l»55). N. Phii. May, J, 13, 200 and 270; Xpr, 
;0, ir,9, Pri'liminaryNotif*; C^em- ftw. 1850,867;* 
67. IMi f^Wm. Ctr}tr. 38^5. 785. 

^brmolitxi. 3y the aotion of oUloriae in aqneoqa mbian ([x 39)> 

iW par^fftm. An ftqiiGone extract of madder Ja precipitated 
ti^ntrul ftcffnti^ of IcJfcd. the filtrate precipitated with ftmnjrtiii»; 
rowilt.iriiT red privmitatp di:''CTJm posed by ™plmric acid; and cbloriiM 
c^ji iMLAFO'il intn tdo fi1lnili>. Tht:* dirty yellow fiocka of ui eaMiiy 
fiijilhir iY«iti, wtii4-h are pre^npitated by the fir^t action of the clklorinei 
im acparaiod by flliration; atid tht> pure yellow dotiks ef ohloro- 
rubUoi i>m^ipitatird en ciMLtiEuim^ tlic po^eagc of ttxe chlormci arr 
oollcctod And UTitaUiAod from hut alcohol. 

Pr^aUm, 0r7*UUiiod frou ft dilute ftlooholic Kihtion, H 
1!g1itonuif*-j*lUrar nepd1i?8.hAvjrk^ a bittertjwte: preclpiutedf 
ooiKentRitMi ftkohi>lii> or hot aqucoo^ soktioo, it fonna ^nuiulo-amnr* 
phou ftphmks. N en tr»1. 



a ^^, 

ir n 


»w c^as 

■ah; *i 100*. 
. 51 W 

^ <-a8 



tMX^^ U$^ 100<W -. lOMX) 

Dtfvmpnailitmt^ t. tlmtUd in ft Ust-Ulbo. it molt^ tO ft btnwn 
Ibinld. yliiliU a wh]l4< arynujline Eablinut^. tad loavva f^iarooftL-' 
II. Ihk |iIftiliiiim-MV it inelltf ftBd Iw wiih ft «Dokj, gTMoUi duiB, 
Wvint ft luic« iiQUtHr ^ olwnxid. — S. CUWwv-tMrtfl- mdnally 
tsottvvru It Intn pamhlnmraWMi 4 With boilhii: Ahit« m i ^mneat 
Ibiri ri UarJ c mtwd^ it fiimia ftt Onrt k veDow iolnSioB. vhkb, oo om* 
llDoad bntilBff> be«nnM nhllky. H>d «faD|kOiln jnlov floctft of 
niWftAft» mb Mfir nwAiii* te ulqtifft i 

■qmwift Mwtfp jmfa, ft taiw t Ueod^rcd Bolntkim 



after beangr heated for Bome time, tlepowt* dark red-bmwn flocJra of 
oxynibmu (q. v.), whil<? t;u^r, its prodiintR cjf decoin|>oRit.ioTiT and 
vorarjfiii, ruhirelin and nibia'lin rGnialn dbaoIvoiL 

Tbtf ted Jiqimi whidi rcniLiiun niter tho st'EKirfttion of tho oxyrwbian, 
y'ie\ds, witii dilute aiJpliiiric acid, a joUowiflh brown jiri^cipitJifne arid a 
HJti^to, wbicli (aftiT Mkturaliou witk OJirbrjuuU? of le^d. aud E^puruiiuu 
of the aulpbate of Jojifj) leavwj^ ^^ evaporation, sulphaii- i>f s^wla, 
oUoride of Hodiimiy and a brown fiacoharmo syrup. — - Tlie yellowiflh 
brown precipitate produced by dilute eulpbiiric acid, diaaolvcs iu 
aJcohi'l, with the csceptJou of a portion, n; the solutiou frjiTnrt with 
neutral tKatai^ of lead, a brovn precipitate, bi and the Lquid filtered 
therofrcra, yields, nitb water, yellow-floclis, c^- — fi is dark -brown, blaek 
whoa dry» and contuiits G7"56 p. c C, I'J IL, mid 28"S5 0, ; proljably, 
therefore, a product of the deccmpoHition oi auffir and of Mulder'a 
ulmiG add. — ^, boiled with hydrccbloric iicid, after Wflsblug with 
alodkol, depijtdLfi brown Qucka, which yield to c^^ld alcohol, rubiretiu or 
Bome snbstaDeo of that nature, while veraatln rcmainB dissolved; 
thCM flocks, after solntirm in iJeoholic nnunouia, and precipitation with 
acHtc add, cootftin IH'8 p. c. i). wid 4"3 H. — it yields to aloobnl 
iaipuiG Eiibiadiji (coutaium^€d'36 p> c. 0/ajid b'A 11,), andleavcB brown 
flocks, — fi, Chlororubjau, difiwjlved fa }ioti*b-Iuy ryJiicx^s tim-ic chlnrkk 
iu the cold- 

Cljloi'onjbian dissolves with j'cllow eolour in boiling tvafo: 
W'ith^ikiiJi'ie carbonates, it forms a eloar blornl-redaolutio:! (iVrf. sup.)^ 
with hajyta-VfOifTt oii bi^>ibQg, dark rod iiooks; with chhridt tif *ialcium 
and Aiiimoiua, a light fed [jix.>GLpitate, the eupeniatant lii|uld being 
nearly cokiurleas in bj.ith case**, — Aqneniirt ehlor(>riibJHTi [Jtit^n not pre- 
Oiptato acetate of alumAa or/erric hifdroehbyt^U ; but solid chlororubiau 
dissolves in boiliug forric chloride with bliiieh yellow and tJieo with 
darker colour, and ulttmatoly deposits ti black powder, — Ita aleohofic 
aoJutioti drjee not prect^ tale alcoholic jKvfrni acetate of l^ud or acttnlc of 
evpiiff; but ^^[utHjus ehlinurubiau forms, with busii: tiL-atulu uf load, 4i 
light rod precipitftco aiid & red liqLild^ 

Chlijrrjruliao is eolublo iii tfcohol. It dooa not dyo mordanted 

Affehho. to the GLTTCoaiPEa of Matpee, 

t(^)iitpfftmdi eithfr produced hij the decomposithn of these Ghtcosidts, or 
aruting tenxijf-JbTined in t/ie Madder. 

1. Bubiaczn, 

Rt-VfiB. J* pr, Chfm. 5t 867- 

R')ftH(L-ET, Anji. Chim. PhjS. G3, 311- 

HK><;tS- Fhit. M't^. J. h33, 1^2 ; J. pr. Chein. 4f^. 1 . 

Ed. Scotwck, See Meiroira citpd under Riibian, 1 and 3. 

Xadder-otonw. Sraj/p-or^fff". — ^ Obaervcrl bf Hungonnil Bohiqueti iaTeiiti|^hr«} 
b; &r1)uiit^k- It vncf yd duf^nifid vih<thcT HJg^in'ii mbiiunn is idcntifAl vith thp 

Vixfriicf (if mmliW >■ Ml Ia ataod^ first inti) mhiacin, Ihon info aJimiin 
(Itilflfin)- — ^^ H>' UMLtii«ft*u|iiiMMi of xaotlua in oil of vitTi'>l 1111 M 

JVifwrotM, L /Vm Jtf«Mr, I- BTHiggiii*B mettiod (ziv, ]S(> 

ArrRWii TO -na CLt^cosmEs or uaddei. 

s pe^Bpa u ft soluble lime-«ODi|v>iiiui 
» me tbe modder-eztract torus dov 

S. It ifl rowd fttfOs hk tile pm^itato prc^ticed b^ aciaa b tk 
df^cocthio of AaMet (p. S4| Mp^^te ^ Jhifm), parily in t>ie raridoc 
Wi ftrtM-Mi1uLi«tkl|rtt»raot viA v^tcT, Rcd mnj hp obrnined tn lb( 
mrv «Utt* br c c w w riaft iMft nbiftdo »^ nod «ubflf>q[]ent Toductj^id 
fPd«kUiba»po«a (|^»4»dA0)(S€biiack). 

oilMmrtMl witbi <viU «lher« and thrve-f owtb« of Ihe ctWr i» ilietillcd 
dl rmni Xhte rxMcli niiiMlii ltai«mrfttM «t Uic bottooi of tbe 
ivtoti, KJ iiu i^tmB| ;v j ^B u iw oiTMifae A^mmI (Robtqu^t). 

4. MuVlcr-nv4 rinand, bvt nnl ciuniniTiiit«4, ifl muii^r&ted 9t 15* 
with d f<t». <"! wmk^r fvV eiilOMi lw«n, lod tli« rc^dne then lrv«t«d 
with wi r^iiMJ owiaiity ^.f ««|«r. Th< nnit^d extmoU then dMXisilt 
htU\ four lv n^ boiinii, BWall ojitels of maddor-ornngr, whjVh ni« 
im^IUhHi'hI, vnuihM trilli cvU mbfr* Mid Tttr^glalli^d from UiiliEi^ 
nlii^ln^l, till ft BJUiij** Jbao t rpi hi dl c4 virrinl wilh pnrr yell<kV 
I'nloiiT OlunffiA ><^u»A flbtazMd njkmdn by tn^Btbg: pulrfrnsrd 

oijftUl* wlihti M^ittraii-^l, after li boos' ftlttdlii;:, frt>m tk< ilirn aci'I 
Ihjilld <>fl,. u^oyr mm m t^ T1 — ifa iho ■g«w>m), aic^ piiHfyiiig tijm hj 
IhmtiktKut wUh dilnto tJttie Mad (vhNQ do«< not Qtu<^ mbi&dij;. ikuil 
h'ri;y<»1ikt1lHAUim from iJoelkol* 

1i, l\^^.A ituKi^ nntl TWbMliAir »rW"» sdtition nf mbiftcAlJ^ 
fir |i*itti«.lt in luEvtnl vith A bG^I cxcVM of GMistic poU^li ^ Hyrlnv 
■.idiJiiiiti* Hrid |«Mdd blo line fti>lut»^T] Tor a conxid^nkUe tira^ vid 
llii^ lLipil.1 ,,i,vi|iitlltnltrith<4lnridi>nf fMUium. Theporplv predfjilatr 

*t hiMupU. biii'VlJV ^'l^^-n WAsJw^l with mid wtiUt »n4 (lrc^im|ifwcl hv 
i>><lin,^hlinli- iLvM, Wv« nilOAnA. «h*ch may bo jwiritiwl by K^ibUKii m 
L'»illii|( M%'i rt>vry«UlUnlioo (SdmnolcV 

I*. ^\i'm ^W ir<irlilff-4fMr ^lA# <%i^*«u>i » > Tbo 1i<)iud id auxcd 
tvjilk Ii.v>biiili1m1c mMi mt pncqitUte trtAtcd witfa Unlinc akobolj 
tli^i iintii|<v>i,i'll*nv jmwilvwUDli asfwrMrs 4m cooling:, frimiUjo rmull- 
b>ir tin |t v'VriH- xiLhfkm hi iTHJttflnalviyl in boillDg iJci^biil; hydmtrtl 
f I ' ' ' ^h1 ^ uid Ibc lk)nid '» filUM hot : rat^Adn t^ 
"■ U^iht yill^^w Dccdfcft. 


S|.to(.ili.l t>1nU*An<lM>odli'*< viUiAtrong, r»ddEAh-|E:ncn 
yk«]uiLlik«,iBblB npvf AiwnHiIlcB(B<ibiqvvt). Whni cutin 


Jicttttii, it volatilises (simpletely, and sublinice in yellow BCftlea (Sclinuck). 
X^-atpB cLiATvuiiL vIlou eubUuLvil (Huik|;L\ Bubii^ucl, Htgipa). 

a. b- mean, 

BB 0._ ,. laa - 67S4 67-01 .,.,.. 671 

II H 11 «-sa fl-OT 4il 

10 80 28-B8 2&71 2iS'9 

O'HI'O"' .,.,.888 ...-ICO-OO - lOCHX) lOOH 

ScboDrk knoa-ly g^fe i\e fomuk C'^H^"' edcolntcd from uulyiifi a^ 

Dtcotnpotitiora. 1. Melts when Atff7(erf nu platiJiuni-fcn, and hurnB 
with n ftraoky flame* Itiiviug rcj rt'NJdne (Sduirifk). — 2. TT«ftteJ w[tli 
wV vf niffw/p it forma a daik bi'own aojution, and Ea precipitated by 
water as ft brown powdcT fk^etitute of coloiiKng piupertiea (Higgin); 
■er belov^ ■ — d> DiH^olvcH without ulU'ratii'iii in bolUng dilute nitric fu^idf 
and Is decompos(?d witli difficulty by boilinjj^ with the concentrated 
acid- — 4. A bniliii^ nquemifl srilution nf /Wr/r mtrtits or hf/dfochhrnte 
di&solpoa it wilboul alteration at first, bnt converts it into rubindc 
acid, after CO Ji till ued boiling. — 5. By afkaJine hffdrofirtpfifttfs^ it appc^urs 
to be converted info ni>iJfllin. Accordinp: to Schunck'a c<irhcr cTii-eri- 
nienta, niblatic acjd treated with hydrnaiilphuHc aeid ig ouiverted into 
nibintin ; bur. aeoording to later esiieninent**, the product thiia obtiiined 
ia a eubE^tiinee reaeiuhlnig rutiiacin or rnbia^, and eontauiing 70'24 
p, c. C-, 4-6* H., and 25'12 0., therefore Cnil'""0"', that iB lo say, 
mbiafui — ^ at. a*\. ; beiicx; Sehuiack nuppoaca thitt the rubincb acid in 
lir^t ixtDverted into nibia<;in, and tbenthm laitt^r into nibjalin. 

CvmhtiiiUiiifis. Kubiaein dissolves sparingly in hoiline tuitltr, forming' 
a rwiUiwIi yellow liquid (umbei-yelh^w, ai.i.uiiliug to Higgixi), whenca 
it tyratallispfl tiu cooling (ScLnnuk iind oilierw). 
ft ia eliphtly soluble in dilute aciifji ^Hig^in), 

It diBfioivufl m oii c/ vitriol, wttbout decompOBition, oven at the 
Iwiliug heat, forming a yellow eolulion, whi^nce it ie preoipilated 
by WHter (Schunt^k). Vidp aup. Tlis inln^ion m -'old oilof pitriolii yMhw 
(ttttn^rX Kililiah-vclLjw (TlobiijiiBi), oiaQ^-yellDK (Iligeiik) 

KHliiaeiu dissolveH with brownifiii Ci^loiir in nmrnonia (RobiqiR't). 
If diar^a1v(?fi also In awarm ammr^niAcal BolutioQ of mipfiaU of tmnnonia 

In cavshc alkalis it 'liesolvee with roee-red colnur (Run^c, Rr>hiquet), 
with fine crixiiflon archil-colour (UiggJn), with purple colour, and ia pre- 
ci|kitated by ai'ldw (.'^eliniK'^k). 

With carbffntue a/ sodn ic Forme an orange-coloured Bf^lution (Knnge), 
which tiecemca blood-rod on boihnp^, and depoeita nid flocks ae it cools 

With lime It fonne a very eohille compound (Higgin, SchnnckJ. 
The Bolutiiin of rnbiaein in aminoniu fomiH diogyred predpitatCB with 
h thechlorideft of barium and cabium (Sehunek). 

L When boiled with solution of aluriif it forms a Hght orongc-colrjurcd 

HBtntioQ (Rimffc), without any tinge o^ rt-d, and is precipitated in 

Pjjreenisli yellow flocks by sulphm-ic acid, Tba alum-anlLillon dotra not 

become turbid on coolings milesB a l»rgt- quantity of sdh-ann \e prf^eont 

at tho fittme time, in which caae the greater part of the rubiacin 

ia bkewise prerifMt^iled (Iljggin). Utf^tofe o/'ti/wmmc immerned in an 

' vou xvj, z 



ftkoholic Qol[Jtii>nDf nibiBOii, accmire«aiioraD^CQloar, and prcc^W 

it o^mfJet^lj. Th(^ precipitate aissolv^ cMilyr ^^'^ with purple ay\* 
in ratifitic potwh (Sdrnnck). 

precipiUte nith an 

An alcohoLic sohition rif robijicin Forms & iWk red 
alcoholic Bolatioa of neutrftl a<«tAta of 

9C C , -™- (76 

« H - ---,- B3 

ao o _ ft4o 

6 PbO 890 

SSiK ,....„ 93-05 

i-sa 1-ao 

l*'7« 14-41 

SI as eo74 

3C"H«4>»,8PbO,„ 1746 ^„. 1001» lOCHW 

Rabiadn i^i«»o1tc« apiuiDirly m colJ, more abundantly m b<iilnkg 
tticohal, AQi) is i^recipitabi^ in yelloTv Qix:k8 by vr&tci (Schiiuck)* N 
inwrluble in cxjIJ aloihol, but disMrtlvt^ti »|karin)::]>' m Xf^ihw^ »U 
fonniug (I ^oldeii- jellovr eolution (EobiquetJ. £ft^ity soluble in al 

Difta*»iTe* eaaWy m tiher (Robi^nct. Ili^gin). epAnnKb' >« o^rfir 
(Kobiijaet), II miloiim luordoDtcd ttHsucN rslightiy (Scbunck), oot ftl 
all (Hi^gin), brilliant oraage-yellow (Ruuge). 



2. Enbiafin. 


8cHimr«- J. pr, Chem. S9, 4flS, 

Fomntticm, In tlie renn«ntation of mbian (p. 37}. 
^VflparafiW (liVf 135.) 

Yellow shbln^ plntce and noecllca. sometime* fltar- W faii-ehap«d^ 

mtt»wi.'rt» wliloli IwUnn' like nibiin^'in whtn htaled witb wntor* solphi 
af LiJ* uiirU. itt:'u\, iK'ntrul aoeiau^ of leud. uitd i^iijinr m;etal«, luii) 
wjw? f>rm nibinoio add wUon troaiod with fcrrie uitrAtc: 
nibufiu diScre from robiacLn only in cotnpositiDn. 

MC |<I3 filf-Si fi'JlW 

13 n 13 *1J9 . .^ 4'WI 

t>o 7a ^. »g<IQ ^-u 

cwrw,,-,-. «H lorroo ....„ iooi» 

3. Rubiacic Add. 


Uu. 8cur«rM (IMS). Aha, Phnrm. fiO, JOl ; abatr. Pkam, Ctmir. Ifttf. 
eoD and 62,'m Ci'inpt. ('him. 0^4% ili.— :V. TArV. jVup. ft. 410 and 
4a:M >/-;'!. ('Am. 5i*. Jaa: »bau. vlitft. Warm- 87.344. 

Kfrmatioa. By boilmg niblft&a or rubLacin with an nqacoue eolati<>n 
of icvric nitrate orcliloridL^ 

Pr^irrof'nn, yrom M'rdder(p. 34),' — J^Wm the li/jvor itftich hm fif^ vned 
for dj/rinff u-ilh mti'Ii/eFf ami a/ III coTttiU/is madder. Si^i*e iitifM^.r'fiqMor. Thia 
brown, uiixddy liquid, ftfl*?r tbew<Mjdj|karti<:(eBof the nmdder have been 
r**miivi^d from it, Enmix**d willi liy<irnc'l:l(jriL' adili lijt' brnwri tloekd whith 
fall Uowit biiili^d ^th forric uitfaiQ as lnugas uiytbin;^ 'm thvn^hy dw- 
eolvod i (Liidtbc: Jdik rtd-hTO\vn Slirulo ieirrooMt^itod hyaTiooidi aycl- 
low jn'ccJpitotc is lliou obtained, ciniwifltiti^ of a mixttirc [or n eoniiwmiJ 
ip. &i)] of cubiacuj and rub iacic acid. Thif* fuislure, or tbe iva ruliWiu ob- 
taiued ji>* alivftd3' di^rribcd (jk 34), m boili-d for a h^ig timi* wUli jkjiu'ouh 
ferric nilrftte ; the fi(*fiitij>a ia prcdpitatud with lijdrodilrjric add ; mid 
iht (ir<:oi|»itatt! is first waalicd with water iiiiii Ihon with biki^Tif^alcobfd, 
TvJiicii diflflolvea the uualteRd rubiaciii, and leaves behind ihe rubiacia 
aciH tbat has Imefi furnicd. By uvaitarsUing tbr alcobolic Boluiimi and 

feite^Ll^clTj' hnJliitiLf the rc-siMut with fprrii^ iiitnitf, thr; whole of the 
rnbincin inaj be iillt]iiaii?ly convertod into rubiacic add- The rubiacie 
acid obtuiiiud by ihiia pri^ooBSi or in the prepciratioa of ruhian (xiv, 134), 
Iff converted lul^ ^>ot^ah-salt by solution iu bulling m^ueoiLB carbonate 
of polaah, IllTralion, ttnd evaf^fntilJon, and the pfltasli-nall ]a piu-LlieJ by 
recryBtalllHutinn, aiitl detiinnpusiHl by liydroddoriewdd. If tlii? nibi:M."it: 
thue obtained is atiU cijutam mated ^vlth rubiucui, it will yield by can^* 
fill sublimation bi-twi*fn two watch -^]asect=, a yellow eubUmate, of 
wbich the putG acid yields no more th^ui a mere trace. 


Trvjrerticj, Non-cryfllalliae, leraon-yollow powder. 

vuram. wunn. 

3» 0.,.„ _ IM 56-97 B7-za e^fiS 

9 3 .._ S 3-6t B-ir - »'fi7 

17 O 136 -„ 40-3a Mr^a 39M^ 

C'H'O" 837 ^. 10000 10000 lOOUO 

J)eaniiposkhrts. I. Hm£^ on platinum foil, it xnclbi and ^ut-tm with 
* brig"bt flamt-, leaTiii^^' no reBuhu?, — 2. FT^atf^it bi a test-tube, it 
glve^ off vapoUTR and nil, bnt nn eryslATIino ftnhHniat(^. Bc-twe^-n 
waich-glnflflt^n, n truths of eiiblimate is obtained, and a Jtirpre rjuantily 
of chrirconJ, fVnt sup.) — 3. It dieanlves in cohl oil k</' vitfioi^ fntuiinf- a 
yellow Si^brtion precijiilnble by water : in hot oil of ^-itrid, witb deconi- 

pnfaili ihu fii-Iliiiiou NO longer yielding- a |jrm|ji(ute with water, — 

i. Wi;!it<triiii^ft>>nV(j.'/t/ it forTiiw nyelhiw ^^nlutinn^ wlui-h \a d(K^ofr|i*ised 
on Ikeating, with evolntinn of nilroiia j:;(aa, — 5. In alkaline sobition, it 
IB cLrtiverted by A^'^fo?jf'//y/'i/r/c itcid^ limt into rubiadn, a^d then into 
nibitt&i' — C. Not altered by boiling witb chromnfc of potash and 
KulpbuHc acid. 

CttmbiwuionA. Riibiaf^ir Fuad di>4HolveB slightly in boiling wnt^y 

tolouriuff i^ ydluw. 

Jl cJiKnolvfBiaa<^ucotifl_/emccA/wVtt?, and ia precipitated therefrom ia 
flocks by acidSi 

Witii Irascfl it fcinnfl the rulutfiUm = C^ifTfO", accordinj^ to 

n 2 


tttt M'i*li\i^\\ to Tim GLL'COSIDES OF HADDER. 

N^u.-.l \. .-.-*.-> .'^ v-i': ' T'T^i^^fm:? -^vithMtride of bariam 

-- *s ** . ; . r. I'-'V ■" ■■-\v..N- oraiigc-col(>uri>d 

- '" ■ *' ^"-.J:"!*""'- ■■'■'''^ ■■/ ''W, rod; with 

. ' ^ '^'^ ' ^ "ii ' — V r-'-nU it furms a 

■ -' :.. '[■'■'■(j^ /'■■' 'I'iiV- iliriy yellow; 

~ - ~- ^ '- -^ li-j Ti^ "I 'j«nc fh/ifriilt 

■ •■^- -- '- J -T^ii :Ii-, ajs [^M 0illT 
■ ■'-*»*- "'^ V^i 1 il<>.h':»l it forma 


* • ^' 


■■ r:i^,salr with 

i;^ "i 1 rwij'iiari'. 

^ 1 

■^ .' -^ ■* 

\.i H"::i »vjt,>r. The 

■ ^' : ^:::^-iv:i:ly, with ak^noL 

' » ' '. ' .h ' ^ *'." --^-li f^ii^^'fi also rnio the 

' ., ' -^ "".J *:-'- V .4v ";■' r"'::;ipj<'il vith(*r iu: a 

■' ^ :*•■:■•< :-. .-[iiivJi'nt pn-iiMrtwus. 

. -^ . «i ■. M '* ■■/--. avj:."! KtwotMi twowalrh- 

, ^ ^ ... , .... V \ ^r' -"v ■*^. pnibaMy cousti^t- 

^■.. • ■■ >* *' I -'' '*-'^* * i^TJiiTibr salt harijL^'- lev 

i^^ ,,j ■> .1*1 V'-t _v:c^.-Ll-:^- wirh ihiuenu* lUtRit** irf 

V ii^.*j.'-'- '*'--^-. • ■*'^- "'^ alcereil by tight or by the 



Aeiiy prteipUatedJ^m tJte Pottuh-Kiti- ScliUnck. 

64 C ,.™«.^».«».. - 384 61-98 Bl'iy 

au H ao „. . *Ea a-ne 

27 O _ Zie 3*8B .,. a&'SiU 

C*H'OJJ,C^H"0" ,.,. 6B0 



WlF#r-Mtfj pr«yf;/af«I_/V<«B t&t Ptifiuh-wiUi. Solmnck. 

G4 O 384 *60l 40 03 

18 a „, 18 ..-,., filfl «„„ 3-20 

B5 O „- BOO 2i\i0 „ a4"37 

2AgO _... ....... 83S 27-81 a7'35 

L**Ri'Ag=0^,. ,... 831 ., IWOO 100-UO 

4. Rnbladiii. 


Ell. ScBtSCE C185S)» K Phil Mag, 5, 410 ami 4D5i y, pr, CAffir*. 59, 
453.— JV.PAj'/. Jfoi/. 12, aou and 270; J. pr. Cht/n. 7U, 154. 

Forpiothn. 1. IiL the decomposition of mbian Lj fixed alkalis 
(p. 36); fiOEaeliicies al^ iu llitr litcoinpfreitiuEt uf rubiaii by Licarboiiate 
of baryta (p. 3!J), — 2. In tin? Jti'ompoBilioii uf rubihjilraii or nihide- 
hvdran by dilute hydro<?hli5rio or Bulphunc »oid (pp. 44, 45), sugar bciu^ 
4kiwppye ff-rmed at tiio e^rnf tJDfe, 

PrfptTratfotiM 1, From the raotber-liquor obtained in the decompo- 
BitJou of rubiau hy jJkuIia (\\v, 134) after H^pariitiuu irf tlie cntopiiiuud 
of nli/ariti mid [iliimina. TliiB muther-liquor, mixed witli dilute sul- 
phuric acid and a large qcnutity of wat<ir, do|)neite yellow flooks con- 
tdjuiig nibiretin, ver&Dtii:, &ud mtuadin, whili; Biigar romaitie in 

Tkfree flocks are oullected, daubed, aud diHfluWed in buLllDg- alcobol, 
ftod tbe Htibilkm is mixGd wiih acotflte of l<?ad, whiL'li Ibrowe down 
rubirctin aod Teraulin an a btowmsh-piirple prooipila-te (sm fi^iirrtrnf, 
whil<T rtibiadin reraiuna in solution, atiU mixed however wJlL a aimill 
quantity nf nihireliai Bjf preclpitotuig the fiolution with a iar^^e 
quimlily *>f waler, dissolving- f bo ydluw flocks thereby obtained hi the 
eiact qiumlity of Ihoiling alcohnl n?quin?d, and dig-estiiig with liydrate 
of It-ad (or etonnoua hydrate), the rubiretin is rumo^'ed, and the btit- 
filKTinl f^ijlulLon deposits rubiadin on cooling; an additional quantity 
of that enbfllaucc, but in an impure elute, \& obtained by evapurdtiuii^ 
tJ]« mothei' liquor. Thiti latter (^iiTKhLct may be jiiiriiied by hublimation. 
— 2. An aqueouK snlution of rubihydran (p. 44) is boiled with hydro- 
' tnc Of fluljiburiL' add till it bf>coniea cTilrnu-leBe, and no longer de- 
_ ilfl yell^iw d<x'ks or a brown reein, Tbeae Ujcks are a mixture of 
nibitt:tm, venuitin, and rubiadin, witlj a email quantity cf aliaariui 
iLi^ a)i?^irin may be Ht^inmitETd by aoetaie of aluntiiia, and then the 
mbijKlin in Ihp psimi' niiiiiriMi" as from the mixtnrn nf those IxTdiea ob- 
taiticd by the first motliod. 


iVvpflftfL &nUen-vflw^ MaalHM wefgqinr Ub(M, yell 
bemUlMd k yca^ or 





33 C 
U H 
• O 


«f 100" 
CMt «. 71'tl 

cps^cp^tm ^ 


n»D .. locHXi ^ irxrao 

1. nt^fd ott ph^^fr^Dfl, it iDcJte And 
viih AuaoL,— 1. fi iftiin^iii niM J>firfhnMwilhiVirj>jrlTmf 
Bikd i» prMUtfttod mcbi^vd bj wmo; ift hoi oil of vitriol H 
BolvM with «uk bf»w^irt yilnw eoA»v, elaMliMff a eaiMI qum&i 

~S. &hwi off 1^ fun «hi« WM vilb «bit iir^— 4. Wli 
■ttalii H bdwiTOi IbmbniML — &. !llftbati%hll^ alMrvil hj/irne 

but <&mi.^Wm vitk UiM^^vil oalav «t lln bobir 
nwcthl tftJnikin sHtv* off ■fT*'**T* b CDMod with iht ijr» AJid rltrpri 
nibtaiUam Xhfh^m <^ ytAofr ^tm. Wilk dUvifr ^ AnWivin ii islM 
dn.^'l4iri**^1 ud thru focMft «kvt b«9«rwlM««l M«41m : willi cfJi^ndt 0f 
"**■*"—'' '-'^' nh^M-rnl | ir rf i | ii uii i AaalooheicanluiKTi or niModiD 

«lBriu<r*«cijiMU«d KtfvM utd IWk a dvk Intwn-nd prociiiiBit'. It b 
innliihW in wmomj^^^c dUvnA 

5. SuhutgiiL 

(MWPor CS^C^. 

k. aomoL J, ft, c%M. 5t, *n. 

wd lYi, 37). 

o« rnbun, io|;MWrr wUi «n«j oU«r prmocte (xtr, 134 




•Cxi tuUhIi^ witk iortolo of lotd. b nuwd inik ft 



quautilj of water, a fouitly orange -cubured pr^clpilate Je formed, 
consisting of the lead -com (Muiruls of mbtagnu and rubindipiu; Ttiia 
|irecipiUte is t<> bo uolletlud and decompoBcd by Iwiling dilute eulphu- 
ric odd. The undifibolvcd porlioTi wawhtd with water* tin^u boii<^d 
with alcohol^ yieltld to the latter niUag^Iu ^ud mbij^ili|:ii[i, botli of wliich 
reruLUD, ufter evujjor<ilmu uf the £ili:uli<>l, ii" a Sftfr^ diirk-browii fatty 
masB, and may be separated by ould alcohol, which disBolves obiefly 
the mbiudipin ; the uuditeolvcd rubiagla may bo purified by recry- 
fltallii^tiaa from hot oloobol. 

Fropertia . Small lemon-ycUaw, ^phcricaJ grajiulesi or eoiaU con- 
eenlrioally gronped DeedJea. 

32 C 19a 

14 H U 

10 o ., , so 


4-1 C 
17 B 

.., 264 
.- 17 
^ 104 


. SS'IO 


c*ir*o^.,.. ssG 


o«H'^oB ... ass 



Bc)iUDi.'k ift undecided bctircen llip prcceduif funuulc, eidiiT of wlucU Lc r^ardd 
mt fnpaM-: ore^pEaiiiiTie ihi^ prDdiicliuii of rabiugiii from fubiiLa i oitKnr C^ll^O** + 
*liU - L^Jl^O" 4 aC'-M'^>^ or C^tt^^U-"* = L^Jl-JO" + C^B^^^ ■* BHO. 

Dtcomjionitiona, 1. Docs not aubUme without decomposition but 
wben bf^ated iu a tehUtulH! it yields a tili^bt cryi^t^llinf! dejut^it and 
dropa of oiL— 2. W"h4'n ht*alrd on platiimm-fnil it njeltn and bnrna 
with flame, leaving a diflieuUly cmHbustible coal. — 3. In ctiM ot/ of 
titrtol it diBsolvoe with dark rod-brown coloor, in hot oil of vitriol 
with black colour, climbiatiog- a large qiiitulity of sulphurous acid,-^ 
4. Dissolves hi boiUii^ uitric acid wilii evohttiou of nitruuB gae, fonn- 
\iig a yellow Ii([iiid which jicldii ahiniog crynlals as It cools. 

CoiiAinationa. Iiieolublc iti boiling wiU^-. In aminonia it dieBulvca 
With blood-i'ed colour, but elowly, and ooly at the boiling heal; ou 
CTarioratiug Uie IJiinld, ihe whole iif the nmiEtonia Ih l'Ivmu off, and 
mbiagio rommijs in yi/lhkw crytttalH. It dissolves easily in soAi'te^, 
and ia pret^ipitatod Ln yellow tirx'kE by acida ; in bai-Tftu mid tift-tr^ter 
with bfoi»d'red cobjur, precipjtnhlo by carboniL" acitl. pTom the ammrj- 
niacul eulution il iii but eii^'mly precipitated by Jdorvk of batixtm and 
tAJoiuIe (rftralcitim. 

Ltati-compptini! of Jiabiaffm. An alcoholic BoUition of rubiagiD gives 
no jiTtcijiitate at tirst with ucutral acetate of kad, but turui* yelli>w, 
«id tht'ii thjnwa dowu oraiigi'-ciflouR-d graine, whieb liissolve 
»paii»gly in boiling abohol, oasily io ao alcobohc solulion of neotml 
Acvtate of lead. Tliis property dititinguiBhes rubiagiFi from rubmcin, 
mbiadin and rubiafia. 

w c 

U H- -. 

W <t - , 

- isra , 

. 14 , 

.. SOitl 

., 1209 

44 C 

17 H 


4 PbO 

. 17 . 
, 10-1 . 

. 31-73 
.. 13-53 

,- Da7y 


. . 31'Kft 

.... asijo 


, fisa , 

,. loooo 



,. ino-tjo 

.... 100-00 

Kubhi^ii boileil with firric dihrith iiA^umen ^ daikrr f^ilonr, but 
but deep pur|'le-ln"ow:i lik^i rubiaiio and rubiaciiA. Tho hot-iJlLca-d 



E^hiF-ioii deposits^ on cooling, yeTlow lamlnie, probably o^ ml 
aiiri ii* llifln no lc>DE"<^r procipiutod by hydrochloric ftcid. No rnbii 
flcid is fj>rrtiod in thk rcattion. 

An alcoliulic si>luti*Jii of rubiagiu niiied tvitb atpric of^^itftf 
Oi*emN«* u browmsb-yelliiw culoiir, and ibt'n yields uri oiiuigiJ-tt'l 

Kubiagiu diBsolvee in bulling alcohol more 04i«il7 than mliiiiun or 
rubiadiii; in boiLiig' acctk acid jt dift&olvea with yellow eiiUmr. ikuJ 
Cl^staUiaGB oa c^^olin^. (Dom noLcrjitaHiseP Zaltokr. CL Fkarm. S, 

6. Bubi&nin. 

Ei>. ScmiscK 0861 ). iV, PfiiL Mag. J, 3, 213 fti.d 351 -, Ant*. 
81. 151 ; CAein. Soc. Qu.. J, 12, 213. 

Foimalion. By bulling ntbiaLi with acid^ (p. 36)< 

Pfgparatum^ (xiv, 13-1.) 

Proffriifs. L'-mnn-yellow needii-a, having & silky liisti^, ligbl^ 
ID colour than rubi^iu. 

oT lOU' (•»«■), 

33 C IM SflOO 07*9 

111 H 19 5 71 6-« 

IB O 130 SS'Se 8*^99 

C^'K)"* .,..„..„., aai lOCMW ,. lOCKO 

.* ■ 1 -4 App(>ftrB tfl Lfl^ff^ thii fbrmiila lo tliow which whJoh wnv 

(cJp, 6TU p--'- CV, 176 II-, W 10 OJ - JbiuSii + 4-mi, (TWitf ^ W%Y 
Rhuiidk AAanrnnlM ^t« thf' fonguU C'H^^O*, whii'h h<«wurvf doH not ■fiwaomll 
witlj bit uulytit (isle- AS'03 p-«- C^ S'33 H). 

Healed nrt nlali mini -foil it mellA to n brcwn liqidtlt chiini &nd 
bomH. — Healed in a l^'fil-tiibc, it yiolde a smaller qnimliJy nf crywUd- 
Ijiw HTibliinOilc tbun nibjacin, &nd leaver a larpc (|uAijlJly of chiLTCoa]' 
— Ditwflveti wilh yoUow colr'nit in coU ijpV of infrtui, and la corboaisM 
liy but oil of vitriot wilb t\*dnliuii of eulphurous add, — CA/ffria*0"»- 
vcrlH il hilo in'rehlnninibwi \} ^Hel^r C*. f-Sflrt-. 3. llll). 

M(nt' BOliiLk* ill Lwiihi^jj icater than rubiat^n^ Diaaolvea wfthoal 
dtiCMnfiiwltoTL in ru'iric (JcitU vxvn wboo hot and c<moentnitod. In* 
tolnblv in the cold in nmtaimui^ firiftni'ite of ftotath^ aiid for^fmalv cff<td^^ 
but JlMoly« «l the builin^' bear, fi>rinin^ a blood-red a<>1iilit<ru ^^*^>^H 
It oryHtaltifuta nfu*(- Hturulirt^ fnr notik- lime, — Th^ Bmrnituiiicjfcl lUiUilllBI 
fonriH roil firwinitnit« wilb chUtndt of ttanum and chhridt rf nnWmfc 
The »lcob<h(ic Hiilutiiih d*>rs n**! prpcimtnlri ft™?™/ acftat* cf irorf, Rn- 
bJAQin Hiseiilvcft wiUi dnrk-bmwn mfoiir in a etroiiif aolntioo o# fift^ 
chloride, wiUimil fnrniin;^ lubiin-io imid. 

Dypfl mirnUiiU'd fubrifB btil fainily. 



7. Eubiretin. 

Ed. Sobttkcs. Sue Memoirs cited under itubian (p, 32). 


OceiiiTeiKe. Id medder r-sot (Si.'liuni?k). Produced fas well ii4 
verautin), occordinff to Hl^gin, wbttn tLc root i& boiled with wuUt, 
— mxtirtiing- to Wum and btrecker, porhape from purpurin (liH, 325) 
b/ tho aclioii of nlkaliH. 

fttrpuition. Togel.hpr witL tnaiiy otht-r products, whpii mlitHn, 
nibihyrlraji, or rubidcJiydriiii, i& boiled witb add* or with alkalis ; by 
the action of errtbroKj-m tj», 37), air and warmth (p> 36J on rubiau, 
ind by boilir^g^ chlort:jrijbiaii with ixlk&lia (p. 47)* 

Pr^aratiotk^ Babireliu m obtained ae & byc-produtt in tbe prepa- 

mtiun 1 'if rubiuii ([i. 33)^ In llie pi^-pumtiMii I (iiv, 133) and 
3 (liv, 135) of aliiarin, ftTid in the prcparotlon i of nibiiidii (xvi, 48 j 
liv, 136); in Xh& lii^t i^n^- aw a l<?ad-coTn pound. 

Tbe inisture of llic Icad-ciimpouDds of rubirctin and verontjn ob- 
lAtucd by ibc laet-nienlH:>ntd prt^cesa, yitlda, when decomposed by 
boding hy<lr<K:hliiriii Jkcid, a brown piwder, fmni whldi the nibiretin 
may be dih^nolved out by cold olcobnl, the greater part of tbe verantin 
romammg ^Hjbtnd. The alcoholic solution, wLon evafioratiKlT leiLVea 
tbe njbirctui, wliith. if it doea not melt in boiling ivcter, Jniiet bo puri- 
fied by rc-?"kTntirin lu coM alcohol nnd evaporation cif the filtrate. A 
similar intiilp cif punfying may be apfiliei! lo nibireliti cblaijjed ae a 
secondary i^rcdnct under oiber civeuiotfianecs. 

Propfftia, Dark ryddi^h brown rosin, brittle and friable in tbu 
cold, Boft at 65°. Mdte, at about 100°, tc dark brown drops. 

I* 84 

n .™ s 

4 83 


mSB ... 6»41 

4-91 .... B'fiS 

26'£4 .... 26^37 

C^E-OV.. 133 

vilh li«nu>tc «cid. 

.,„ 10000 .... lOODO 

Dec^mptaitioM, 1. Heated iji a ti?j*t-inbo, it generally yieIJa a 
scanty sublimate of aliziLnn, to^^tber vnib a brown oil. — 2. It \» 
decounxift-d by bot «il tif n'trioL^^. Boiling mlric ncid converts it 
into » jelhiw unbt^raiiej", vibk:h uc hui^r soflcns in iKjiling walcr, and 
ia •ea«*ly Hohible In aleolml. — 4. Chlorine liohbvil intu the alcoholic 
eolation t,i nd>iretin, decoloriaee it, and renders it no lon^^Tjr preciiw- 

Ublo by ocide. 



CMBtrtrt*i™, Kubirctin tliaaolvea Bpftriugly i& boilm^ teater^ 
• rftPftf Uiervin, and on coolinj^ dciiosita 3'tllow BocV^i ^'Tiii'li iuctr 
m theaddirioD of ^n a<:L(U It ili^solroH with dark oruitgc mlour 
aS o^ vitrioL aud \a pnrripiUl<^d Uy wuttr. It di>Wi>lvcr* in nmm^nu^ 
^kccmttbc Jired tiikali^ \\ni\t\\Av ctn-hotmteji,U*T\m\\^hro\^^^ sululio 

hoa wliidj ir is predpitulcd by Jiddw. The amiuDJiirtcal 6(*liitiuii f<j 
p#q^ pTL-cipitatus willi ':hhflsde of hufixtm and cMviit/c of citltmtit, 
red with «^rmt and iiifmft vf sAver. It ditwiilvea in zututiimu ^/^rri 
fhkfnd^^ viiih dArk n il-l>ri>WTL colour, sLm) Ih |jivriptnii>d by adds. 

tlawily Hojulih- in ijold aicofiol. When freo from aliittrio, it doc^ 
(^t^ moid&ntcd fabiica. 

8. Verantin. 
Ei7. ScHiiNCK. ^cc Mt^iunirfl cited under Kubiui (ji. ^2). 

OcCMtT€nc0, Iti irjiddL*r-rr)oU 

Ihnruitwh. Pmdncod, together with miutj otb^r prudurt^, whpn 
nibiftTi, rnbihvdrnu nr iiibidi?bydran iii boiled wjtli acida or alkijJin ; 
ti»-r iM.tiuii tif iijtliir>K3'Ui on mbiou (p, 57J ; aud hy Wihng chix 
ruLriuii uilU ^di^olia {]». 47). 

I'tytMrnUim. Thf fir&l mode of prejjaniig ulisarin from ru 
{liv, r^3), and ihf tirst imidt.- of pn.-pahug' rabiadin {p. 63). 
pim? vnriLiithi tirK u ni^cundmy product. 

Irj ihv irni iiukIo (tf [iR'imriritf nibian, v<-rantiu It ifblftined \mn\j 
pnn* (xiv, 1;J4), partly ill pombmnlion witb feme oxid*'. This i^t 
fniuud iH tn-*d fr<^ni iron by hydrochloric add, then wn*ln'd anJ d 
oolvrd in biiilin^f Jili'dinl, which, ^m dxjhn^i dc^pO(ilt« vcruitiu ia 
funn oF a brnivu |»rwdrr. 

hy thii ihirri rarHuhl of iirr-pnHTif: Li1i7»riTk trtmx ruLiiJui (kiv, 13.1 
lakdH ai'<M)li|iiini«d. <sintf3oAt>J of alizitrin and vorftniin hi o^ntbinalJi 
with fttaunrniB n\iih", ilv ^•n-aici- |>art *>f which osidc may U' rr-iuov* 
by hydri-chl'H-ic acid. Tlu' dmk ivibhmwn ivwdut* ie wonh^d wii 
Uyibmlilnrji.' uriil, Ihi-n \vit|j ^VJlt^;^ ivnd dm.whvd iii builia^ alirjboL" 
whirh iJkki'M lip all hill itu- iindi.'ronijHittrd nirri|Hrijrid of %'itrujitin ;ui4.j 
ulaiimnm "Huh' ; the HoLiilion i|i.*|i.*hit* vtraiilm oil awiliiiif. and wtii 
further i'vuijoiiilciii, li-aiiH a niixtm^' of vuiwitia tiad alijtariii, 

Dffbiu Idmi^ ^harm. flO, *it) fipui.d ihM irLi.'u llic ivlountu nulli^ri of mftddEik- 
pna^laM hj liuviiuil* i» iliu |tn-|HiiKliDb uf purpunu, *iid ariitrMvil fMi tb« 
■4ii44kidf, V-rrt iliAalvnt 111 lOv^r. n IiU'HII rrvm rvtuiiwd, whu'lt, "hrn dikajtid 

ar^'1 ]>.i<. <wlwii, fi'W hj<rnu^n iikif A~tfl «IIV^ 
pIni^.i^Oi^ funiiubi L»ll"<.»* L«ic. liatiO i» *^- C!. A'DftlL uid M-BifM. 


to- Uvddiah browu afnor^i)ioiiti |Hiwdor, n*fif*tnbllnff ftuuff ■■( 



routed coffee. In boiling water it ecarceiy melta, but becomea soft 
and Doherent, The alcoholic solution reddene litmus. 


14 0» 
5 H„ 
5 O.. 

.» 64 6S-11 „. 65-73 

... 5 3-87 413 

... 40 81-Oa 80-14 

C"HK)" 129 10000 10000 

Acrordin; to Gkrhoidt, it a perhapa C^q'^OI' (calc. 6557 C, S-S2 S., 30-61 O.) 
— 2 ftt. aluariu + 2 mt. nq. {Trfuit, 3, 423.) 

Decorr^osiUtma. 1. Heated in a teat tube, it jielda au oily distillate 
without any trace of cryatala. — 2- On platinum -foil it buma without 
residue, — 3. Cold oil of viiriot disBoIvea it with brown colour ; by Lot 
oil of vitriol it is carbooised, with evolution of BulpburouB acid. — 4. It 
b insoluble in dilute nitric acid^ but the strong- acid diasolveH it on 
boiling, with yellow colour, and evolution of nitrous gas. — It^ ^ka- 
Ime solution is decolorised by chiortne. 

CoTT^tJtaiKtns, It is nearly insoluble in boiling- ^cate^. It dissolves 
in amnumia, and remains, on evaporation, as a brown Sim, free from 
ammonia; in the fistd atkatis and their carbonateg, it diesolves with 
dingy red colonr, and is precipitated in brown flocks by acids. 

BaHum-coittp&und. Obtained by precipitating the ammoniacai solu- 
tion of verantin with chloride of bariom. 

4£ ..- ^ 262 

18 H -.. 13 

18 O 104 

2 BaO. ■ ., 163 

2(C»H*0',BaO) + C'H'O* ....... 522 .... 10000 .... lOOOO 

The alcobohc solution of verantin fonns a dark brown precipitate 
-with neutral acetate of had. 

Ciqrric C<m^tound. Alcoholic verantin predptateB cupric acetate. 
The i^ecipitate varies in composition^ even when obtained by the same 
mode of preparation. 



.... 48-57 


.... 8' IS 


.... 18-59 


-,.. B9-69 



14 C 84 

4 82 

CuO 40 

.„. B2'6 

.... 20-0 
.... 25-0 

.... 52E4 
.... 8-10 
.... 19-19 

-,„ 26-47 

0»H^O«CuO 160 

.... lOO'O 

.... lOOHX) 

56 836 

17 a 17 

17 O 1S6 

.... 56-17 
.... 2-79 
.... 32-34 

.., ie-70 

».. 55'54 
.... 841 
.... 21-63 
.... 10-&£ 

..„ 100-00 

.... 100-00 



f pCMM rf , — Pnr^nbeB (p. W. Tbe CODDlM>1tod obt«ii>o<3 a» 
ah/yea is diavoked m cartwoate of aooa, filtered from a small ou&ali 
of imc-oxkfe, aad prtcipitBted bj a& acid. Dark brown flocks^ fooni 
wbcn diy a Maing, black, coherent luaaa. It caoDot be reaoltGd i 
ita oonstitDenla, inasmudi aa il ^ssolrea in acBraonia auil in tbe 
ilkafia tad their caitonat^o^ and ia rredpatated andecompoavid 
adds, and its eolation in <»asHc Goda. anvr hydroevlphnrio add g«fi 
been paaaed thrDii£:h it, jieldd ydxh adds & precipitate from wbicb 
bw&a^ alcxAtol doea not extract anjrdmi^ soluble. 

CaXmaafiom *«ffr W .iiy te ScLwiek. 

S6 C 

» H 

a« o 

T 8bO. 

of lOCr ] MM 

»76 38-96 

j-18 aai 

»-&3 ^^_ S5-3S 
UM . 41-» 

4C"H*O*,7Sb0 + 18Aq. 


-, 10C>M» 

Verantin diaeolree rcndilj ui boiim^ alf>i/Aolt and Bdparatc4 in 
fxilvernlcDt form on codIui^. It does not impart anj txilour to 

dikuted f'abhct^. 

Witk Alizarin t — JlUsanii and Teraotin, thou^ each by it6oV ia 
perfectly luAoloble in a boiling: aolotiou oif almxi, uevcrtbelcstt dissid 
m it when preeeut tofeiher> ft^nuing' a cartume'red lk]uid of tbir coTd 
tit puqiEinn. ^^inre^ aJso, ara»rdm^ to DcbusY the oimuwidno of mr^ 
jiLiriD agTc«H vilh that of & mixture of 1 nU alizarin (Cll'O*, acotCiraijig 
to SdiQtick), and 3 at. vorautin, — or, according; to another prcp«ra 
with that of 3 at* alkaiiD and I at. vcmctin, S<:huiK'k inrtae 
regarded purpuriu aa a mixture of alizarin and leraniiti iu var^ 
imrportinns, and as deakmpoflibl^ mio the two (xiiit 3^5) ; more rec^Al^ 
howoT^r {Chfm, .S'-r. Qn, /. xii, 217), be admits tho itidop«Ad»t 
cxiet^^uce of purputiu. 

9- Rubiadipin. 
Elf. ScmJBCK. J. pr. CA/ni. 39» 474. 

FbrmtaiM. Uy the ferm«nUtioD of raljian (p. 37). 
I\tpantSon (p, ft.l). 

lyoptrti^, ^^^'miJ^^id. yfU..mfih brown faL D.^-k mit hiKoom« fawd 

Molta in hiding wakf 

and friabU', o\ra whcti lii-aU^d tor » W^ tinip. 
to oil iropK, wbidi rise Lo tlic Btufacii?. 

rkrrtmpomiLfiu 1, WlM-ti ln-nted on phUnum-f^il. if Iniroa with • 
Ijnjrlit flftid^, k-iiviriK' chmu.d. — 2. lUnUd in a lt»l-mU-, iL|n%t«off 
atndfiimpabkrJai, — s. It ih oarbouiiKrd by otf (>/nfrW^— 4. SciiwJy 
all^-finj hy ioiljbff nitric aad. 



Comhiaatvin*^ InnoluMc in icottr. It dlasolvcB in alJcalifl wilh blood- 
red culour, fonntiig u liijuid, wludi frrrlha like 8aAp-tit»liiti<>n. htt 
animnniiifal Buliition fnmirt a slight prepr[>it,at(? with efiloridtt of b'iriiirA. 
Tbo alcoholic eolaiioD does not prL'cLptiLte aipric acetate, 

Lt^id-coinponinl — Alcoholic nibiadiplu fonos witli neutral acetate 
i»F IpaH, a |>ftle retldmh browjj pri'dpitate, insohiLle m iHiiliii^ al*^olio|, 
easily B<:>[ubl<' in aU.'oIiCiIic ncitTral acetate of lead, formiu^ a brown-red 
eolulioii from which it \& precipitated by wator. 

30 C 

3* a 

„ 180 .. 

^^ 24 .». 

.... BO SO 
... 6-74 

.,., 1120 
^ 31-^ 

.., fiO'Sa 


R.0 -- - 

.->->,., *o ... 

-, 112 .... 


.,,., 31-36 

C^H^O'JbO .,„ 3fiO ^ , 100-00 10000 

10. Oxyrubian. 

Ed. Scbuxck. J. pr. Gtoi. 70, 175. 

Fbrmttivm tmd Prepamthn fp. 47)» The Jtti"k» brown-red fiocka 
|ff6par«d OP boiling oMi>ro-nibinii wltli i:^tii9tju t^ridai are coEoar^d 
TcDiJwiah brown by boiling bydroehloric acid, may be watched with 
loiling aIcoIioL and if then dried» yield oxyrubiati iw rt yellowisb brown 
l>owde[, which, "f free from chlorine, yicldfl, when heated in a test- 
Tiibc', ayctllow cryi^lalline M\ibluii[bUs easily Hnluble m ulkdlit*. not aUercd 
by by (Iroaalphati- of ammnnia, but turned red-brown by alkalis, 

Caicvlation accordrag to Gchuock, 9uhaqck< 

*t C .-, - ao-i 70-Ba 70-71 

14 H 14 .-.., 3-74 3M 

12 O ^. g6 B6-ea 86-97 

O^H**0" ... 874 .-. 100«) 10000 

8ftlraiioki*«d*ridcdb«twiioiithLifHjmulaju*tjnr4>n ttn[lt«ir"'0* or C«H"0',ind 
^jaHdiiurlj u b? th* uuuitifr in 7hich Oi^ fbrmoiioD nf Qiyrubian take* pluie. vix., 
C«CJHVO» + NaO - C"fl>'0'< * ffaOl + IBHO, or = C'lT't)' + CTF^O" + 
K^n + &EO. 

11- PercMororubian, 

Ei>. ScncNCK, J,pr. C^*7ft, 70, 178; X. Phil. Mag. J. 12, 200, and 

FffnMj*//iWi and Preparation. Wbcii fmely pulveriaed chlnmnibian ia 
covered wilh water, and trj?tited wilh eKlnfinc^ till fbc apace abnvf^ the 



liil>iifl hprnrnf« dllod wilb i1l« g^^t. the dilonne ia gra^luaUy ^wnrtied;^ 
m<^rc i|Eiic!kly on tt^tatioik, uid the chlori>rutwan ie t-onvorted ml 
whil"^ jh>w<irr, wbvb mOBt bo wasbed with water atid ivcrvftl 
friim WiliiL;: uk-Nhol^ if it«cc««aiy with help of animal cli»rc<«i' 
Pcri^liliirKiiibhiiE lb likewise cibtuued. though in a less jmre Bt«| 
thiT orintitiiioit BCtioD of chlorine on mbiati. 

Pntpfrlifs, C*il<*iirleBS- tmnsiaivut, four-&ided taWes» yx'ith 
indeac^nco- WIteii cAUtiuuAlj heau?d, it cabUirtMt cum{» 

tWiiwIdho* ^mrdmff t9 Sehnni^. 


44 O ^. 

9 a 

16 O -„.. 


_ .^ 4*-77 


C^Cl'H'O* „ 



Dtt^mfta ili mt^ U ^\'hf*n intnvfiu?<>d mto a red-hm itjlw, U Ub- 
Tiftt<*B, ftIM ffivwf^fTm'jd vj*|»mrs. with Ultl'> -tr li'ieryKtalliui- i^uUiiuta^ 
' — 2' Whoii hf*utoi1 nu |Jifclimim-fi'il, it nn-Il** frt a bn^wu nkMRi toJ 
huniH with a ftnn>k_v. ■riirrj-t^I^i^nl dame, Ifovinf but liMT*> rhar<ytt1- 
tl, iKfiecnlvrs I'lHilv In InmIIu^ Mydram^tkoim/oniuonid. nnd iho »f»hi 
nftcr wujioniaturatic'n; with nitric ftod, is |itxvii>iUU*d hy ailvcr-aftlU. 

rniwftmftfHiwr. Titsnliihlr in v>if«r, Dissolrea fn vann mf q/* 
luul lit thr h^iiliiL^ hiul o«>lonTH tliat U^nid bliick, &rul cac 
vft|p>iin> which oof»^h'*iflc in the? i-TVAtalliuti form- lubulublr- in ^ 

rutrm- tjt^ifi i)f »^". *Tr. iar< hut dJM'tlvi* m ih* Uun«: add * J «p. fT. 
l-rt2 nml iM (m'l'LplUilt'^l ULa'hAiiE><d hy w»lcr. TW»i nm difiBolvt in 
Brtm/mM nrin H:r»ihff MiJIn^ flmla-h'y. Tin* alcciholR' Sn^liltlOQ Is ftfil 

SdlldJn ilk aIi%^^0l aud ill H^, 

12. ChlorombiadiiL 

Fhnmnihn *rtiti Pt^tralim (p. 47)- rUtimmtiM Is diamlv«d in 
dlliili* hydnHitoHi- i>r niihilmrir jk^iI at llti- titling luMt, 4nd bolbd UU 
thi' ■biltiiinii. ul]K<U in lit nrHi i-k^r mid vt^llow, bMouM mOkj mad 4«^ 
tHH,.)iH vvilmv tliuk*, uhh'h may bo wuinod with w&tcriLud crj ~ "* 

Pf-trpfrtirt. Itnrnd «lih»tiK yrIK:iW PC€dIc4 or tuulDa}. Thr^ 
■uliiUun rodtlriin liLuuni, 


at 100". 

MC,„, loa-D ei-s5 Gose to eiar 

(3- »E'& , -. ii-a*; IISI tj 10-Dft 

IS H w is-o S'S5 ^-aa „ laa 

P O TH'O S3"14 84-0(1 „ S3'13 

c*iPK^io» airs loooo loooo loooo 

DeeempMiHGite. 1. Heateil in a teet-tubo, it molle, gives off pungent 
Tiipoura smeUiii^ lite hydvoclikmc ooid, aad yiclde, GreL nil, tlien a 
trj'rttaUirio publiinatc. — S, On platinum -ft*il it buiLs with a jellu'iT, 
gii-pii-E^tl^il flaunt:, ami leavpft a large qiiaiifUy nf diiin^Mil. — fl. The 
orange-r<*d sohitioii of dilorombiaiilii iu oil o/vrtii'oi becocifs piirple-i-pd 
on Ixiiliu^^, mitl "ivce otf ik eniull quftntilj rif Rulphiii-oua aoid, t<>geth«'r 
witb tt crvetulliiic mibliuiali', wijidi cnata llio *iil('*i of tlic vctiwl. — 
4. Wiien chlororubladiu susptii^odin wattria U'cati'd with dthirine ^ir^ 
it Acquires aW^htvv t^AouTj am\ \tt *:c\\\vi-r\Li\ Jntir u jrcctiliAE' Hiib^taiitn 
whk'b whL'r* Jissoh'ed in aloi>liol, reTiiaiiis, aitK-r the spiiritaneoTifl <?va|Xi- 
mti^jj] i>F tliL^ lii^ui^lr as a trarie parcel it dark yellow Hoft mase (bard, hHqt 
trAprn^tifm over tlit wator-Vialh). Tliin niMa lontains -WSSv- c. 0., 312 K, 
u»d30't2CL4rDi:llax-licii hnvti:diD4hI^-,-'T-tubc. nnil^t-ceoS'acLLd Tapoiitrr, to^tlicmith 
AD oil? diHi.illrtCfi icliifL jLTlrr^Tsnilfl enlidiJlPti nortinJlT in 1)ic CTyBtallino rami. It dix- 
■oWh m c«iuliD iDctiv iw ^voll d» m oil af rilnrjl, ia th^ lertvp with broan ootcur, and 
withoTJl flTaluEinn of mliihuntiia ai^d, tyi'n ai tli^ lv>iJiiig lii^i. li id mil piv.'i pita ted 
from iw fcquftoaB *nlmini hj iiitmio of taivor. — 5, Chlnronibiailin fnnnn with 
uitric acidftf ajj. ^r, I'iyI (wmIiop ociil does mt attacV ii) ttii oratige-colciured 
«olutio[i, wbicn i^ves off rod vapours at tlie boiling licat, and i& aftor- 
warde prcdpitated by ixitrate oF Hlvcr ; bt'forc bailing, il is not 
pmciritali-d by tli:Ll ri-ajretit. — Ji. DJNHiilves in i^aiiMtii- finltu with 
pruTfJe ctdcjiu» atnJ after bi^li[ip^ for ti*^inG tiino, dyj.»ORitfl rofldisb-bvown 
flocks, wliioh becom** nran;:r^-c;>loureii in boiling UydrooPiIorie ac'id, are 
ice<ilMblo ia boilinff ak'ohol oftor waahin^ and drying, atid have tlie 
ftpinefirnncc nf oxynibiaUi but con^iat of C5'12 p, c. C.< S'^G H-i 
*'flr» CL, and 22'3(^ 0. — 7. With aq^uciinn hifdrc^u/jihtite of amiiutniti it 
Fomis A aohition which ifl rt'd at Ihtitr Init Bfturwards bt^comes pitqtlL*, 
VkJ fiually brown-rod. From iLc piiqJc tiolutkni, uilrit; ai:iJ throws 
Jowii onuii^i-ftflonrod flocks, hi:c from eulplmr and chlorine, partially 
gnlubk' jxialcoliol, ]jcrfei:tly Holabk^ in boiUn^ inLncacidv and eeparatuig 
iherefroiUj aft^r a wliiEp, in Inng sword -rthnjied tn^yBtjils. — 8. Ohlorn- 
rtibiadin throws down metallic gold from an alcoholic solution of auric 

Oomhtnatwns. Chlororubiadin h insoluble in water. It dieeolveB 

l o/ri>m/, and in lUtric arid cif ap. gv. 1'52, and ie predpilated 

unclianffed by water CrifLmip.j. It diKtiolvei* ia arjuptina amimnki^ the 

in cold ft 

Bolntion giving off all ita atnmonia when left fn evaporate. 

It disaolveft in fav^tic md't with purple^ and in cikaHne Cfirbofiata 
with blood-rcd uohjur, 

Baniim-compotatd. — When an atntEioiUBcal stdufiuji of uldoronibiadin 
i« raised with chloride of Imrimn, fiiti?rL*d from the flix:kn wbioh Fall 
Jf^wn, and the filtrato left to stand in a vessel which protects it from 
the air, Icm^ rod iieedloa aro obtained, which may bo washed with 
watet and dried in vaoao, The corapound givca off 8"24 p. c. wat^r 



at 100'', and tlitn coiilaiiiB fil-52 p. c, 0^ 3-44 H., and 15-65 
whenc* Schiinck dediK^es the fin'iuuJn 3 DaO,C'^lII"0'. 

Coh^um-cnmjiounii* — ChloronibiQ^SiD diK*iolved in ammonia throi 
dtiwn friiiH clili-ride of cnlcium, afttr a whtic^ ft dark red amorphoua 
powdt*^ Tht? Iij^iiid at the Hiitiie lime boiiomiiig dc-Wflunned. 

Akoholic <.hl"i|'C>rubiadiii doe* not prpcipitjLle arftafe a/ nhtmina, or 
^fet'tte of U'/if!, evon on of arumaiiia; Jh-Hc ofttatf is likowinc 
not pr^ipitatcd |jy it. Frcim its eolution In alcohol it is iirei:ipitttt<Mi, 
after Binne Linifi- with Yi^ht brovm colour, by aupHc acctato, 

Chbi'orubUdin is soluble iTi aL:'iltoU 

13. Erytlirozym. 

Utor.iK. Phil M/vj. J. 33, 2tt2 ; J. pr, Cftera. 4fi- 1. 

Ei>. ScnraCK. A^ Phil. Mag. /. 5j 410 Wid 495 j /. pr. Chem. 591 

Tlic p«<;uHar uitropTinoua inattor of maddor-root. 

Prepanitifln. VVUisti a pound of maddor, placed on i\ ccJico Hll 
is rinw-d witi 4 quarts of wuttr nt '.iS". — tli« infuabu mixed witb 
4'qujil i|Urtiilify iif »loiliol,— niiii tin- |irenfjiTat<*<l dark red flot^ks are 
eoll(?eU*d, Ixiifi-'d with jilcolcU till everytliin;^ soluble ilior<'iii is removed, 
waeliod with coUI wiLter ati long- as tho liijuiil wliich niria off givefl 
a pri"ci|iilat<^ witli neuiral acetate of lead, and then drinl over tbe 
wiiifi-balli,^ r/;j///im£'/m n lb obtained* wbidi, in the luuiat htat<v ia a 
dark hn>wii-rcfl sfi-aTHiliir tniLHu, like iHiaj^iilalud cajteiu, and when riry» 
fi^nnp Mack Imrd linii|»*, (liflif'iiU Eo pulverim;. WIil^h this product is 
used for the diK^iru[> laitioii of nibian (p. a7), and thon treated am 
ccPBivcly with cold water and li">ihng alcohol, /^rrfthrvcym h n-mi 
btrhind, — Wlien nn infiwion of amdder i>rc|*ai>^d with warai wivtor 

Credjwtal*'d with tartaric m"jd, ihfprcTijfllnte watlied with wai<»r, 
niiiug nUyibol, lUt-u again witli cold waltTT aTjd dried, trt/rh'^^ym c 
obtwned,^ Erythroiiym v covered with water till it bepiiH tf> evol' 
gTia and emit B.n odoor which iodicatca dt^coiarKft^ilioii, tbca Lotled wtl 
alt^jhiil^ and diied, leave* eiythrozyin </ (Schuuck). 

C -„.>«.,«. -iO^^ .... *I-W 6*0 .,, 4i8a ..„ 

H..-,... ™.» i-OO M. 4tf SI H «'6d _ 

I N •■87 „.. I'W S y ....,-... 4« „ 

40 O an*? -, »Tli4 »0 ,.,.., S441 ,.„ 

4 1:^0 ,- ia4» ., I3M 5 c^n iiin ii 

M0.«-,.„,-.^ 40«O H., t7'W fiS O _. 4fr60 ,„ tf-SS 

SO H - ™_.-«^..„ 4<61 ™ 4HI 2Hi H _ ™„ 44K „ 4-St 

a K_,^„.»««.-« ^» ,„ UK ^^-™„.-, S'li ,». sai 

01 - „ ^. l*-* ..« m O ,...„._.. S3-48 „. A3 «> 

1 CW) , ~,P ll-fll .. sua 3 IkO US* ... la- 

OnmK^^OnD... IDOOO .. t><H^K"0*».StVO KKHW _ II 



Hanoo tt KDuld appear llml ^ = (RubUn) C**H"K1* + 2S(H 4 lOiO , & ^a- 

The following' obecrvations apiJy to erytlirosry^ni a. — Wljcn h^Kital 
oil platiiiiiin-roil it ctJitiU an odour uf buLiiiag lionif Iruriii^ without ruudi 
flam&T leaves obarconl, niid fiuQlly carlranate of llitie. By prolonged 
iuamerdiori in water, it in dbCom|KmGd, ^ving off goBOB^ JLiid an un- 
plt>at«fcnt but ntft putrid odour, ttinia red, aasutuca aflocculcnt cliarac^teij 
uid is canvurttii bilo an acid- Jiy i\ds cljuugc. iU nower oF di.'cuuipos- 
ing- nibian h iittmii8ud <it fii-Hl, Lln-n diiuiniMlied. Witli ?/vj£e7-, it fnmw 
a loiiddy red-brown liquid^ but doL*a not nppcnr to dieeolvo, iuneinucli 
as the liltvjitc doca not docomposo Bolutiou of niliiaix, Bv boding wilb 
water, it ifl coaR-ulativd aiid BC'i^nvatcH from the red liquid in dingy red 
Hocks. A tiiinib^r uctioii is uAcrtcd by sJ{;ol]ol arjd hiuta. By iLcidK* it 
is ccwivprtLHl, with Iosh of lime, into yellow-hrowu flotkB, winch, after 
being wufihed, no longer forrn a mud with M-utor, luid di*4BoK-c m 
ftlcoboi to a turbid, paio piu'plo liquidf which p;ivL'9 off tunroonitk wbcn 
boiled. It is cQiboiiifled by Ueiitiug with oH of tkriol^ Euid decouiposcil 
by nitric m:iiL — Dteuio[x?seri rubiaji n[iil lubiafiji; adil in the munni'i 
already described (pp. 3T. 40) (St^hunek). 

nig^n obtained tho iiitrogenotia conslittiorit of madder — to which 
he attributes the power of e^^urertuig IlIb xanthiu into I'ubJacin and 
blizariu [(xiv* 130), — Iji an impure aud porti^blly altered btate, b> 
sabjeeting inaddnr mjj;ed to \\ ptilp witit wuter to htiiing proflsiire, 
pTGCipttating the liquid ^inih a lai'j^'o quantity of alc^ibnl, and w^Hhing 
tbo prceipiliLted lioeks with nlcolinl, Tbore then remained a brown 
nitri-hjp?mme inaltcr, whicti, when heated, emitted un empyreuDinliu 
ethereal odour, and left a hiff^'e i]UiiiiLiiy of iieh^ but probably LouLiiiued 
mnch f)eetln and woctdy fibre. Thin duhwtanee is iriddluble in water ; 
eDQJta the peculiar odour of protein bodita whoJi heolod witli hydi-ale 
of floda; fonns with nitritj acid a ycUow maea whioii i^ I'Liddened 
by ammonia. — whereupon iLcida throw down a yellow |jowder oF 
xfltithopnileic arid, — and dit^tMilven readily in dilute alkidifi; it is, 
therefore, probably a protcin-subHtance. 

14. Chlorogenin. 

Ed, ScBCPiCE' See nLemoIrs dted uudcr Rubian ([). 33), 1 nnd 3. 

Tho HubstanCG contwued in tho aoucous extract of madder, whieh 
tum» IH'Con when boiled with acidh ; it has not yet been ol*tai"rd Jii 
the imre fitale, — 'A<:cordiii^ to Siniiiireb, it Ih n courftituent of tlnj 
lanllifij of irig^^iii and of Kuhlmann — the mmMt^-ytilow oF Run^^ — 
»ii<i imparta fo this body tho property of Cnniing green whoji boiled 
witli acidfT. (Dut Jofj Bimgo'B moddfr-jcllow posa**! ttiis property ? Kr.) It 
ftpl>eAre to lie identical with Rochledcr^H ruhidthric addi mad with 
Rmi^'a Huhtaceeiisiiarn {PoiJi/. 3J, 521). Kr. 

It remains^ tog^?the[■ with sugar and ash -eons tituenta. in the liquid 
obtfliaod in iho preparation of nibian (p, 33), and filtered from the 
precipitate fonm-d by acide. 

When the deco(:lion of madder, tibtjuned v^ dcucribeii on pagu 33, 
10 precipH.itcd by oxalic acid, and tho filcrate neutralised with llnv>, 

vol™ XVI. 1 


tlie liquid, if a^iuii filtt^red lukd evapiir&W over iha waLer-batbt 1)ecoiu 
cohmrwt, luid nltimaU*!/ leavoft a thict dark brown symp, which 
BolvoB in wllUt with tho exception of eoiae bm«ii dect^mpfmitirfiiH 
pi^Uin^ts foimed during tbo ovaporiition. The eoluUon has nil ai'id 
i-prti^tiipji ariNPii^ frufu llin ]irfsence of pliost^hoiit: acid, and tiiriin ^rceii 
whoii boilt'ii with ai*kla- Tho. sohilinn j^rrrijitatfid with liiwic jux<tflj*' 
of binl» filtcTtd from the procipiUto, fruod iroin cicces oi lead by 
bj'di"Osul}j]mri« addt aad evaporatod over otl of vitriol, after^H 
leaves a brijvrnieh y^Jow, honey-like reaiduo winch dr^cn not dry tf^H 
nguiH- This Ih tblotdguuiii mi3HHlwith lIil- email []uftiitily of sugar 
t^xiadng: rf^udy- formed iu tJi4^ m&dder, wad with tho acGtat«s of potos^^ 
lime and mapicHin. J^| 

Thick ycdlow or browu ayi"up, which nlieorbs water from the aS^H 
Tf lioe LL dlAa^^reouhle taste, both sweet and hlttor. ItP fLquoonn sola- 
tkuJi do|HjAil»4 n browTL powdei' duriug ovuporiitirMi. 'Wlit^ri h(^C^ it 
fiwollfl up, gives i»ff an odour of rLcetone, and when biirut, leases ■ 
mixtuE'o of the oarbunatce of potoehi Uihq and ma^enJa, Whon 
bi'ilod with diiulo hjdrochhi-ie or aulphm-x iHTiri, it cmita a ropul- 
BJvo udour, ttiran dark green, and vlejioaitH a dark gnrcni powder 

(it* cJili>/-^r¥bU). When ln?at(?d wilLi cftufitic jxHtish, it turOA bniwn 

iiEf a Binnll quautity 
cijkiUtcd by daUnp mrlntii/it^ mJt'Bd it uiidul'L^oa doconipOMtion. 

then ^YG6 nu a Binnll quaiitity of ommnTiJik ou UriHikg. It i& riut 

Solul>lv iu alctf\ot, iiitkilnhtf) iti rlhrr. t}oc» not ciii^hir mf>rdfin1 
fabiiuA, nnli.'titt it has beoii alteiod k>y tin? tiotioii of tht< air, uj whi 
cskf.i! h impibrtb Q brown colour to fttuffflxnordont^d with alumina urii 

a. Rubichloric Acid. 

itocit^sitEn. \Vien.Akad, Brr. G, 433; A»tu Pfntrm. 80, 3:^7 ; J. 

R. i3*.irwAaa. W7r/(, ,H-M iJcr, 0, 44fij /ln«. /'A^rw*. 80, 333; J- 

CAfw. ,V>, na^; irw'ft. Jjfwf. /frr, «, 3L 
E. WiLLWiK. rriWi, .H-ojf, /;fr. B, Wi Amu Pharm. BS, 330 i y. jtr. 

Chmn. 58, U^i i^Wm. C^iW, 1B5?, 373; CAffm. 0«. 1863, 275. 

Occurrence. Li Lhn root (RochWor); in tlio loavoB (WilUgk) 
litiUa tiactoi^jH. In Uio hetb ft Arj^'iUt odoiViOy GoUuni i<fwn*, aiv*J 
0.vlpfinn« (Schwiuv). 


iSadTk 1 

Ftvfitratf"n. Thisaddi>ocn7ftiiitrAOOBiDtIwprNJpiUto«|, 
by ar-ntral ivrtato of load In tbo pUn^OTlfw JDft llunfaoaBd 

aomc what lar^'i'r qiiaiility in thr prr'^'lpitiilo i. prnduird jo tin fillrat* 

Ainru'^iiia in ih(i liquid tillcnd froin tW prtcodki^ prvcipilutcw, Vid alJl 
ODUtAiiUTig U^nd> 

. Fnni Maddtr, Tho pnriol|4Lat4i e U Mtupondod Iti watt^r. 



whicb hydroaiU[rUiinc a^-id ia passed, and the liqiiid^ja fiitered^ the rulio- 
rytiiric ftcid then Teniainiu^ with the sulphide of luad, while uoctic ucid, 
6Uj^r, \%in\ ruLiifhl'iru: ucid msi into tlie Buiiilioii, The Avtuliun o{ 
ruliii.^hl'jric jw'id ohtained in (Iitsj nuiTiiipr, or in tlie iiej^rHlEun tiF rulw- 
rythric aciil (|i. 43), [it digoRted with nninml charocnl in a el^jst-d voHsc-l 
ftt u tKiHlt'mti! heat for *2-i hourfl ; und tlie Eilttato is miXL-d with IiurIc 
tocelftL*- of lend, filtfted from tiie acauty procipiat^, utid trijatod will 
aiiimituiucHl t^f Jutuin of m.'utrul u<;clatf.' of Ic^ad. whli:h thmws dnwu iIlci 
ung^ii'iiTid mhk'hhiric iicid. Tini pred|>i1at*i in washed with aliiMin!, sim- 
peudni mubsnlmc nU'^'-hn], imd dooompoturd by hydri^sulplmriuacid ; tho 
Itmjid IS i]llvrct\ frnm the ^idphidc uFk-ad, whiuh rotaiiiti the gn-atrr pnrt 
Of the su>r^r; and thn filtrate is evnp'ji'uliird In Tacao» over oil of vitiiol 
anil Ktk'k»i uf ^>iit:mh ; u vi-sidue \s then Mt wltirh contuinH nihinhloric 
acid tog^tfhor vnth o littl*' siign-r, nnd fmm whidi the nil jiddf fHciujid 
iui*y Iw t^xtraclod by absoluto uk'uhol (IkH.'hloJt'r.) - — b. From tit heft 
of Aj^perula ndarata. The prociintflto c ia washed with a]ct*hrjl, eus- 
pciuk'd in ahflrvlute alcohol, jtnd decomtOBtd by hydiuaulphunu aL^id, 
wjd the liquid filtered fnnii the Htdphidi- of I'^ad, uiid freed from e]L<:eflH 
of liydixfBidphuric acid, is again treated with an alcohohc sohition of 
neutral a<.^otat« of lead. Hud a flmall qu.intity of ammonia, wliereby 
mhicliloratc of load i?* prooipitated, to bo dried in pewuo ovor oil of 
ritriol and atieks of potash, (Sehwara), — c. From the kiii-a v^ Ituf/iti 
ivit'tifrum. The prei-ipifatc ft wasljr^il wilh water and siiftjwnded in 
watci' Udecnnipoet'd by hydros nlphnnc acid ; the Ur^uid 19 filtered, 
fttied from excoBt; of fiydroflalphurie aeid, and nreeipiiatjd ;vith neutral 
acetate of lead; the eitrat<; of kcd tlms pnrcipitated m removed, and 
tlifl nitrate in ndsed with Btruiig alcohol, which thrown down an aildi- 
tiouftl quantity of eitrate of lead, to be rerai.ived by filtnifion. The 
aJooboIio filtrate ni-ted tvith a largo quantity of water, ^nd then with 
b^io (fccetftte of load, doi^ieits ruhiehlorato of lead, which 'm to bo 
Wfrshed and decomjjosed with hy droeiilph uric acid. The liquid filtered 
from the fiulpljide uf lta<l tbud produced, and again treated wL(h basic 
tttJtate of lead, yiehls a precipitate, which wb^n wnehed and dried 
at KMi*. coiiBlitutea mbielJorate of Jeai e. — If the liquid tiltered from 
tU<? pn.'ci|jitale b be niixtti with a few drwpe of ammonia, the etroiij^ly 
oeneeutratol filtriite completely precipitated by adimonia. the pie- 
ej|iilair dii/o^ti'd with warm aleohol, waslied therewith, and deeninfifwed 
uuder waitr by hydi-oi^ulphoric uonh a filtrate is obtamedT e<mtaiaiag 
nitNcblorie and hydro ftniphiii-ie aeid^. Tiie by diosul f jhurie flcid is 
ftXpoUedi the liquid luixed with neutral acetate of lead, thca with spirit 
of 40*» whereby a piccipitate iK obtained, which, when washt^d with 
the saine Hpitit, and dried at 100°, t:ouetltuteH rubiLibluraie of lead f^ 

Pntperties. Coloarleee <rr sh^htly yellow amoi^hens moBa^ havin|; 
a fTiiuU iiauseous taet^, hnt dchtitiile of odour. 

U ap]»oarrt to be ideatieal with Scliujick*fl ckiorui/etn'ri (Kr.}. 

Iffcarnj/oniti't/tig. L Tlic aolutiou of rublchlorie acid evap^r^ted over 
ibo waler-balh aequiroti u browai^h yellow colimi] aad l-juvca a etieky 
maa^. — 2. ITcrtted with Injdt-ocf'loric 'vrUIj it turns blue, thcji ^jnnju, 
ail'] i|i^|HiHiu dark ^ree^i llockn of eldorojnhiii, with tumult iti^ennjs pio- 
iliictiori of fiirmie aeid (Ruchlf^lor, Sehw^rz), 

T a 



Foraac ociJ. 


3, By boiliug with aitnc add, it h converted into tasitc add (Wi! 

Cftinlinarvfttt. Easily soluble in leater.'^AIkaUa coh^nr it yf^llnvr, 
011(1 fkcids Again Uostr^y the colour. Jt U not ptwil^tatod hy 


Hubfuhf'^rtire fl/ f/rtrf, (p. 67V — Ktibidiloric add forma bo pn^ 
cipitatc v<'\i\i Dciitral Ao^tatc of le&d, and only a sligLt one witii thi 
biLsic jiivtalo. — TLo iL-Lul-Biilt i^ uLtauR-d tij pn^pitktinj^ nibicHI^ 
i%cn\ niilk an nuiiri' >Mi^4l solutiuu of uc-utnLJ au;tite of h^nd^ luid 
(iitlky w]iili< privi|tiuiie Is diied in vacuo ( Rix^Uledi^r). Yellow trkn»- 
parviit uiiiaa ^Sciiwnra)- 

EEoibJediir, 84J. 

la-oi _ la-os 4a c. .,____. 17-50 „ nefl 

l&a „ l-SS 80 IE .«*,__. l-OB « i«> 

l3-« ,_ 13 *3 as O. IKU „„ 1S*T 

73m _ 711M H VhO ._„-«...- Ci-W _ ta<H 

I^U'KJ^.MnO » IWNM ,.. VMyfO C«ll>0B.KFbO „ lOniO .... iWtiO 

^ <tf loir-. 

as c ,,„..„ ^ s-eo ^. »■« i40 c >_- 

S3 II „— .^ ■ I'U ». l-l» BO H_. 

3!i U 10-St . . H>*1 100 O ,^- 

14 Pbrt „ _ Tot** ... soirt K> 1^1(1. 


If>« ^ IG« 

1113 .. 14^ 

lfl-t4 ... 1S&I 

fiW» -.,- G41II 

--ll|TiO,HO>*)(0**tP0'JPbO) *i(C*apil'^PliO)fR«h1ftfcr), — *- 

nabicL}oric Mikl tlia«ulTt« Mtfilj in ahoU, Uii m ueoliillo b dir 

b. SubtiUiic«s agreeing p&rtlj with Chlorogeiiiii, poft^ 

villi BubiUL 

L Hi^in'3 Xanthiii. 
It) oKldcT-rooL 

iV^ftwlim, (ur. 132.) 

d|4lfttoit villi baaao ncvlaltf ol IinvI: tli^ pnv^Alt* Li viuiwO tod 
dgttiBm—d bgr hydromlpburic atid. at>cl thr Hul|>litilp of Irad b «*wnl 



anninohia, und itiji^atiDg with n email quitntity of Ity^Ifjitu uf uluiflinn, 
wiiiob throws down rubiadii miJ alizarin, then cvnipLHiitirifi" Ihi; (ULfiilc, 
aiii cihinialin^ l1i<j rtfiidiic, jirtnlUiii JL-iutiine Uibbd (IIiy:taa)H — 
TliiA phK'^BB 3'idtiB iTbiiiit aiulllfi pnwliictaof [if^<:onnniHitir'n (^rhiinolij- 
Dwrk-browu dc]iquesGi?Tit gum, having a bitter ta??to, but noitlicT 
eweet nor aatringeut. When he^tful it ludts, bhckenp, diaiu liJvl 
biirufl away witliout residue. — With dilute sulj/huric or hfdrcdthric 
4Jck/ it a>:fimuea a Krceii wilniir. and wheu boilei viilli dtJitr of iliftie 
adds in mjiti^ns solution (!i?]>rmitA a. gtr^ii powdor (bt>cAmQ it conUms 
elilon^niai Solmuofc). With oil of vitriol it forms a solulion of a. fino 
or&n^ colour, dtnngjng to oarminc-rinl when hcatud, from whieU 
iTaler throws tluwn yoUow flocks soluble with fine crioieon colour in 
AnniK'iiia* H»d probably cotifiielin^ iif Pliggbi's rubiadn. When binlei 
for nh hour wjth oil of vitriol, it forms a brown solution^ from which 
WBttr throws down bro\vu floche, not ttltci"od by ammonia. — S.'n nlm 

vol. xir, p. 130, for Hid d?cD£Lfh»itiorifl u1' aquMue tfrtmct af mtiJclor, vlui'h, tc- 
njniiitg to Uiggin, ri'SuU from tliP Ttrwmieo of wulhin. 

Xanlhiu dii^solvos re^tdtly iil wtiUi; formir^^ a Kolulion of a fino yeX- 
low c'lour. It diflflolves with purF>k'-rod colour In (dtcrtlk^ 

Thv mjucous Biituiioii m precipitated diirk-r^d by aimn jind by 
fiffftnitr tff aiiiiiiiim. It irt not prtrcipitatcd by ii€iifriil mdate of ktiit, hut 
cipoplott>ly by ihp btitiL' acetnta^ tlio prccipitiito ilisBolvth sparingly in 
cold, sonjtiwhat more readily in hot walor, and oaBily iu ucctii: uoid, 

U ditisidvcH oueily In akofiol, eparingly in cM^- It doea not dyo 
uiordmittid f^bri^. 

2. Eiihlmanii's Xanthin, 

KublnkiLDa obtaine tns xanthht (whidi BP^ms to ronHtst <>HS('nti^Llly 
of rubijLd) frojii tliu aluoholit ntract of innddtT-i^HiI. TTi* t-vhnuhlB 
this extract with cold water, which diaeiilvea fat and alizanu aa woll ue 
xuutbiD, jjrecjpittitta the two fomicr with nciitral aeclate of k'ad, 
filters, and inistH tho filtrate; with txcesB of baryta-i^ater, wliieh 
tlirowfe d'lwn Lho lead-eomjjound of sanlbin. Tbo j>ri:!i'ipitnb', nfbT 
wfifibiiig- with diliitf? buryla-wator, ia dwmnpo*<c<I tiv rliluTo snlpburit; 
acid, the bquid thtn filtorod, tlio yellow liltralo ncutraWd witb barytn- 
wtiler, and evap'jratcd to drynceH, From t[io renidm^, alcolml oxliiiclQ 
XAutlim, leaving: sulphate of baryta toir^tlier with a brown hidiwliince- 
lu thJ» iiiamjcr a Ijniwn-yollow rxLriiCt i« nbtalneil, havin^r ni Hr^l si 
swL'Ot, thi?n ,1 i^trong hitter ta^te ; it digaolvos readily iu water and in 
alcohol, epariiigly in ether* Thu a<piocui? solution ia coloured Itiinon- 
yellnw by acidt^, red dish -yellow by alknlii^^ and rn^t precipitated by 
oielallic salts; but it fonrft dark-red ur niae-eoloiirod lakes with 
Bfvoral iiULTtiLllie [}iiidt*rt> ami imparts in morilniited fabrics [\ brilliant 
oraugi>yebnw colour (Kiihlmaon, X Pharm. 14, 3o4)- By tho ubq of 
baryta und oxide of lead u\ thia proecHa, decompoflition-prodncts ore 
oblaincd from tho rubian i>f tho iiiadih;r(Sehuuc:k). 

3» Madder-yellow. 

Runge cbtiuiifl biH maddor-yLdlow by preeipltathi^f tho aipieoiid 
bfiinirm of madder (pn-pared by 12 hours* miin'r.-itjnn with 
16 pta. water) with liuie-watur, fiUuiing off the pn^elplCiite coutaia- 



ing the tQadder-jtllaw find the red colouring raattera, wliich ffft 
nTlcr 12 lioLirn^ and decomjifj^iDg' it with ncet^c oddi the ma'lilci 
ydlow then piispiing' into solution, atili lioweiTT eonmmmat4>d wilii 
Coloimn^ mattcrB. Tiie latter aro removed bj Iwiliii^ tho Golntion wi 
wiio!. mr^rdimlcd with slum, as \ot\g qs ihc wool Le coloured 
lU.'tvhy, tbfn taking it out, and cvapomting the liquid, Thcliglitjolh 
r0siduL> is dip,e*nved in alcoliol ; tlie Toadder-yellnw is thrown down 
■UoolirttLC neutral ncetatt? of load, oa a ecnrlel preeipitAto. which Sa 
bo fineiK! with lilcohoJ, dieeolved in wntor, and dccomtwieed by b^'di 
aulpburic nckL wlicroby the innddcr-TL'Uow is eepftratca from (he le: 
Dxiie. On <?vaporiitiQfc'^ the fdtrnte, it reinuJDH in the form cf » yelh 

gUTO' — Thii glim i*ia ■nuwiy pontain mbiui, irofmnrh «■ that bub«t«iarv 

c< DecompoGitioQ-product of Chlorogetiiii. 

Debus. Ana. Phtinn. <\Cu ^^ri. 

ScmwCK. See roemoire cic**d under Rthiau (jk 32), 1 aii<1 S- 

RoonLEDKB. Soo RubJchlorie acid {\\ OC), 

V. Obth. Ti'iffl, ^iorf. ^/T-, 13, 510, 

Fnrmatioa ami Prfparafitm. (fj. (i7). 1. 3<>|WiraliV4 nil ft dark-grwi) 
pf)wdcr on toiling ehlorogGnin with acids fSchunck). TVIien flK' 
uqui'oup do<5f>oUnn of mftddciris treated with bvdmlo of lend to roiDovo 
the colonrin^ maltcm (siii. 327)» the tcIIcw ftltrato prcci pita ltd witii 
ulkSolujI, Hiid ihu pIumliiferuUH precipitate; iscutratcd by lilEruTiun, thn 
Hcilmion relains, lo^'ther wilh Migur. a pcculifir hiihsTwiue (Schttwk'* 
rhfi<rti^fniiL, Rrx"hledt*r's rubtchlonc acviy, wJiiuU afparatoe in ^fivini H< 'ckl 
on buiijii^ with acids, the Li)md at the same time ae4|U;rin>; a firTOon 
colour (IkhijH), — 2, Rulnchi-'ric ttcid btiiled with hydrvchl^iic *cid 
turns blue, then ^n^en. ;md di-jji>^ils a dark ^^rn }>owi]f'r, id»o ^trkt 
mill Iilitm liAvln^ a rvd copjvry lu^itrc ; thry may Lf^ driod in vacu* 

Frvn CAi'mm yrilow ptpdt^ tlic frtiit of Q^v^kma grtmdifiora (Jemttk 
llVrt, Altiti It'i: H, 294), chVnT»niVii[i h ubtriineil, neixirtUn^ l^ 
\, Orlh, ljy tht r»lli>wing |»rthVSB- The d^^oniHion iff t)n' ycHow ji™U 
pn'pnd wllb alci»hr>l nf 40" {« frood from ideohul ly di^tiUatJon in ■ 
utreiim ->f carli'^nno acid i Tho oil which He^uvralOtf m n'Oiovml t»y nH*M« 
i>f a wi'l liiItT > and tlic tilirtktc tv tn^at^i with ncatnvl acotato of U:t4i 
^vbicb Ihrrxvn down ixiliniriii^'- loutk-iK mt<E tannic acid. On j?mtlx 
warmui^ thi^ fittniNT villi liydmchloric ai^id, then bcaliti|f it to th* 
lioiLm^ ^foint, afirr rcrrii^ving the bro^rn flocks wbicb BOparato at ttMr 
ilaric ^rtttb Hooka of rlilironibin aro dc[Hieitedt to be wuhod vitil 
wat?r and dried in v»cu(>. Tbi^y still contaiEt 6-88 p. o, tth <v. Orth). 

Prryptrtif^. BUif^-^ttHii, pflwu^f^rvcn, or hlaok-m^m pnwdor, *• 
Ing in tv\\i>Mt Mi'r^rdmg ta thf L|UMit(ly of hyrhwhlotic acid uaoJ id 
prp|ianLtioa, Uh* (iain during wbkb it han Ivcn hraE«Nj itml tbo ' 
p^mturc to which it ha* Ix^n rnJ-inh After dt^in^ in noiM^ 
■tjntuiJia variable rjiuuiticioa of water (Rocblrdor). 


60 6391 

«7 H 4-73 

2S O ., Bl'27 




24 C 6890 

9 H 4-31 

7 26-7n 


30 C 6S'83 

U H 4^t6 

11 O ni-22 

la a„,...„ 

O'E^O^ ,,.,10000 
. eioi 4y C„., 

C»H"0" ....lOOW 

V, Orth. 

„ 74-81 

6H ...^ 

B'08 25 H,.- 


e o 

. 83-91 9 O.,. 




C 6a'81 

, 10000 C**H*0» 

68'6I . . ,. 

c, d. 

Schwan. f. Orlh. 
tn Dono- after dedt/i-tion 

H „ . 4-QA 

4-39 , 

&-orj 6-46 

..... 2700 

. flaw lft-73 

lOO'OO 100-00 100-00 100-00 

The oomponl^ of ftnhjdrou* d:ilororqb!u agnos, according to EochlediV, with 
the formula 0*^3*0*1 in a it u united with f At., in b with { at-i in with 2 al. 

Chlorombia exposed to tho tuV, acquires ei violet colonr, taking up 
uamooia and oxygren- — At 100^ it becomes dung-coloured (Roch- 
leder). Decomposed by nitric add. 

Insoluble in teater (Debus). DissolvcB in alJi:alis, fonnin^ a blood- 
red flolatioii (Bochlpder), which ie turned green by acids. 

InBolnble in aicohoi (Debus), 

Glueoaida iviih 22 Carbon-atoms in the Copula^ and Substances of 
Cognate Origin. 

1. Xanthorhanuim. 

C*n»0" = C»IIK)",2C"H''>0", 

Kax^ Pfttf. Mag. J. 23, 3; J^ pr. Chem. 29, 481; N, Ann, CMm. 

Phys. 8, 380. " 
Gellatlt, N. Edinb. Phil. J, 7, 252, 
Ortlebb. Mulhous. Soc. Bull. 30, 16. 

Among the bodies denoted by names derived from Rhamnusj Ph. 
cfiiharticu^ ^Jid Rh. Phtngula (^Fi a/tdbucfi ^ vWli Phfitodiem. 23), we have 
to djfltinguish : a- S^stances from Persian or Ttirkei/ berries (Graines 
d'Aciffjumj Qraine$ dc Per»e, Qelbbeeren). According to Kane, Chryso- 

7- CUTOSII^i:? v;t.: 22 AT- CALBOS is THE wmAm 

rhfriTiiiih and Siv-rh'^la'^.h^f afCi-rihir '>'• GtHaaJr. JaiakriiiHM 
t^vhli Hk' i.1i^\>i;!;« i?:'^..*:.-:-: -far: i'^jrwh^iii i; ftOCCTdmp » OrtWi, 

ilu:.uu:i Pnir'ti--^ :*!.■' i*"-, .''rft^T"rfr'^^ ; BncLnw mud Bui^viiigief'ft 
^r■T«tT>' /r.-ri* tit f-r— le , ■' i'ft jMiW cff;A<r?x>u*, Fkmx- WiDciier wJ 

^■.TUi' i^'f ^^ii-r»o b'ldi'.-s are ;^e^llb;l^ itextiaJ irth ndwrs from the 
RiTTir tf *mws^ 1.T fr,':i 'iir?!riC-' f-^zri-^.f^ G<ii»rii ^Trsitr« 4, i**!) 
iv^-ari-i Fliurr'*! " Nh- - ^ jtzii 'K.L^-.'i- dLrr-^.rhasaaji «» kirtiticti 

rii..!k:. 'xiii'iLlL -■.> i5-.:.T-.TbI it:-.! -ra-.-r/.r::^ s^^ -vfih <Tiiaiilhic irii 
— *Vr:lii'l' fr.r^.'fiTz- "iiii j>:l;^tt :-: Li* iyirbiv -^ cxjaiiamnni »ith 
i::\,.^*_i.' fl.'ii — ^l.-T^ r-:'>:-^rT. ITjaKtr-ir r--nfcrdf i»i-iliorfrtniiiUi 

«"! ■.■A:vi Vv il.lKv wL ., li.Tr-:--T. :"-::Lii i-K-x-ii;. n F^Tfdfcii lorries: 
J\:. "":, :-,^t- U-, "^ f"j. tt:. -. :*-. hiL-" rr^".'^ IT WticUk- 

:/Aa' -1.: ji K:.:.'- — X^-_:: -'■■ -■-■ xvtz^ rciriii npcP«»M 

■> — ■■< *. - i -,,:■■- ' -' . -;_-ri -:.i=_^:. -uT-^'» -A u* niiri|e 

''.rr,->, \V.,--. ::, "-.y-*. ">. — -.->"ir-. :» Zvi ^^ ^*l« for Km 

::.-i ,v.-i z':-i\ ,;7k'L \'':-rv?' .r. iZL.:-?. r^- :.' jci^r be f*>(ind ii 

■\- V.l: :_\ 5lj:.:l r:.^^:.:l. Xi^-l -^ t^ - ■> a? tkowi» ptvdocri 

':v ■< ". ,: ,^,r^> :";,^..:,:;. v.:.-. ^^-.^^ -_ .--^twi *^^ ihe •ir.- 

X./..: . - ..\r V ■ 'i: -■. ::, v/,- T.r -1 . f viir^:! » I "iiM*vnt. l«t 

-..■--'^: '.T : 1 \ .,- :.« -t -.*: r>: -^ <-*>:t ti: b»ied to 3i^"|i 

-' : ::. ■. > " \.r.-^ : :. ir'.-'.-. - *V** ": i-Arc^»5»i^ aly*ro ^lOi 

■_>ff-.l^i?T\>l y .', W'.:.: ,v-. ; ...'■■' \>^: i* : ::i:i'^ iiis ■l::l4o in eil*CT, 

;■: , '■> t^** ;4r* 

:,!,->.■ l:ViM 

^--T M*^ 

: »■■■ , :»A^ . - uxrw 

:a sf i.A\ri 


Lead-con^ound of XajUhorhamnin. Obtained by precipitating i 
a. neutral acetate, and b. basic acetate of lead with lanthorhamnin. The 
GompouiidB thus predpitated are not pure^ each being contaminated 
with the other* 

a, at 100°, Khw. 

a» C \mO 36-93 26-68 

le H 15i) 2-93 286 

17 O » ^..,. 13C0 26-54 2520 

2 PbO 233'4 43-60 d5'3e 

(PH*K>'*,?PbO * 3aq 512-1 100-00 100-67 

*- oilOO". wtm. 

23 C 13S-0 21'20 21-H9 

la H lS-0 2'7C 2'!rt 

£0 O 160-0 34-B7 2374 

3 I'bO 33G-1 51'47 513* 

C=H^^3PbO + 6ftq 651,1 lOOiX) 10000 

8o> hocording to Saate, 

b. According to Gellatly. — The coareely ground unripe berries are 
boiled with alcohol ; and the tincture, not too concentrated, ia freed by 
Btanding and repeated decantatinn, from a dark brown resin wliicn 
gradually EeparatcST and then left for Home days to cryBtalliae, the 
Gquid ultimately solidifying to a crystaliine magma. The product ia 
pnriGed by repeated crystalllBation from alcohol By agitating the 
tincture, crystals may be more quickly obtainedj but they are then 
lesB pure. 

The bydiated crystals of santhorliaranin give off their water at 
the heat of the water-bath, and do not melt cvon at 130^. Nearly 

De^raled. mtan. 

4B C 276 62-27 ..^.... &2-10 

2S H 28 B'30 578 

88 O 22^1 42-43 4213 

C"H»0» 528 1001X1 100^ 

Aqncoua xanthorbamnin ie reainieed by bfomint and chlorine. — It 
is oxidised by boiling with nitric acid, forming a red solution, whi(^ 
contains oxalic acid. It diasolves in oil of vitrwl and is thrown down 
as a yellow precipitate by water. Dilute aads decompose xanthor- 
bamnin at the boiling heat, into rhamnctin and glucose : 

From an alcoholic solution of xanthorbamnin, caustic potash throws 
down a hard reddish resin, — By boiling with baryta-water, a red 
snbstance ie fonned, which instantly tuma black in contact with the 

Combinations, With Water. — Crystallised Trantborharanin forms 
compact tuftfl of pale yellow, silky shining crystals, which, at the 

r-fc jizcrsris Tm *s tr. ciiaov is thi cgtou, 

'" i:sw.i'-j* :':c^7 ^ TTTfT "^TTii lir4 ud cnld, but c&imot be 
'■* -J fc^ie "'J? ,^-1 .;.v- - : on* ic-.^Ti s:Jntiwis, irhicli become [aler 

-I -vp 1,'^>--^ V. — T':^':'.,^! Tvti'i IT rrf^oml ftcetftte of Ie«l from 
c\v\-r«« * *^o.ii^ ^i: --faiT.!' r'.i.T Tb? lir-diied yellow predpiUte 

^^'^t-t. -li >■:' .. :. ^-^j-t" t:--, r-rfii '« -f?. HO -^ STlpCTonL) 

<r : * -" Odlitly- 

^ . *-f\ . . 36T0 87-70 

T> ' ..**-: 3-n . 4fle 

» .* ■:;»■- .^^ »« ...~ >i*a 

a ;'.*^^ ;:f3r-* ^75 »79 

i^tLX'" ii\-v'' .- ni^ liOO) lOCKlO 

^lw*-^»!^^'** "■ ^ ^.v ^v^ ,AS,y :_ \*:€1lj: .VTVi not indAr-. Fmmtbe 
hi^t. lnj;^\ ^vp vv.-.:r^r;^i 410:0:6- s.^uiioa- it leptnteB aa a bciiu- 
lliiiil *v>i!i ttVv> Swi-j-js --v*'^" "■^ whea covered irith vlcohoL It 
J^i'i* l.^titv-s v.-,"\sjt ,;*■ w-u j^-:;z::u ;f a fine Tel]oir,tho0eDKffdut«d 
iMlli n*'ii. V'^'K 

I. V*\>*u?: ;: :. v>:^ li. r.'T*:ir, ^vrrio* c<>nl«ma glocoeide, whidi 
\\Ai\*i ilu' I. ''.■«.■ .; s-:S^:.ll.,^■# is ;r>iuirts of decompottition. The 
t»i*-ili iK'ovi:.' .*■ / U-r.> v-? :. : cntain any sugar, bat tf tff 
llui i-i^L'iinn);; •-.\*\-.^ ■ ' .\< \k\'.. l.}*'^\Xt-Ki, thc anpcrnatant lii^uiJ 
i-<»iiliimi ,* Uio' 'i"Av.:'.> :" *-.:4rir> Whon fcnnentcd, it depottts; 
\U'*\ y^Ads-.\ \x'.\.\^ y\>iA".v.:.:-rAir-.^ i-i\ thrn ycllow-groeu flodi 
(/m, I">|1i 1*1 wl!i*\ A--: .■',:.i.v,'.i ::: vadablo <]uantiticri from difforcnt 
miiiIm mI IVi'-uii: *v:^,i>. "f :*:'o r,^ ■:^^'^-l^o^ao^s arc boilodwith dilute 
Mil|iliiHir Hiut, .i.tJ'.t-.*^:VL r.vks I -I arv doiMpitod. Of tbesp, a a 
ImUiI/m //h-u'-iv. .■ ■ v" ■>■ : ■ ■:' i\:s::u^- nWy formed in the benidi 
jiN'jiiiili^ mill is^lK^^vt ^U':t^vA^ n-[i!i cuxantbJc add> — A. Ortlieb'c 
U'i'fi>*t- \- /r'r.F ■ , v:->s\',iV',' /-. w\i:cr, ^f»luble in boiling aleohaU airf 

U\ i>aliii llimi .1 i>i K iiv.J ^*n-*tjllii*iililc from alcohoL — AU ibMe 
■'4iIhiI 11 111-1 <n Itiim t*iin,iii^uM ai*u\s with (juljiburic acid. 

1** r . 

IN II . 


. f*Hr^i .... 

Xp 21; ... 


rM'Sii .„ ... 







.,.. XO(M> 

.„ 60-11 -. 

.,. 3-«H .,-. 
... 3fitH 


.... ew 

J> il 

,„ .Ti'*; iH 

... 3? 
„. 35-6 

UH >< I'll 

.... V\Hi t*ll"l)". 

.., lOCNKI ^,.. 

,- lOM 


Appendix to vol. xv, p. 530. 

L Bhanmetm. 

CBjpoQ.& _ c»*H'"0',0'? 
Gellatlt. N. Edinh. PhiL J. 7, 256. 

Foruuttifm and Prtparaiion. — 1. When lanthorhamDin ia boiled 
with dilate sulphuric or hydrochloric odd^ rhfimnetJn fatk to the bottom, 
while glucose rcniainB in Aolutiou (p> 73)- — 2. Wheu the benioe of 
ShamoAis tinctoria are stirrod up with cold water, the xanthorhamuin 
contained in them is converted, by infiueoccs not well underetood, 
into rhanmetin, which is dcpowted from the filtrate in the f onn of a 
yellow powder. 

Soft, pale yellow, nearly taetcleas cryBtats, 



88 C 132 69-4S ...... 59^7 

10 H 10 4'60 4-41 

10 O 80 36-04 86-28 

C«H"H:>" 222 100-00 100-00 

Nearly insoluble in watery easily soluble in alkalisj and precipitated 
therefrom by adds, — Insoluble in alcohol and tiAer, 

S. Chrysorhammii. 

Kjjra. PhO, Mag. X 23, 3 1 J. pr. Ch^m. 29, 481 ; Din^l. 5, 89 ; 
N, Aim. Chim. Phys. 8, 380. 

Occurs in the unripe berries of Bhamnita iinctoria, known in comnaerce 
IB Persian berries (their inner surface is covered with a yellow 
ooating)i but disappears as the fruit ripens, passing into xantborbajnmu- 
QeUntlj did not obtun it from tbae berrieef either ripe or unripe. (See the nmu-ka 
on lubBtosoei obtaiaod from variOiU apecres of Rhuoniu (pp. 7, 73). 

It is extracted from the bemcsby ether. — Stellate ncedloSj having 
a fine golden-yellow colour and silky lustre. 



46 C 

s7e .... 

.... 68-25 ..,. 

58-23 fi7'8l 

23 H 

28 ..„, 

„.. 4-04 .... 

88 O 

„...: 176 „-. 

,... 87-18 ..., 

87-00 87-66 


474 .... 

..„ lOCHK) .» 

100-00 100-00 

When chryBoriLamnin is boiled with viater, the dissolved portion 
separates as xanthoramnin. — It is not altered by acidsy but aUcalis 
^Molve it, and apparently decorapose it at the aamo time. 

It ia nearly insoluble in cold water. 



.^:.. — A. ±tJ 


":.^ T. L" '" n 

- 1 

' ' ~ ■ .i- \ i'\ 


>.: ■ '.:...-: J? 

,," n ■'■ :. rr la 

: ?,..-'*.l'.,' r 

"' .- ?;' -T,i:'i^' 


^ r^'*: J «p 


,ix; .».-vT;»:r- 


.^.1:. .:..l:i!..i 


S. . 11 = J t; n^rn 

- — j: > 

i-Mud iJi ilic B>ivddvr U'll" 



'Frepra-atioii, 1. Tho bmncliofl of the borry-bearmg aldoT {M. 
^Fftin^vhi) arc aiactiatei! fi>r tlirc* or ftrardajs mbEaulpliiJevf carbon ^ 
tlic tslract ifl cv;ii>oL-alL'J Ut Jryru'SH ; aud llu* rcflfduR is csbaueted 
iffilb alL-Libnl, wbicti leavpi* fnf miriifiSfjlwdT ngnin ovM|i(irntf *1, and ro- 
crystollised fTrun t-lher (Pbipei^ni). — 2. Tlie crkmminulod bark of the 
^tcm or brtiiichofl ik cjihiniiited with nnimcmiacal water; tbo extracts 
iu"e SLinerflaturati*ii witii liyLlrodilotic ucid, and loft to IbcmselTes for 
several weekn, or :ui liuig a.B tbe rcfiiilltTi^ blnrk-trnwii |»rc*diiJttttea 
roiiliniiG to iiicryasp. These precipitaten aro collected^ waftbr>cL and 
boiled wiib alcf^b^l of 8(» per cent, witb addition of neutral aoetiite of 
Irad. Tiio hot iiltrjito mixtd witb'i' till it becomes tuHiid, Ibcn 
^retl bolkd, and set n^ide for Hcvcrnl dayer dcpouita fiaiij^fulln, wLicb 
may Im; recrystal![KoJ finfrf bmling hIcdIioJ (Criflwlnmini), Tlir? ftulii- 
•fkiti prf-|mriT« art aljiive wlrb futdition of noiitml acetate* <"^r load, and 
filtered from thQleaU-jfivoi[)ilata, thhv also be eliaken uj) witb bydratod 
oudc [or basi(^ acotatc) of lead, wbico prccipitatea all the franklin. On 
immereiug ibc prccijjitiitf in wattr cotitainiag alcuboi, decom- 
fiTwing- it with bydmMulpbiimi acid, and tUi'ji bnilin^ with uIcjiIioIt 
the alcohol lakes np the franklin, wliieb moy bo cTywtalliaod from tlio 
BolutJon niixod with wuter, and rcci'yetiillieod frtun alooboL Kran^Un 
thus prcfrtivcd in opt to be mised with snljibni' derived from the aiil- 
jiburottod hydrogen (OB»sebnann). Wincklcr diesfilvoa the precij:iitato 
thrown down bj bydrochloi-ic aciQ in alcoLoIj CTaporateSj and eKhjinats 
the reaidue wllb ether. 

Properties^ — LGDion-yellow crystallino masscB having a dull silky 
loatro, orid nppenrinj^' «ndor tho nncmficniw t-.) be f oniicd of omqiio 
qaadratic tabl-.'rt. Mtltn [it 241)^(250'' I'liipfiun), with evolution of 
yHlxw va|Htnre, nnd ^inliliines» Vk^lU |>iLrtial dooumptr^ition, in ^oMni- 
yellow nredlos (Can.^nlmann). VoiatitiHw; sliiwly, ovpn at moan itjm- 
)H?raLurT^s (^iiuclmor, Bitifiwangor). Tuattzluua and inodaroiis. 


U ..,.,. 

7S .,.. 

... B7-li 
- I'TG 
... 3H10 


G H 

-,.-.. i-ya 


, . 4^ 

. . , a7'K3 

C^JPO* ,. 

... 100«) 

.,.„„ lOO'DO 

Accorduig to HcMc (-in*. Ph'trat. 117, fi W) 111? formuli i* 0"IP^'", whkli 
tttHvipoe the tuoe tH^rtfintogo DiMiipoairian utd ugrLVe KlLar vitb thftt of iiilm- 
twj^iUo BkPld. Cii*Bu!ni4nu (■oraparert fmngnlin iPilh tliryBOjiliiinic' ai^irl, without 
h0Heri?.r tiijdinjr Himn |q bo irt^Dli'^l- tllsfliwert (tt'*^n. AlC'iit. Bflr. 17, 3H]) rognrdii 
gviffuljii MB RirnitiLr ro eutanlbiL- lu-id ruid i[iLf>riii(Hiij bill, ihis nurmbliUKW also is hot 
home auE by QuAdmHim'a inTCHLigaUoii, 

Dffcotnposiiiiiiu. I- Fuming ^jf/n'ti acid convorta frangnlin into nitro- 
fnmgTilio and oicaiic acids (OaaaGlmarm), ^2, lied ticin// agf t-ta i^oXtiMi it 
IrtTiwn (Pbiieun). — 3. _0old ad of vitriol disflolvca it witb dark mby- 
r^d coloar, clianging t(]'br<jWJi on heJitiag' ; tbf wuliitinn iw prmpitatod 
by Watvr. ((Ja>l^'^;bi.iaii), FFan^uJin iiiLmoi^ctl \n uil of vitriol imfjitidiately llc- 
qiiirv« B fiixo emurBlJ'givi'r i-oloup, (^^mii^jij^ in n fotr ui-L^aiid^i lu puppip, thmi la red, 
koiuii nJiiEtjiii] ofwui^T, lo jitllow. If ibcvil of vitml Ii4> poursd off lu &.K^n ruLha 
Frrinjiiliii biui lumeJ ^lvu. tht? grii'ii aoluiiT rvuioJnii CLrnaLoxLtr sud u au( iLlUTi^d^ 
flaliLir by olkalb or l7y dilulQ uoiilf (TlupiOJi). 



Fran^ilin ie laBolable in woter. — It is iiit!olub1<] in ooid mtric acid : 
but diasdvoH cnni[iLL'tdy il XUq hot add, ftiid cryutoilLoca unchanged on 
tmilinj^ (L'^isholtQAiiiL), 

UdiHfl(»lve« fllriwlj III ixild, nioru udioklv iu wiuiiiiul mtui?nuB timntottia 
and In aqu^ou^ ^Jrr' J ftl&att^, with r^iHorKlid {inr^il^ colour (CiLAHclmaiui). 

'ilm FflBultiniji'nrTiiMiiiiifl.'nn'aaliiSU' in whl*"r, ftl«>hol anrl 4t)ier, but not in l]iaii]pLiiii< 

ufiitfbon (PliiuBou). It isi^roorpilaled fi'i>m thealkalkift aolutwuB by flcicU. 
ll is not jaecipilutotl by tociitUir tttlh, imlfr.mns liuidy coloured lakos with 
hjfdr^ited mctitUk ojiiiRS (Ciisathuaiui), ThciHBoionimol «limuii luporeaiu 
Willi iiitriL' Ol'iJ furiJU a bmutifut viult't laic W\Xk luagui'BLik (riilpun^t 

PraTigiillu diaanlvee in IGO pU, of wanxi abijLol of 60 per cen 
ivikI Hr|>araE<'H out alniiA^L ;»>m[ilLU'1y on nioUng. Nmily inHitlublo in 
tthfr (('iLf^dmaTi). TiiLpiiit' Fmii;nilin (JtAHrrlveA readily iii ^Xhi^r iifid 
in ftlcnh'd (fliiiiflun). — Fimnguliu dis^oivea in liHuiphide oj 
(Fliijjrion), Jti oU of tifrfimtinf^ and in Jijrfd uUf (Cjishi^Uniudi). 
gnlui JytB Milk, wool oiid cotton {Phi|JEO[i), 

4. Nitrofrongulic Acid. 

F'»-mtithn. ]\y liojtfmt'' fini»i;u!lH witli ruining nllric nciJ^ 

*CisH"0* * liNO* - G«H"J£»0'r + S«>HaO» + WHO + fiSO" 

i^-^irafw'j. Frnnf^lin ia disB9lv{}d inwftrm fomiiig nitric acid; tha 
Rulntion jifUr dilutinii with writer is cftrcfully evaporaloi iicurly t> 
iNyiK'sa ovcv tbo watcr-balli, and tlio residue is waalied wjlli wak*r» 
till Ihc wiUf-rwbirli run« ^iff In^ginn U> iHisuim? u dnik red cvjl*>nr. 
Thi^ residiio ia orysHlli>*i'd t'illkcr frmw add "lilted water or :iIcoIioI, in 
whioli oa*flo, howi-ror, tlio crysUilUtJiition is not tompli^l** fop several 
TTirknthfti — 01- more (^tiickly tin; iifid is iviTiA'crttxi into *v ailvcr-aalt i Ihi* 
hidt is dj>0i.iK~LiJ in boiling nlcbnl ft w&ti^r nnd deco[u|Kinrd by liydro^^ 
L-liloHi.' ill-id; uiid tti'^ prt-rifiihiiinl cbUmJe of uUvtr Ifl su[jamtt.^d^ wutfi^^l 

i;j>*>ii tLtf fUtraUr fioL>u de}iodita OTyflLula. 

Pfvjtrrtif4. ScjJiirates from wat«T in sinall yellow tjiblt^ frxan 

obiil Lii hlidbilf gTon(« of liinjj ftilkv-fibhiing^ orAUjgi-<it!uiirn[i 
•tilM. TiUiUM iuitli mid latlit^r bitlor l colouni ibo »alivu uLirUc-rud, 

40 C «.«. 

I 5 

u n . 

87 O . 

fl/ imr 

™. 70 

,« 11 

.. . 390 

47 US 

CX'K^O'' « 017 « lOOOo 

OhmoIiu'ijiI' FhipMO** 

u n 

30 O 

8*) ...- 

aD-«t Sfi'T 

IIW ^ ii-i 

I'HO .— M 

tT-iO ...... 47-0 

— 1* 

O^X^H'^O* ODO 

lOO'OU ,„...„ lOOHk ^^^. lOMl 


CoBMlmai] rireB tbo firet formula; O. Heflu {Ann, Pharm- 117, 310) ths second. 
The foTTOulft C»S^*0'^ propo«d by PLLpson (fl^p. CAim. pur^, 3, 317). is impro- 
bAblfl in itself aud doua nut Agree vith the inaljftffl. A. Wiutx {Sip. Chim. pvr^t 
S, 317) i-egardo ULtrolran^LC aoid eu p mixture of uitro- and bmitra-&angulin, a bu]>- 
poutkin wliich doM not accord with CBast'lmann'a onEiljBea of the salts. Wciltii-u'a 
finrauln C*0X*H*O>,HO {VerSnnd. 615) suppoftea ihe telU to coutNJi I at. water of 
CTjeUUiwtioD (Kr.). 

DecomposUiorts. I. The acid dotonates and leaves charcoal when A^a/^. 
S. The hot aqueous solution, when Aj/drosulpharic add is continuously 
pafised iuto it, asaumoa a v]olet*blue colour, with reparation of sulphur, 
uid afterwards yields a violet-blue precipitate with hydrochloric odd- 

Combiaotions, The acJd dissolves sparingly in cold wcUffTj with 
d&rk cartoine-red colour in hot watcr^ and Hcparates slowly on cooling, 
more quickly on addition of acide. In crystalUne fiooka. — It is coloured 
fight yellow hy cold oil o/ rtf™/, red-brown bj liot, — It diasolvea in 
etrong nitricacidf and cryHtallisea therefrom. 

Nitrofrang-uUc acid unites with bases. It dissolves with violet-red 
colour in aqueous aUcatis, and its aqueous solution forms fiery-red pre- 
dpitatea with baryta-^ strontia-, lime-, cadmium^ and lead-salts. 

Nitrofrangulatt of Copper^ — Ohtftiued by adding- alcohoho nitrofran- 
gulic acid to aqueoiia cupHc acetate. Bj tha cfmtiw mod^ of pTooedure, 
nd fkrtki are obiained, Violet-blue, uoii-crystaUiue flocka, beooinuig dark 
violet-red when dry. Detonates violently when heated. Nearly in- 
aoluble in water, spiuingly soluble in alcohol and ether, easily ajid 
with light blue colour in ether. 

40 C 



,.- 87-1 .. 

1-6 ,. 
... lOB ,. 
... 44- B .. 

6-1 .. 


10 H 



. ... 70i) 





C"Hi^^*CuO'? ... 

, &47-7 

... 1000 „ 

Hnae'e fonnuhi 0«X*OaH^'" require 37-60 p. c C, 1-66 H„ and 636 CaO. 

Jffftnj/ranju^fl of Silver. — Obtwned by m-ecipitating an alcoholic 
or hot aqueous solution of nitrofrang-ulic acid with aqueous nitrate of 
nlTer. — Cinnabar red noedlea having a dull ailky lustre, detonating 
when heat«d, sparingly soluble in cold, easily in boiliug water, dis- 
solving with darK ruby-red colour \i\ alcohol and ether. 

at 100°, mean. 

40 210 aa-1 ».. 830 

10 H 10 .- 1'4 »....».«. 1-6 

5 N 70 3-7 

36 ..,. 288 89-8 

AgO 116 • 16-0 ie-0 

C«JI"X'A^Oi? 721 1000 

neae'8 formuk C^X'AgO^', roquires 33'53 p.c C, I'SO H^ ud 16-21 AgO. 

NitrofranguUc acid dissolves easily in alcohol and ethtr. with dark 
red colour, and remains betdnd with yellow colour when the liquid is 

ifuit, — tfaui by »- 

vr^pomfeod to •aeatnctliA' 
wUh Wtticr, iW 

liA ti> cv^ponto, ctyvUb 

«^cfi left to fitiadi 

«■ the fwf soft of flo 

i^D tka oUuiicd ffm (bo 

t»«e (Flemr). 

XW>Mniiiii. liVbAi««<itM«ki,aeoaBp<MMvUdlfi»r«i(o» 
lAiniiUWi4Arro*l4BiBf«M^ir^ — it ttwn»>fi,wiftdMfc brown cubg 
III Wl nMeme^i M tfatkntbttonlBMitkcwiMMjitfoklrueiiiwai 
r^r tfio ut.«l fwrt,n w*wr, tm^ » Mttir jw fc w portw^ |»obfcbly pfcris 
ihriil WftWt •iWoJ to tb»lijEt^y< M m BUtwJ ttHric add aolutioithwii 
iliiwN (\^ hik <hntte Md mMte €matn4f nboft jrvJknr tic«dlc« vaitrf 
Iti k^ii-likv |rnittp«i ■fftittftr whibie itt eoU, nMV9 vcJttbW aa ^^ 
iiimI 111^1 |im4fit«ii:<d W MotaBic nJiff. Ae Medla« mro dvookwuftd br 
mi<k IxLi At\« i<l<tMn<^ oitevto qnaltmd flo evi^onumg ihe w 
fmlmloL. Tlicy diMvlr« In alooM uxt lA unnM&u, with «fttfiaa- 
ji 111 I i! iiiMjiil LijtlilMwi fn'Oi tbc btter sokuliuu, an Amor|jK«* 
iituH likt^wiao rMMunuis (Fkar|-V lUnmiiia b iu>i IciuMuUifaltf 

Ithnrnhln iii ikwIv \>r quit^ lOMhiblc b cdd nrirr, in boOing wUK 
it ■wrlfn lip anil 1aki« un h Iww qiirtty of v»lcr. — tl dia«olTOfl ti 
iiijtl iuU of ritrtL^l and in oJd cooo«>t«lcd lj«fr«iVi*riV rtnrf. wtti 
•ih(Tji^u.j<0!*iw 4!«>, au*\ W jinH'j|iitalcJ !■>- w»tcr. I>mvi1vr« inboi 
rfttga^Bll|Jturki AcMil lujil tr\'i(U^i*M oa rDalinr, — Diiviolviff it 
^^^^tmrni-HKi uuil u^^i.iJi u^jtJi ttfMn<yelkiw (x>k>ur. ,i^ pv^i^ 
^^■Er), ft1«i» ill ulUUno cartii]nAt«ii and U jtvcJi-iUt^ I-j ndik 


Thu e^eet alkaline Bolutioue Icavci wbeu cvaporateili brown sliimiig 
jiia^d«*e ffliicli berome ulighiiy (uoist; ou ejcp<>sur« to llie air, aui 
colour wnier strongly (Fli^iiry), 

Khtuumn dissolvtjg Bp^trlugly lii c^Id, easily iu buUuig <ikifhoi, bul ia 
insoL ubic In cihu?. 

6. Biiamnocatbartln, 

HoBEitT. .L Chiin. mM. fi. 193 ; Bv. Arch. 34, 142 ; Repert. 35, 293. 
F, L, WiKCra^n Jahrk j^f. rJmnn. IM, 221 ; 24, 1, 

The ancrystiillisftble bitter priuciple of the berriea of Ma'iniitx 

eatharticus (iicmip. p. 80). 

Ptf^nratioa. 1. Tbe berries &rc crualted* stratuedf aqiI presaeil, tbe 
jube ia evujioiuLf^ to oil f-x^tiact; this extiiu^L Im exluiuhtod wtUi 
alcohol of 80 per cent.; the tiricturea are treated with imimal chan^oal; 
arid the alcohol ia diatilled off, On exhauBtiog the residue with cuid 
ftlcoliol of 113 iwr coTit., troiititig the Btrongiy bitter brownish tuicturo 
with aijlmal diai'coal, mid f^v^pomtla;^, coknitt^d rluuniiui^attiurtiu 
remains ; il mii*t hv diasnlvi?il In 3 jits, altmhol of SO per ly^ut., mid 
the BOlutior niiied with 8 or lo tfmes its vohime of ether. After the 
BubelaHtcfllherpbypTCCipilaledhaTO compleU'ly settled dowii, the clear 
ether- alcoholic eolation m decnnted, dceolont^ed with animal char- 
coal, and I'vaporaLtd (W'tinjkler)^ — 3. The juici; uf the rli«.' U-iTJeH in 
evaporated to »ri extni^lr; this extrjkct St^ exImiiKkd with lint iilcnhol, 
the tiii£:turo evaporated, ami the reBwliic mixed with wat^nr, wliich 
Bt^MUQteB yeUow-^Tocii pulvi^i'iiiunt rhamrio -tannic aoid. The filtratu 
ab^ken^Qp with coareely pounded, puniicU bonc-cbarcoalT as lon^ aa ib 
rvULiita aay bittct toi^tCf yields rhainrjocalharliii to the charcoal; and 
on wasMng tin's cbarcoiil with <y»ld water, drying, treating it wiih liot 
alcohol, aud ovapoi-utiEg the tincture, the rhaamocathartln ia left 
bcbind (liiuswuuger). 

Pr*^p&ttii£, TraDKlnoent amoFphons, yoUowiBh, brittle niAea whioh 
may K' mbbod ttf a ycElcw powder. Emits a pccuhor rhu'L when 
robbed, Taatea bitter and very repulsive (Windtler), and irritating 
(BinHvrangor). Ni-uirab Tolt-riibiy |»'i'rnftnerit in the air. 

When h^rtted. \i melts tr\ a yellow oil, tania brown, givpH off in- 
flaLDtDULl'le vapoiirri. oiid EaaTcacombuBtiblo charcoal (Wlncklei'). With 
tUtrv: acitl, il jielda a large quantity of picric acid ( Wiiitklej')* — It is 
uot dccumpofeed during the femiuutatiou of Ihc juice (nubeit)> 

S^jlnble in all piojioi'tioiis in V7ater- (^VirR'Wer). Innoluble in cold, 
BTiDiewbat BobiWe in boiling water, to which it imparta a very bitter 
tOfito, while the remolrkder melti? aud adheres to tJjo eidee of the Te^fiel. 
The hot eolutioa beeomeft turbid on cooling (Bin awarder). The 
iH{Uuons aolulion m ailoarcd brownish g:o1d-yellow, without precipit^ 
tian^ hy onimonia^ the ^til tdhiiU, and hmc ocfttle qf hid, and 
bi.<c:oiQ(.'« coloiirlesa again on addiiion of ocldit. It colonre tti^U 
tX(vride Of' iron dark brown- green (Winekler). 

Rlwnnocathartin dieeolvea in al! prnportiona in akolol^ but in in 



eotuble in *iA«r (Binawjuiger, WinctlerJ, It difiBolves in ether-t 

Otucoaida ifiJfA 24 at. Carbon im t/te Ovpufa. 
O. R Walk. N'. Jaf^h. Pharm, 7, 1 ; further 18, 231. 

TLe litter priiii^lplc of tlict leaves of tho Gtohularia Ali/pf4ni, knt 
in comnicTCi? by tho uame of falac eflima, leavcB. 

PNparaHon^ The leaves are exlijinated by digeBtion In alcohol oF 

?p. gr. 0*85 ; the alcohol ia distillGil from the tmctures; th^ rosidiie 
Hii&|iondod in watei- is digewted for fiorae time and neatly at the boiling 
licit, wit U levi^itijd lithar^; the h^id liltercd; nud Ihc Sltrutc alowly 
ovaporaLpd evor the i*^tcr-bath. The residu^i lb treated with ether to 
remnvr yellnw nilnmiii^ iruiiter, then dfsHolved in water, and mised 
with tannio ncidf whieh predfalalea the greater pnrt of th<* globularin 
in white Hocke, whicli cake together to a resin, whiJ*>t another portion 
fcrrminff diesolTcd and rooy be jii-eci pita ted, though not ooojplelcly, tjr 
s&turation with ammooin. The precipitate f'^nned by tamiic acid m 
diflBiiiIved in alcohol; the solution mixed with lirvigated lilhor^-, an4 
Aoflted Dearly |4^ the boiling ^loint for severd daye, with froqi 
agitatioD ; and the filti-atc, after coiajtlelc precipitflfion of the tir 
add, w evaporated to dryness, qlobnlarin then remftining. Part 
the globnlaiiD is jjredpitated diu'iuE- the digestion of iLe afjueoog 
tS>^n fi ll]<? alcfibolie eitraet with litharge, and may Iv* dWob 
from the preeipitute by aleoln-iT. It ia tilhtained in Uie solid 
ovapnraTihp; tlie aleuhol, Eitid freed fri'^ni j^lobularcsin by washing will 
ether. — The leaves after exhaiiatton with jifcohel, still contain g^lobu- 
lorin, whieh may be obtAmetl by lx<!liijg them with water, |>TeH(iiiJvting 
Ihe deenrtiiin with nenfml ui»d basic neetnte of lead snceessivelr, 
fiveiiiff the filtralQ frem lead, rjeulrnlinin^ ^iih eaj-l-onafe f*f ittodn, and 
prfH'ipit.utln^ wjtli tannic acid. Fvom tliia prcctpitatij j^lobidarin b 
obtained us aUf\e, 

Frttp9rUti, White powder having a hitler toEte. 



io c ,^ 360 BT-sa . ten 

44 H-... ^ •i T«t «•«■ 

IB Q aa* — . afrpT a^tt 

C-H«0» , flS8 ., lOCKX) ,«»_ MCKia 

Vtfi «>lgal* * W tk* nAfta of bu ■Jikl.r'4 Juc«mcf)j. 

JktK ^ ^ t m iia m, 1, Arw with^mtroaidiio rm |JuLinnin-rd1. — 1. ftA 
Qnnetam vnlution iniiird wjtii B^^ph^trit f/dtf, hpenin««i turbid, dewsito 
while tminuim fftuhidnn, and ie eomplftf^ly re^olTcd hj boiling into 
Klc>biiiaivtin \\v, H>t) uid fiuiiglobalarelin, whidi B«pftrat«, and tiifax, 
£8-9 \iiA, flufiar l^cinj^ obtobod to ICV pto. grtobdarotui (ioppo^ ihu 


tlui mgaF roduoes tliB samo auantltj of cuprLc oxida from ui alkaline oolutLon u cano- 
ngftr [or glooote ? £>.] ) According to Walz, the reaction is : 

C"oH"CP" - O^H^O* + C^^HW + C?WOB + S6H0- 

An alcoholic solution of globularin, not quite pure, acquired^ by 
keepiug- for boiqc monthSf an agreeable odour of poQe-ap^es, and 
^]ded, by boiling with water, a milky distillate from wnich ether 
extracted a fragrant oil. This globularin yielded by boiling with acids 
the same prodncta aa the pure subst^Dce, together with a fragrant 

Apperi^ to Globularin. 

» 1. Qlobularesin. 

i a. F- Walz, N. Jahrh. Fharm. 13, 281. 

^ The fragrant resin of Qlohularia Al^pum. 

S Prom the alcohohc extract of the leaves, water eitracts globularin, 

^ vbile globulareein remains- The residue is dJsaolved in alcohol, and 

' tiie fil^te precipitated with water, — Extracted from globulann by 

? «theT, in the process of preparing tbat substatice (p- 82). 

t Ohve-green, trauBpareat, kaeadable mass, having the odour of 

L riobnlana leaves. 

f W*li. 

h *0 C 240 69-40 B995 

( 36 H 86 8-91 »'03 

t 16 IBS 81-69 3:03 

0«H»»OJ" 404 10000 10000 

ITali, hj ma incomct akolBtUHii uriTei ai ths fbrmalft C*"H''0" (Kr), 

2, Glolmlaritaimic Acid. 

Q. P- Walz. jar. Jahrb. Fharm. IS, 287- 

The yellow colouring matter of the leavee of Glohutaritt Al^pumt 
ksown odIj in alcoholic eolntion and as a lead-salt. 

Predpitated from the aqueous eolution of the alcoholic extract by 
digevtioa with litharge in the manner already desenbed (p. 82). 

Tiie predpitate ia triturated with alcohol, and decompoaed by 
^nte aulphuHc acid; and the greenish brown filtrate, after being 
wbtJum up with a email quantity of carbonate of lead, is precipitated 
vith tfi Alcoholic solution of neutral acetate of lead. Tma proceHs 
llljfjip globnkritannate of lead, 

im ftkxdiolio aolutioii of globularit&imic acid, neutralised with 
coloujB ferric hydrochlorate dark-green, and fonns dirty 


jpodpitetefl with sulphate of copper, mercarous nitrate and oxido 


16 c oe 2iaa ii-ea 

13 H ...«.-.„.. IB i-70 ....... E'6l 

uo -^ iia „«..„ ai-2B £S'Sa 

SPbO SM WC5 61I-E5 

c^n'^O'^aPbo *4^i 100-00 i<KW 

With od of vitriof, it forma a Lrcwn B^ilviliou. fi"<*in whidi wnteT 
thrown dijffubfuwii tirx:kB. — It is n^t altered by htj<h^j\^hlGric addi but 
nttt-ic Qci't of Bp- gr. I -48 diKwolvcB It, with evfJiilioii of rwl vapours. 
— It diflHolvea iu <^m\onm aud in potash^ nnd is prccipitated bjr 



SCUEIAUKIE. -4» GchL tf. 54S. 

Duchhoi^z. r^ffcAf/r^. 1811, fl8, 

PrAfF. Sfsttm ikr Maltria ineJicu^ 2, 110- 

BLtT. N. rr. 24, 1, 102 J ^Hn/'Aur«l. 'I, SSa^ — J^^^r. CS^ffl. 1, 

Jtf".£r. Areh. 37. 82- 
Trohmadorfk. A^. Tr. 34, a, 28. 
Dui^KO- J, Phamt. Iil.5fi7. 
HkJCBT & BoUTTtOW-OllAJtVARIi* J. PhtiFtiU 14, 2JD. 

B(i*aT- Ann. CMm. Phffit. 51,300: J- P^'ttn'i. Itf, 1 i -4mi» PAifrrH. 

168; Schv-. 68, «1. 
Fb£UT. Ant*. Chim, Ph^A. 5Si 101 \ Ann, Phariu. l£, 197; J. pr, 

8. 303. 
QoEVEWJE. /. Pharm, SS, 460 ; abetr. AnnPhiinit. 20, 34, — ./. Pj 

23, 270, 
MAtAPtJtT. iV, J. Phm^K 10, 339, 
La Dedp. Vompt. r<Hii. '^\, G52 ;^ Chenu 51, 4714 

8cn&BLUfO. Ann PJti^infU 74i 351. 

Eo4;HLKi>Ka & SuiiiTAuz. Wici\. Akad. Jtet: lU ZA^ i J^ pr. Chem. ii{\ 

291 ; ab«tr. ^irn. P^crni. «d, 3^C ; i-i^A. A'o^p. Jahvth, 1 

ik»LLEV. ^N/i, PW/fl. 00, 2ia i abfltr. /, pr. Cftfw*. 63, 92.—^ 

/^unn, 91, 117: abatv. ./. ;>r. CAcm. 03, 253. 
A. OvtunECK. ,V. Dr. Arch^ 77, 134, 
Til, CwAWFrRD. Pfiorrn. Vwrtti/iihnst-h'ijt, fc, 361, 
Tu. K(H:iiL£i>iai & V. I'Am. H'ltfn. ^^oJ. J^#r. 4G, 7 | CArm. Cmfr. 1 


Strarcrt and Jiiifari/. Occutv Lq pluntfl n[ ViiHoiu nAtnr^ familirfl, 
rfi|vriii)ly hi thi* Siim&ii {Hmttthvj-h, viii, P/tyttvhfm. ;i3), — in the root 

Uuik Jin iuit'ifnttf ertiiifUvt ui'Ati'r- {h-tttundfr iii-trntrtivsto^U lUvmt> 
ini; iVx^mr ■ t^finriitlB of .*4«p.tiiariL. wif u. 9L. ^ In the rjiot of Oj/ptofm U tt 
Srwiith\tiPi. nh l''knu4<[]jr hieb^-oU'iI ljy Wiihlt^nlK-rj^: tli@ £ij1iiJljiiiLt» ih^Ttioo 
fiMiiiiirii wan caUvA Strvilmy by Bluy^ hn\ rori»jfiiint'<i \jy Ui 
wipiriiii. -^ hi Ajfr<*afiiiniit f iuh^u/u {Mii\n\n:rt}^ njiiuiitutmu 

fcponin, Iho quantity inoreaBiap till tho eced ripena^ the stiilkB, leaves, 
id colicea do iint contain flajx^niii (M!tlfi]x:it). The bOtde uoiiEitin 
9 p.t'_sapitniiu but tlit; basic Biibstaiifi? ij<fr{i»rtrrtmiti/i, c-niRliJig, awj'.irdin^ 
I Schul7e(-V. Br. Ardi. 55, 298, and 56, IGJ) in the sccd-alielts, i» not 
) be found there (Cm wfurd), — In the bark of Quifioia ^^ttpfmana 
Handhuch^ viiu Phjkf^he^it. 15), (forminj^-' Uonry & Boutrr^n's an-id priit- 
pUf Bl<*7's QiiUftiuii] fLc Bcuf) ; ftleo in the 1111141 of Mo/tina Pi'fi/^tfachff'i 
Jan'ifMirh, l/>r~ vi't. 42), dest'iilied by Momihon (jV. /fr, -4^'cA. 10, J78) 

1 Jron/«i>j, re^ngnispd by Ltr Benf an Ha]>onin, Tii the monesia-burk 
F Chrf/s'jphifll\tm /fh/typhf^im {HoiMuch, Ii/c^ cit- CS)t DeTOsno, 
[enry k Payon (^, Phunn. 27, 3S) fmind Mm^t^ wfiich ia idniticftl 
ith SAfioiuap — In' I be following Sif^inF: DianrhNi^ Cuittophylhis, D. 
'arihnnifinrtrun', D. Of«"/, and D. prnlijir ; {,j/i:iitiin clialceflowcat A. t'l**- 
rtivui and ^- T'^iji Citmii. Si/enr \t\falti atid S. intlfxtis contain saponin, 
ke latter considorable quantitieaof it, but not in tlio eeed (MnUj^erl). 
- In the root of ArtngatliA amensis and -1. ciralea (Malapert). 

Sencffin or Pofjfjafiti, discovered by Gchlen. iu the root of PiAi/ffaia 
Bn, whidi WHH iisHocialt'd with tiupnniij l>y Buehholn ami TfafT, 
Bitely eKauiin(*ii by Quovennei wbn nnmeil il <iciV/« poltfgiditjuf^ ind 
impared it with napornn. Ib, according Lo Bfilley, probaldy iJ^ntioal 
iih saponin. But Bijllcy did not follow yuevonne'a mode of pro- 
iration, ami moreovert liiJ not operate on pure ecnegiii. For This 
ABon the two biidies an^ horfi trea.led an dii^tinel, although the 
lentily of their decom position -prod nets ie regarded as eatablished. 
eacbicr'fl pni^geiUc acid{R^oert. II, 2 ■ 12, 430; 13, -157) was perbupB 
i4lio acid. The nature of ^fAii^cW^poUff}twtftrln{Reperi, (17i 305) from 
\*iygala tunam rcmaiiiH to be determined by further iiiveatig'ationfl- 

The fruit of the horw?-dieHtlH]t { f {miff burl ^ viji, Phfftuchcm, 25) coii- 
U1I8 Baponin, according tc» Fromy, alao according to Tij^p {Pfiarm. 
'ifrieljiAi-aicfir. 3, I'J) ? according to Kochleder (Handbuch, viii, 
^yU>chcm. 2G)t it contama a flubatancc reaembling saponin. Malapert 
Hind aapoiiin in the ovarica during the Howeriiig season, in the 
uioarp of the fnii[, immeiiiately after the fall of the petals ^ only a 
ace ill the pericarp of tho rip? fruit. 

Saponin la contained in Arnica mQnftfaa i^Htrnfib^^ l'>G. cit, 6C) JW- 
irdlD^ to BuchholK; in Arum maciil^tum (loc. cif, fl3), accrirdlJlg to 

02 {Pharrn, Vtaletf, 61, 27); in Cfif'^df'i iS'irjiit Puntoris {IfuniJif'ifrit, 
C, tit^ 3ft), aeo'>rding to Tlaiibrawa (Phorm. Virrirjj, 3, S37) ; \i\ the 
^rk of Gifvinad'^das canofleuah. according to Braconnol {Ann. Chin. 
^jf. 50, 3^2; llafnibiivh^ ioc. ciL]\ in the root of PoJ^iajrUum rtitgnre^ 
joording to Pfaff, Wahlcubcrg suapects its o^uattncc in the fruit of 
apiriiJrm S'iptrf\ifri'i (Jlaiidlmtih, loc cit. 26), *?. I'tfinfhUiis and -S', rii/tdn^; 
oehledrr Ji. Si^hwari^ KuppoHo it Ici i^siHt in the fruit iif Pircintift abifm- 
ca, and in many plants of the HapiudiicKniH and ininioaeous orders. 

The im'tatirty e^trartk-t> watier {kriift^dfit Kitrae/iivfajf) found by 
[unefold {J. fii\ C'bciu. 7, 571 iu the njot of the co\vnli|>, Pi-iim&ia va-ia 
7a»ti&itcht hccit, B^), is perhaps identical with fiaponiu. 

Prrjuir/ithn^ A, From the rcoi of Sapojtn'Ta Or of Gtffwtpftiia 
iTOfAmm. 1. Tlie chopped root is cihauated wiOi LdlJEig alcohd of 
). gr_ 0'824 \ the filtrate jft OJoled ; and the dppoHJt of nafK>niu \vhii:h 
^NUftteB after 24 Imura ie oolleded, wafllunl with cthi;r anil aleoiiol, 
id drii^d at l^^O" (Kochlcder & Schwarz). Oretbcck trculs (ho nlculichfl 
fiilh feDinuI chnri^aL — Sclu-hdcr ciliiiuaUd Uioi^mMUB i^xlnuit with mrm 


dJcolitil, or ihc bJccIidUe) cximct wilh wnUrr- — If the root be boi]L^l frilli wvt^i 
■F>iril, thd deouCliDii FDDCdtilmtpil and miiEtl iritb absoluta aloobul, aapociQ la ob- 

Tftinud, oootummii'wl Tithi pini AT i^iriiT. — 2. The coftr&cly-iioTindBd root. IB 
freed by clhtr from rcein a»id fnt, then boiled with alo<'L'>l, aud the 
nnnkfi whicli scpufote on uooling aud concentratiuii aro collected (Bia j 

B. From Quilloia-barh, Tliis la the bwt iMtoriiJ for prppwing wpoiikD hr 
tftJiiiirai pufp^^^rt (I* Beuf). The Aame pn>ceaa as in An I (Lc B^iif) ■ or 
the iLi|iicoUH i.')Llract ic^ liMilt'd with Mbviljul ; U14.1 1iL|ijiiJ Ia l^llired ut [ho 
boiiiii^f boat, and tho white? liockawldch ful] down cm i.'ft<iliiJg and t>oti- 
CDiLtratJon uif.* fiuriticd by solution iu alcciliol, with n-id of uninii^H 
charcoal <IlL'nrj- & Boiitron, B\oj). ^| 

0. Ftvm the seedx of the Com-eoMe (J^^>srfTHwa Githago), ^I, Tho 
coorsolj jmlvcriscd dry flccde art? fr&Gcl from flscd ml by rcwutfwi 
Clliftnstioti wilh etLtr, theu by otico cxiiauatuig with ciM ulcnhol uf 
93° TriiUrB ; Ibc reeiduc i« briiJed ecveral tiniea with alcohol of di Tr- 1 
the liquid fdtcred at tho bcthn^ heal, and tliL? sapimiii whiiih separates 
ofi cooling is ix^llccfod, on addxtionsil quantity huing obtaiued by 
miiiiii; the ni'>tli<'r-liquoi' wilh obsuhilc ak'chol- Tho wbolo of tho 
Baixtuin thuB obtained ia dissolved in water ; the BoUition Lo filtered l^ 
Hrj.iari*U' vtifelable gvlalb, tbtu |*ix'ci|iilatfd with uuutral *cct»te of 
li?ad S l\u} nrmjillato rcinovod ; llio lllliah^ |]n.H-i[ntij1i<d wirh \>Avic 
acetate of lead j ihu latter pn^ci])itat&. nfter lhorotig:li wnblirrp-* dowhm- 
poH'd uod<.T water by hydi-nsiilpLinric add; and the huipid filtrato 
evaporated tn dryncae, or predpitated with abholiitc alc^'h*'-! (Scbariin^) 
— 2. Thfr niiui-miH ritnit'l of the seed in i^rw^ijHtiilcd with nijl|ihRlr *>? 
<Yipp<*r 1 bymvmnl]>hiirie ^leid ifl pflRsi^d throii^b ihn filtrate; ib^ Inpud 
opaiti filTori'd, lbci» digested with mrbinialc of barj-la- Ihc n^Bidtrng 
Imiytu-eultrt prf^dpitatod by idooliol ;Liid fii.'[iartite<i by liluatiufi; and Iho 
liltrato titlir.T Blr"ii^ly coni^cniralt-d — in whicb casu tlio saponin is to 
bo pn-fijiilifcl^'d liy alisoluto alnihnl, — or rvaixiraL*"*) U' riiyuiss, niid the 
ri^iidni' Imilr-d wiTb al^v^hol 'if ^^y*^ Tr. Saponin thiin |>TopBrt*d con- 
liuiiH a 0in;tl] ipiantity of bama (Scbarliug), — 3, C'rawfnrd dl^-ete 
the piilvi'rift4'd Bcode with wami au«K*<Min ulrohol, ovaporalos tho Inpiid 
to a ayrap, mil<*a it wilh wood-cbareoai, and drk'a it conipl^uJy, 
The wuHimn » rxlnw^lod fr<nn tlie rt'siduo by killing witli aloohi^l. 


W /Vo'rt JioTfe-rAfttii'iifi. Tho |>iilvcriROfJ needs are cxliauHt4>d w 
cidd alculi<>1« and th^^ alcnho] ia djntiUod cff from tbe tincturce, 
yclWwish jrHy wliii'h rmtuuri.^ lYinsitils, for tlm in'tut pari, of aapnidn, 
mii<*d ^villi fuif a bittc-r rrkFila1liF!ablt> anlnilitiii.v, and yt'lUta-inioiinov 
matter i tho fai m&y bu rvu^ov^d by ctbiiiivliun with otbor (Frvmy). 

if! mimt'linirH mninrnnar''(l Willi foreiifn ttiil>atanccs» vr*>bably in coi>^ 

tirepaied froni Gyp/ophln by tln^ timl 
(I Willi foreJL'n ttubatanccs, rr*>bably 
nalitittton of the root* not uxhcfttcd 

cmy). ^ 

in cmkS 

h(4pK-iioi *d a, p.^ctiliw ciinj3iit»»tton of the root* not uxhcfttcd by any 
idtiTatiiiri iff itn milward a|>jH-Limn(i.s in ccinHOiurnct^ rif whien the 
lutblrM ihciWH liHi ifniall an anmiml nf cnrlum nnn of bydroffon. It lA 
purifk-d by dJMoK'ih^ it in iIh.- t^malkwt |JO(!i«Lblu ipmntily <kf wfttcr, 
and ad'linff bnryla-WDt<rri wliieh jjrvcipitntcrt aa|Krnin-buiylA, IvAviof 
Uir f<'rd)fn unbHUhnct-A in ii'diiiSoii* tIil^ while ]jnrt])itate A WR*hr3 
with barytR'Watf^r Knd disHihf-d in wali^r; on paMfiijjg cttrbonkr atid 

tton and J^^^^u^btiAto of baryt4 Bep«nht«t_ 



out, and after its removal the Bapoiiin loay be precipitated hj ether- 
akohei (Rochleder & v. Payr). 

Pn^tertka, White, non-cry stall be, friable powder (Buaey, Henry 
APliBBon, Overbeck). Colourlesa (Rochleder & Scbwarz); yellowiak 

white (QueTenne). By procipitAtioa of the cotuwalratfld aqueoiu ■olution witb 
idoohol, it iJt obt&ined ai & white itaroh-Iike DiMfl ; but when the alcohol u enporuted, 
it duntTH in the residual vnter to h sjrup which dri« up to a tough hornj ma» 
(Cr»wfupd,8charliiig). InodorouH {Hcniy & Pliesoii) ; has a peculiar 
■Tomatio odour (QucTeuuc); ioodorous when drj; the aqueous aolu- 
tion has a repuleivc odour (Schariiiig-). The dust exdfces violent 
ffnee^ng. Sapouln tastes sweetish at first, then burning and biting, 
ftnd produces a persistent scnitdiijLg sensation iu the throat. — A drop 
ci the aqueous solution jutroduced iuto the eye produces vioient 
tmnkio^ pain and dilatation of the pupil (Sdiarling). Neutral to vege- 
table CoIourSi Aooordiog to Queroune it hdo an odd reaction. ActB polson- 
Oii0ly on the smaller ardnials (Scharling). 

Cai^viioit tsecorditig U Bochledor k ScbwE. 

U O «-«, «..- 1*4 6217 

£0 H 20 721 

U O IIB » 40-69 

t^B^^O"* , 

,.. 276 .. 


Act^rding to 

CaliMiatioiu accordiitff to 

86 0.... 
28 I£ . 
24 0.-., 

40 54 

■S H 38 .... 716 




C"H»0*' 530 


0"U"0« 486 


CaldUa^eiu according to Hoohleder & r. Pajr. 
tU lOO". at 100", in tatmo. 

US a.. -. 768 62-97 128 « 768 .... 

106 H 106 7'31 105 H 105 ..- 

n O B76 39-73 71 568 .... 




C7»E*0»„-.... 1450 100^ c^=H'»0" 1441 




H .. 





it Schwan. 


.^. 62'54 . 

... 7-26 . 




at 100\ 

. 46'81 49-10 

,. 7'Bl 6-86 


„. B072 
„. 7-44 
... 42-6 40-20 45-68 4402 4184 

100-0 100-00 100-00 100-00 lOOOO 

Bochleder & t. Pajr. 
at 100^. at 100° in vacuo. 

mdaif. mean. 

C 52-64 B3'17 

H 7-S7 7'67 

O saw .«. 89-26 

lOO'OO 100-00 

TIm ■np'*'"' of fiodilMLw & Schunfff atill oontaintd imall qiuclitiea of nam and 


products nf detDingiOAELicin. Bolloj's snponui coTiiftiiiftl utout 1 p. c. ao1i» wUirti 
is d(diirl.«lH One annipli' of onponio CKnniiriiM] by HkKiliWW A Sehwaj^ caDtrtKiod 
■i'JIp.t. daIi. In llic oiLcr r^iccbairna ttc amount af uh 10 iic^ ilotej. S^xliledT 
fDni]er]_v P^i^ftpdml the duon>iKiiiciDB in The ODftljHeaiu Mu* wsult of ulr* Talions «hich 
ihfi sii|»i>n]Ti iiiidfp^(»a in drym^ 1 tul be* now pegnrdi uponin pontaininc tlic 
Bniftllpr imoinil of car*ioii as iinpuro ; t, Pn.vr, dIhi fuiuiiJ in MpoEiii, bcfuro puri- 
Bmiiuu Willi barrln-miirr. 487 p, i', C. juid 09 IT, Rfflpccliiig llio ronuulFi m*< 
Dccompotifiim 5, — Saponin ia Hctc.oii llii* ip'i.iuiKl of EoUoj-'b Ibmiiila for ra^joei^nin 

Srf, S3), enuincr4t*d aintjiip tho ^lucosideH wiih 2-1 «. C, ilthuin^li EocblB<Ui 
^ T- "Pijt^t biyvctjgfllLan a^igru (a it aaothw, but itlU lui^iDrmiDed p«iiion. 


Dercfftpotirionfi, I, Saponin eubj^ctod ic diy rlatitiation awolls u' 
&tkd girea off a lar^ qaautity of acid cmpymumntio <tl\ (Buaay). — 
2, Aqneou& Sftponiii absorbfi oxtfgrn^ and bc-comes tnrbid^ P"*Tnff ^ 
citrbouic add and d(.'[icwitiitg wliite tl^ialic flocks (SchraJiT, BracoHnol). 

Wbrn tlw Bottitioii i* reiwilpdlyf'VikiKitniTprl it bi"curnr"i rlnrlirr [BiKHilioli). Alrvholiff 
•aponin *el isiile far a >pftr in u luiWM-lj c«»tri?d p^-r*] oniv yiylfted nftdlw vlii^h 
liumtBwiiv withDujulu — fl. Wiih oif cf dtn'ot it f«rniH a redilisU-yi'lluw 
snUitmn, dinii^Tig-to bright r«l and uhimately t[»Tiolet-V(>d CQitPvi-imy). 
It imparls lo oil of vilri<'*l a red-colour changing to violcl-red when 
h-^ifcUd, aiiti iiually becomes cliarred (Blcj). — ■!, Saponin diK&olv*?d in 
IS ptB. of chlGiiae-it-^ur fonuB a brown turhuMiquid, wliltli la ll»c course 
of 12 liouib dDpuHiE.» wbttc Ikckfi euhjbb hi alcnlml (BacMiolc, 
BrafHinnt), TmcUire of iodine doefl ijf>t dtt^r mpieoLis HiLpiniiri (liley). 
— ^. By diJuto mineral acitU, BUpOHill is dr^conipriflcd, nlowly in tho 
c<»(d, m«ri> quickly wbcri healtd, 3t»Io papopcnin ()iv, 53) and a corbo' 
hytlnitc (Ov-tri>cdc. U'xhlcdcr &t Sdiwara), Sflitonin from hm-sc-obcfll- 
nuU* litflUnl witb bydn»cUluiic ai:id or Hubjt-ck'd to the acliuu of the 
cli'Clrii.' fiirrt?nt, d4'pnmls satxjgoTnn iinmf^diH[.ely. and whoa nn-rely sot 
jutide witb bydrocliloiic acid it di^fx^init^ tliAt substance aft^t a wlule, 
w}ict^a« naponin from Snponoriti ytelila eapo^^oain only when hcai«4i« 
(Freiny)- — Saponin diasoh'es completely lu cold cmccntnilt'd tydroJH 
rhlriric acid, witbuat tuniffactiun, tlie «(jlutio:i not yielding any^^ 
pntipitifcte on adriilion itt water. Wlicn boiled witli erjiml qnantitwa 
oF wftttir and bydrotblorie acid, it likewiRo iliflRolvea without fomung 
any jfela|iii*»u8 prf*t:ipitalc» Lnt on addition of woter^ dcpotdta wbito 
flocfa) of aajH'iirnin (Qncveanc), Saponin and papoirttiiin it-act in 
wun© way wiih liydn^ebloric add jlkiUey). AeetiL' acid at'ls li 
liydmcbloric a^^id, tlioiig-h muro alowly, »j thai waponb eannot 
frcc'l from adaiised aflh by flolHlioii in ak'ribolie iw^otjo acid. 

Fomnila^ fvr Ihe reaction; «. ftccordinc to Kiicblodor it Schwann' 
who regard the dccom|KJBit ion -product as identical with thinoTin ; 


b. According loOverbock: 
r. Aocotdiiig toBoUey; 

2C»[i»(0* + lono - oil"©" • 4C»B*H)'*H 

On tlio rnrlm-liydralr Jliua prudneed, ee<< xv. 348, and heli>w, 

Sapuuin wlmn di:e<^ni|uii^d ly neidi^ ia ramble of yidditig Tarioi 
prodticta C'( decunip<jBition« aeci^rdjn^ 110, of tho G uU carbobydrel 
wkkjb it CfBtaJnv, two, morti than two, or the whuIciLrv sepvnlaL 



Of tbme prodocls, the 'former are obtain^ by the aelbn of 
■gpooufi adie, but crttnplctc docoini>oflition is prodncod only by the action 
Sf llcnholic by(ir(>clilcrric n^id (Rot^nlcdcr & v. Payr). AccorduiK" io tilts, 
fmly tbp cr^BtalH destribrd lUiJur ti tire the true hUito^'cmQ, and tho 
liotiy d^flrriJw?d at pnge 53, vul. x\, niitttl 1m? i-e^'Jirded nw u [iroduc^t of 
imperfect decomp-tsitimi: 

a. TUc product U'"H^**0'^, obUincd from fl&ponui by eliminatioa 
of 2 at. carbohydrate* la porhaps Fremy'e jtaculic acid fiv» 54, anal- k) 
!U it agTPt'B iu aiDouut <ff tarlioii with the f^jimula C^**I1"0*' (calc. 
R7Sa p, V. V. nn-t 7-S3 HI (Rufhieder). 

ft. Sapmin pm'Uied with baryta-water yields, when heated with 
atiut^QO b^^droeliloric acid, 53'1 p. c Bu^''ar aud gelatinoua flookB, 
wriiclu when diicd at 100° C, coutftin, (m iixc siveragc, G5 p» c. 0, and 
8"f»4 H., apretinj;^ nearly with the f<n'mulu C"!!*^" (rBlr- fiaSfi it. c.O. 
St© no. In lliia CBSG llie deeoinpositioii talc^iB pl&ce (^litefly in the 
DiQimcr fihowii by the equation: 

CKTH'^o" ^- mo - 0*^*0=^ + tcir=oi=, 

fili^fi-flap. r. C'-H^O'-'). OveH>eck's ftapogonm C*'n'^(F (sv, 51) 
liktwiH*^ bidong^ to this place (KochJcder & v, Payr). 

c» Hy prolonged boiling with aqneoua bydrocldL*ric ncid, 62'B^p, c. 
Migar and a jelly C"II'^)^* arc uhtaiiieJ t^'^'i'i"- 67'5-'i p. c. C, »-61 11) ; 

(CJfvCfl-ftp. c, C"U''Oi=) Thiw amwjars 1o be the composition of the 
Bipogcnin analjflcd by Rochlcdcr cc Schwarz {xv, 54, b). 

d. Wbou tilt- IlijckFi which t^pii^uiiU^ ihi bniling^siipuiiin wiib arpieoua 
liyflrr>oblonV and, are diewolved in aTihyriiOHB alLMbol, and hydrochloric 
idd gati 13 piiswc'l for several houin through the* boiling solution, white 
oystiilfl C"11''0" arc dtfposJtod, produced by complote rcBglution of the 
HIKinin (fiochlcder & t. Payr); 

These eryRlats. afrpr TCOTy«tflllieflt(ou Fmm alcohol aud drying at 
lflO\ contain oil the as'crage 7578 p. e, C, 9713 H„ :ind M'i*i (ct.h. 
k, c^H^O^, 7S0a p. cC, 0-50 H„ nadlilfiO.). Tljcy are insoluble in 
^ater, diftsolre Hparing-ly iu cold, easily in hot ulc<jhifl, aiid are nearly 
inBohilJe in aqnenufl [hjUsIi. Pniin tliL' fiLwily prDiliiced aolnlior in 
■Icoftfilit potfltih, a<piei.iiis potaeli throws down ahnost the whole of the 
OMuiJOUiid of eapo;>T?nin and potofb, which p^rva up ite potaah during 
ifaBUini-- (TU>ch!cder & t. Payr.) 

The caibohydr*te produced, together with t^upogcniii^ In insoluble 
la alrahul Ht till? iroiottit of **ejniratirm, iind is cimvert^d hitfi 
deitn^ghicose only by the pri>lonp^d action of hot acidfi (Rochlodef 
A V, Fayr). Ste the pruo^'ihng i^ttitiimouta (xvj 34H}. 

6, -JVfcfrw actii of fip» gr. 1-33 dieeolves saponin easily, ^tcb off 
red fufflce when heated, and deposits a Bulphur-ycUow rtrain, iwid 
iftetwwda on uooiiug-, white pulverulent inndc acid. Osalic acid ie 
likewise forau'd. (i^Jnuvfurii.) The solution of s-iponin in Hlrong^ nhhc 
Mil doposiiti, on addiHon of water, xyloidin and a very bitter aubsianee 
(Bracoanet, Ann, Ckim. Fkys. 5^, 2iJU). (jfco also Buaiy, Hmrj A PLaBon, 

m Eke tuumBdcet 
l«iU mith pf-losb 

db Eiot pr*.< I 


^ Mi nUuiiL acid initi mv 


Aooaniing lu 

oMUj m mm^, m «Mloa oonuiutw 

»ftotlijl^n>d ('"iliaiM, a^iy ami Ptbae^ 

w«te it tfwdlft ^ to «» «1^KM li^itnu, 

wbea thomi^ ^, <EI«07 4 

BooUaqueoiiBffiwvuEBAitd MoiA, mnn^Hr 

WW3D (Sl'f/)- AUaIu vhI nnifi-wai«r do WH 

to aqnentw nnlntloD (Bnwj)^ batooJoitrdi 

BnciaDQcpt), sc likewise do ammrmift (Ddo«f I 

a€ BMiwk (Tramm«ct{>rir). 

gf t pC aip>mii in 4 nia. w&ler throwH down fnn 

fm^tAl« Hulufili^ ill exo«f8 of BapnaJn *ir ti 

Tbo coinpouiLd IB idsolublo or aovtj mt k 

«oi4ily in puTtt vr&l«r {BuvUeder * 

doM iiM prtvJjrttAte nn^r neiailie MJf <BraoM«E<^ 

Utj h'lJlJMi^' ibr ^ItrArii, a fmtllvr iNvdplHItvf 

A fvfcnrv). The prroipiUlo u adabl« In aMtk uL 
Ai.y^iHtug' to finuvnnirt »ai1 Baa^j. inMnl aoBlMt if 

.«v rfl^^, u''^'^ ^ utmMM MWifa tt w u ia im t 
.l.»rn right piyjrtocfafHbfiMlQ 




i.1 A'S'-J'" 

iliwHilvm in 4M 
I L- bcrewMd 



acetic add (Bueej). A conoontrated aqiieoHB Bf^fulion of Baponlix ia 
ii*M i>recij»ilalpd by aleobi>l (C'rawfurdJ. 

taixmii] is baolublo in ttficr and in vf>l<itik oUa. It docs not pre- 
cipitate Eoliiticm tif gtdutiii (TiTJiuiLiMdorlT)' Accnrdin^f 11* Bracouui»t 
IL&J Dutdtig, it pn?dpititefl tinettivt of galh En grej'isli yellow flr^^jkB ; 
ficcordiug to Scliarling, only when it la itnpurG. 

Oaln-'itiL^'B Principle of Sijfitti-iAofJ^tiHiiIh. --Occata »n fho rocpte only bcforo 
jLunrmiA liinf^ Obtaiiit''] tntm IIlc ihjuDiritfi iltooutian- WIilIuL ruduta iir«dlcfl| 
irbu'ii mdt n[ a moiieratc btvr. KiEli-vmulj bitler NcucriJ. — J£i¥bLU up lad 
blfii^krii^ in Ibo fl/v ; oarboTnnpd hv oj/ if rtfrioi. — DiflAolvni in lnu Tlinn 2 pt«. 
iTflJ^.- snluble in al^-hor, and m V4f f, inBoluble iu oil n/ turpentine (Osl^ornp, 
jivt. PiUt- 11,302; Kvtn.ArrA.e, i^d; BerL JaArb. IBW, 8. l*7j Ben. Jah- 

Gehl^v, ^o-/. ja/'4. 1804, 113. 

J. DrLoflo. /. Phanti. 13, 667- 

TitOM¥SiioaKR A'. Tr. 24, 2, 28, 

QctvxyiNE. J. Pfiarfa. '22, A*iO ; ehutr. Aim. Ph firm. -2^^^ 3A i J. Pharvu 

23, 27U. 
30LLt;r. A"n. Phtimt. DO, ^11 ; abalt, a/^. ;^r. CAem, 63, d2. — Aruu 

Phurai. 31. 117 i ubhll, J. pn Chcm. 03, 253, 
W. pRotTEH. jiin. Chmu Ntws, 18(11, 40; Zfitschr. Ch. Phiwi, 4, 153, 

Pfl^tftilin^ ^ii^idif pofv^ati^ip. Foiipd, logplbci* wilh n*em, by Golilon in ibp Poot 
flf iW*,f7'r/ii £Fiwi7a, BDrl d,^6crib^ DA b iiihBtnna* [ii-rfA>Uy insoiubJe inwntaraiid 
ttUvr. bulAolnblo in alooluk! Assnr-lnf^d^ hj Pfofl', vha oUIp'I it trafinvti^ Eitrae- 
iittttnff'. mid bj ttuciboli:, who nuned it SeiUffia. inih r^hpnnin, vhidi ii aolublii in 
WftUT- J^uIflDg wu ijut ablfl In obtun OrbLuu's Bcut^Ui. but bv [jrtiparvd froia 
ttfiopfr-nj^ a pruduL^t ii<ri.'CLEi|j vt'Ilb OcblciL't rcBiij^ nhJi'h lip di-ni^iikl^ bb 
■Hfi^rff a«-r» HgrcHTLnff lU dvoic n'BpirclB iritb paponiiL' PiirJ^ sfnr§;in am^tura lo baw 
b«RL flnt obliunod bT Quo^|tan«', imcirding Lo ttbcni \\ U diS'i^rLiil 1rq>tu taponJD, 
wher«i;« Bo|I(<v, wb4 hLtncvcr did not fellow Qtipvennc-'v mode of pFOpuvtioD, rcgwdfl 
lb* tvo Hti idcTitirfli, — Aifot-iiitig to A. Vogel {N. Srpert. fi, »Syj, pierobcfienin 
(it, W) iA idtiDtJOi] 07 Dt Icut iBoroBrio vjtli irmegin. 

Fftjvrrtttion. Frcmi Seiwjri'root^ 1, The ront 18 cxliailstpcl with 
cold wutc-r; Llic cjctract oanc^eiitrutod, oud liltored from tlic aoiAmtod 
iLicks contairimp w'tickiti aiid cartJiy MLltB; the filtrate precipitated 
witli inrutrid acettvlf of lead; tbe liquid again filtortd, fretd fruin 
by hyilniHuIiihiiLitr ftdd, and pvaj^oruU-d Ui ftn uxtract ; tbiH ex- 
(■ihaiiBtt-iJ with alc(>hi-)[ f»f 3fj ; tlie tfncturo evaporaled; the 
rmduc hfiid by other from yollr^^r cftlourinj^ m^ft^r aud fat, tboa 
dieBoUi?d in wntf'i' 1 the urilatioii pru'cipitjited with basic acotate cf 
lc;»d, and Uin iirFAMjjitiite wasln^d and docoiDp<jKcd by hydjcsulijburic 
add. Fart of tbr Beru-gin thoa n>uiiLiim witli tbt- Bufphide of load, 
li? nr;ritbpr portion dreti^'jlvos, so tbat : n. The eulphido of load a 
IW'tcil ami Iwilod ^th alwbrd ; A, Thp liqoid filtt^retl from tbo sul- 
j.hide of lead h evap'>rated to dryness, aud the re&iduo ie boiled with 
alcohol. The bot-fdterod Linctiiite coulcd aad left lo evaporate, de- 
poaif Kenf'iTin, which maybe punfiedT if neeeBsriry, by re-Ho!nfion in 
a]c'>hi^l and Ircalmonl with animal cbarcnftl (Qnpvcuno), Setioga-toot 
exhftnatcd with water Btill yields ecne^in when boiled with afcohol, 
the tiactmedepoBitiiig the aenegin when cooI«d or cimccntr&ted. lb 


IH purlQcd from Tut br cllier, then with IjheIi: acctiviG of lead, a 
(QupTPnne)- — S. Bulley prpripitnU'R iIip naiiomm Bolntitm of offlririf 
extract of sent'g'ii with Ticntral acotAle Ljf iVud; colk-cte and waftUoii^ 
th<? prenpilalp; dccoiupoBOfi it willi hydioeitlpljiiric acid; cvajRiral 
(liu filirfltc to drjuofls ; IWIs llic rcsi Jut' with Alcohol ; ovopomlCB 
Miicture ; trials th<; resiJuu with itlicr ; dit^^clves tlit iNjrtiuii not Uiken 
np hy Ihc ellier iii water; prcnpitalos the sriliititiE witli basiti ar<*iatv 
ri lend- dwompoaefl the ibi'r<ni]^r-ii|y wanhi^d prcoipilftto UDdtr vcnU't 
with hydmsirlphuric ftcidj oi'ftprirateH the filtmti?; and piiritius the 
fteaegiii wUicb tomfliria hy rcpcjited Folutiou in boilin^^ iLlc:ohcJ atid 
COolilJ^- Eittlrj' sitp^o^es Thjj jirooefm to lip llio thma u l^iat of Qiim^pon^ bul th# 
l^vaInclhcMlsdil^^^ in thj» jvs|i«t, thai QucvoniK^ obtniiullir^ Krapgiii frout tlu flltnfif 
after precipilDtion njch niM:lati' of t«Kt, whfrfris BuUcj oblaina it fmm Ibi* pnQ' 
pitalti itflcEl^. ThiEt iin^ipjInTr, oncrdin^ io Q.nrTcHTip, ccnlaiiig duIt Irvr* of 

KHogLu (Kr.) — 3. Tho pulverised root is exhausted with ak'oH<»l of 33^ 
tho ^rf?atcr imrl of the olcohi.tL m diAlilled aEf ^ thi- n-sidual hyrnp m 
frPL'd fr^m fat by ftlier : the deposit frirmcd after Klaiiding- f or rofdq 
timo is collected and sii»i|icndcd in wslrr; the tnrbid (rllTiile is mixed 
wilU a little alcohol which faniblatcs Uio foniialioii fti a prod|.«lftlOi| 
iitid tho liipiid ift left to itaeU for several duyfi. The dc|H>[*it whidHI 
th^a Tiinub iti ooUolUh] and purilit^d liy BuliitioEi in warrti ak'ohol wji^H 
help "f animal diarenal : tbf fillrat*^, aa it Cfwla, dopfisils neneg^D. ■ 
The lif[md dfcanlcd frum tlio Bodimeiit tlill conlaina a flniall 'pianlity 
of eoui^ffia, which may be obtaiTied^ an in mclhori 1, by preciptatiop 
with has ic acetate of lead (Que ve one). — 4. Pulverised flenegTi rt-nl is 
exhatitited w^ilh a uiixluie of 2 ptrt. alcohol and I pt. water, ihe tinc- 
ture U roneenlrate<(, and the repiduo rojK'atrdly sliiikin up with eiher 
nn long aB the c^ih'^r l.-ecomoB colourod by it. The rciJidiial nynrp hvl 
aaidc f'lr fii>mc time with a mixture of 3 pts. alcohol and 1 pi. cth^Ti 
»iiil frequently flhak*'^. dejioBil* wncpin a# a ncnily ctdourletfs j^n-- 
rjpiiale, whlcli in to be wuhhed with etlicr-aliMhob |.irpBwd belww 
pHfiT; and dried; ll i« purified by Knliilion in iH^ilin^ w^Tk^r, preeijiii 
Lion with ellKT-alcolnd, re'tfohition in boiling nlcoliol, and docolorat 
with animal charcoal (Procler). 

OUlrr pror^xmi- Gi<Uvri rrmli ilic alcoholic eitmct uf Hcnogft-ioat wUh 
tu (rw il fmrLi kiH. rFiiii, ilitn *\ih hilIiit ii} rruiM^c » ^nrei jiiid aaicndnibi 
Dillon^, in n'lH'hliiip; iZiiB iiiT-it'iiB, A'briil \\iiiX (Thtr ih:v*i|ri.'d u pirrl^on of the all 
BiJil inilrr tKc n:»[ \ t»ur Tti inimsilorir ^'blEnutd a |rnxUu:l B^'rwiUfin !«> a ci 
nt?n% •* lilt Ut'lili'it's •raiegiu. Sod J)iilf>ii^V dimrliitfit U-t pivpiirii>^ %hv 
fba iiprul«<vtm>-titu UBttvr (J- PkM^. 13, hl2). 

Pritpotia. Sonegin which Koparntt?s from Ihu alcohoUe fiMuiion 
cooling, is n white powdtTi wlien tiblaihed hy cvnihtriitin;; thcatjiici 

mplulii>n, it forniB ri|.«qi;(.', in"et'oinh -white [*i-ak'i> (IJuevi'une), Tin 
whiii' |»i."wder wJlli a ^^aeyish yrlhiw tini (l^'lh'J')- Pi'nimn**til in 
air. Siuells bite najxinih, but friinter. Tiwles lib- t;n|K>tiin. which 
lik^wii^c ri'HCEnbke ih excitinff vtoimt kui.>i.'^lij;{, irven in the emftlli 
qa^knttty. Heddcnfl ItttmiB (^ucvennc, Gcldcn). I'oiaonmitt (( 

Qufrrmtir. BUby. 

mtnn, ■«•, «r 100*. 

Bft C H tia Bl ttea UM 

« H ., ,., ii 7M « eu 

g) O ,.., , IflO ^..^ 40 BTtJlS ,. 40-t> 

C^ITKP.^,...- 400 ^.>„.. 100 lOCDO ,...^ UdkO 



wVHWiling to Bolk; - »?eoTdin7 to Q iierraiMS it £b 0*^'*0" i ucordUig to 
(y. Johrft. Thann. 11, 35ei. it ift C^B*0^*- — Qutvpnrw'B unabwa havo bren 
iveyoolbted OD the Bupimsitiim timt he took C ~ 7t('G- BuUe/o Baittgiu comitmcd 
Lt p. V- 4ati, kIlIcIi LdB bvocL doduL^tod iu tlie Daloolotitrn. 

Dicofnpositions. L Sli^litly decompoaed bj boating to 200", com- 

Kctcly at a atrongei' heat (Qucvqquc), — !Jp "VVhcn heated on (>Iutinum- 
U it buruB with a smoky Hame, Learing' Ei ligbt, easily ccmbuBtible 
ldt&rcr>lil (Quc^veil]ie)> G^h[«ii'fl lenegin dou nut nioll in tlio Are, bill qni^llii up. 
tikM Gn, buTTifl uitli a fmelL of burnt tutur, and Iguree i:hArcuaI. — 3, Wkh f*it 
vf viiriot it boba^efl like aapoTiin [(tiuorcuue). — 4, Whou etiiegin is 
£^ii»ecl throu^li 30 ptn. cif atrou^' hijdrochlori>j acid, it swclla up liko 
^nra tra^acacth aud forms a grec[iiali jelly of sikpog^nin. Bulling' 
ooucentL~atL-d hydTt^chluiic aciiJ CJirbDiiises it partiiLlly^ willi mure r]L[>id 
formation cif a. jidly; more diliitP acid gelflliniaPH it only on boilings 
((iiieveimo). An a([ueOLis solution of Sfrmgiii boated with dilute eul- 
pbnrii; itcid, bocouiofl turbid, dopoaitfl whito tlooka, and m roeolvcd into 
pogeuiri and n »wect f^ubstant.^, wbidj reduces cuE>ric o^idi; iji alka- 
line Hijlulion (Bnlloy)- The aijueuus e^iliiLinn m ui>t iilten-d by o^abt:, 
citHc, oT acetic aci^ (Quevpnue)^ — j- Senegin diasnlvefl with yellow 
colour in strong nitric ^idd. the sol utioii when hoalod yieldiiig oxo-lic 
ftoid and & palo yellow exibBtaoco, wbich^ after w.aflhing with water, 
hA0 a harah atid bitLer lasto (Queveunc). With nitric oaShI it forms 
^cric and (nniin acids {P[i>i;t<H). Jt foiniH with nitiic; aeid a tmbid 
BOlu lion, which jvirtly eoagidatpd tp a jelly when healed (Oehlen.) — 
6- A*|ueoa9 sofH'Cfin is dcconipoaed by btiiling with cittistic potosA, ani 
oa »«bij'"iquent addition of hyirucblofie acid depoaita a juUy (yuovenne). 
-^Wiien b^^iled with au alkaline solution of cupnt; o£\dt, it cJdiibita an 
iudielLict reparation of cuprous o^de. 

ComhinatioftJt. Senegia dissolves slowly hi coli^, quickly (more 
ftbundantly, acccrdhig to Bolkyj in hot wattr. The subition froths up 

Strongly when agitated (Qutvunne). AocorduigtoacUlpo,itiiqiiiioiiiwlabU 
is wMoF. 

Accor^hag to Ciue^'ennc aud Procter, senogin unites with baaea, 
forming the salts called Pol^itl<itas. AqucouG ficacgin does not expel 

Mboiiie acid from alk&Hae carbuii&tee or hydrosulpburic uc^id from 
IntfiulphaLes, even with tlie jutl of boat. It lismirne^ a greenish 
our who u nentrallBod with nlkaUft. and leaves gr^^uuieb transparent 
filma when evaporated (Quevenue), The solution ff eenegui la iioda- 
If!j" 10 iirccipitdtcJ ia white Hucka by acids (Trumtnadortf, vid.auii,). 
From tlu^ ai.^ueou4 infucticu of soue^-root, seaegin may be precipi" 
tatj^il by lunilH, bat it rediasolvea patlially during wnsUijig (Biiehner, 

Bunjtn-tGatfr added to aqueous scnogiii throws down a copioua while 
precipitate, but the aolution cf ecuegin Jn potash-Icy doea not pro- 
dpilatc ohbfritie of bariuui (Queveane), — ticuegiu forinfi a soluble 
t^MnjHUJnd with mnrjTKfiti (Quevi^aae). 

A small qilQulily of nrfitrat ncf^tcrfe of Itad produces ill aauioUft 
•cneiri" ^ dUu'hi turbidity, which disappeare uu the addition of alarger 
HUiHitily. Tae compuund rjf sciVL'^iu aad inagncaia forms n wliite 
piH:ipitJil.c wlb neuUal accUle uf Icud. Ai^ueoua i*eaeE^ii precIpitaLes 
/jr/«>>' (tfYtmt of Ipntl (Quevi^nm-J- 

A^ueouB fume^Ji lotmti u preoipitfite with mereurotis aitfaie, but not 



with mercuric ciiloride, or willi ferric, capric, or eilyer ealtc, cot ci 
witli tATtar-eiQctlc. 

SeD<^giii is more Golublo io aqiieoqs tbon in frbsolnte aUtthol, 
more iii hot Uian in cold alcoJ^ol fGohlsti, BoUey). Jl dissolvos in 
pr'^portions in Loiling abaobte alcoholi and partly acporalca out oa 
ouuliug (QuevfTjmi:). ^H 

It is inRciliiblc in LtJinmnn ether, acetic ether^ and oiia^ both iC/wd &U^Q 
volatilt {GthJeii, QuoT^^nn*?)- 

Aqucoud Bciiogiu iovma & dirty wliite procipittktewitb <rii«Jiif*tf ^^ol^ 

YeHota Cohuriag matter of Senega. When lh» aqueous extract of 
een^ga is \iTiic'iplt\itei\ by tmnic oi^^tate oT lead, Iho fittrftte cvftpfirated 
nft<^r bcij'Jic fru^iJ from lc<ad by hydroBtilphuric acid, and tbo reiiidaj) 
ti'ciile<:l witU c'tlier, the fllhcr takes up n yc'llowtolriuriijg Difttlcr, wLi 
I'umaliiH behind nit tvHj>nrat]uu. — T^-llcw-biGwu Hcak'B, wliich nioU 
ItiO', ivn? iuodoroiiH ^ud very Ijirtpr. Rf^ddGim lilmnw. 

Does not give o^ ammooiacaJ vapoura by dry distillation. Hvryit 
with a dense Jinmc — Is cfiburcd browQ-rcd by oil of ritriol. 

DiftWflvttt e|i!iriu|^lj in imtty, caM\j and with ytUow cnloiir in 
nuinia^ jartnjthj Htir) xoiiii. FirHTIB c^okiurvd lirnclpltateK witli mrtidtic 
— Sohiblo in aleoh&l aad in * rAur (Qnevonijc, J. Fharm. 22, 107), 



V. Plant A & 

OUicceidcs trkh watHtJifn Copnkr, 
1: Apiin. 

A'. Am. Chim. PhjiB. 9, 250. 
Wau.ack. jiftiiZ/'AurTrt. 74, 2G2. 

Dieoovired by Broconnot in paraloy; ccoire in mikall f]naiititio0 


/V^tfmfiort. Prrslt poral^, gathered before fiovering la bnjlcd 
throe tJmea witb water; tbe uqnJd is strained tbrougli bneii x and tlu) 
dark green jtiHy \S'bicli furnjs ou ctjobii^ \a waahed ^vitti Oi»ld waLor 
and dned over the water-batb> 'Ihc dirty^grceu reaidae ia repoalAdl]r 
tn.^uted V'itLk boibng alcolmf, an lon^ aa ttie ttuctui'c niua qS fi«Ml 
tbr^ siiluLJon la mixed witb water, luid so mueJi of Uio aloobol ia cUa* 
tilled nlT, rhat lh<? rv^maiiiing bquid uoMities to a lliick greon pa«t«^ 
riiJKid ^vith A vbjifl |H>wU<jr, wliioh ia frvod from tb<< liquid by etruiiuaf 
uiid prrfHpart'* The ^'iitmrtb-wUit^: substauce kfl un the dclb ia ro - 
^atetily dii>ped, 1i.»^etber wilb tLt? i^Lutli, iiiUi wanii alG<~iliul, tJifi^^| 
jjrr^'^if Aiir] fii>ed from holiible mAilei hy bniliti^ wirh elJir-r, A|iii^^^ 
llktiit obTniited btill rrtaiiiB a i;inLdi qiimiliiy nl n»\i. — A ourlaia * 
qtifLtitity nf A[>iiji still r<.'mainB ilJK6olveil in Ihu ulcobfjLio niTitiwr- 
btkut^ri', vrhL-hro it inay t-o u^tikiiu'd b> o 'lUHiilraUon and piitifyia^ \\ 
ctuDstancu tbna scjrAmttd with cilbci (v. riutila ^ VValLaov). 

Eraofini] U>i1rd jiurt^ley witb water* fitniuefi \x while ntHI at 11 
boiliij^' beat, and wikvlird llir jetly w^iich AepafBtcd uu etubit^ tvil 
e<)ld wttier< This tir<:<<ei^e d-x-s iii>t yiuLd luio auiu (v, I'louU 



Prfrperties. Soft wUite powdur d^Btitute of taGt9 and emcll, melting 
without loss at 180% and flolidifjing- to a jcUow brittle glaaa. 

MO 1+4 E4-9fl 

U H U B'34 .-_ 

18 O- 104 3070 

T. FliLQlA k Wallace. 

6471 to bt2B 

6 GO ,. fi'fi9 

suGo .. aaie 

c*ir^«, iflB 10000 ^ looM loo-oo 

- Aib^r dedufiion uf O'lS *nd (XSC p- (^. anli. Tt lionbllatii bulone* 'n tliP glumimilfa 
{urtH-rJiupa U> ilio mimiiirmiiiltHj, n uLrcunibtaaca vIlIdIi ifaruwB doubtcu thu rotumlH 
piOpOHd by T, PIouU iL Wullaijt- 

Z)dcom;)OJtVHVitf. I, Apiin heated abovo ita in<^ltin? pomti bwcIIa up 
d be&imps carbonised ; if tbt carUmifation is only pai-tial, tJit rest 
of tbe substance rpin^ns unaltered ( Qrucomiot.). Jt l>GguiH to dei'om<- 
poBo at 20fj" — 210" (y. Plama & Wallace)- By drj diBtUlatmn it 

K'pMe aoftcid product (Braoorinot), — 2, Wien heatod in contact witli 
e iiir it burns with fl[knic, — 3. The solution in boiling walor, wfiioli 
is faintly yellowifih at first, becomes darker coloured bj continued 
boDin^V fiiiiilly reJdiKh yt^)low^ and c^ji cooling di^pcmil-H ]M!;irly cdnur- 
lesB flock.^p without production fj a jl*llJ^ The e*^>liitio]i evaporated to 
drynoss Icnves a iceidvio, tho weight of wbloh, iucroaaod by aeauinp- 
iiwi of water, amounts to 112'28 pie. for every 100 pts. of apiin cm- 
plojed. Tbts residue \s brittle, crumblea ta a brown powder, and 
contains fiO-^18 i\ c. 0., fi'03 H„ and 43'OD 0, It diflsolvefi in boiling 
water; doofl not solidtfy to a jelly on cooling; does not melt before 
d«^Tnih.t^:np when hcutcdj is prcoi pi tatod by ncutwl acetate ol lisad; 
&nd eitill cshi bits with ferrous sulphate Ibc blood-red colour produocd 
by flplifi. V, Planta & Wallace aeaign to this product tbe formula 
C**Il'*f)". — 4, Whf?ri chhwijtr g/a ts pasBTil into th<» uimeniiH ji-!ly of 
tplfn, n yrllnw cidnrinated proiluct is formecJjInsohibJeitiboIUnjf water, 
soluble in alcohol and iu aqueous alkahfl (Braconnot). The dirty yoUow 
ifcctpitalc fonncd on passing chlorine gas into hot a(iucouB apiui, iip* 
dark bniwu afler rli^io^ and tritu rati oji, auJ buiiiswben bcat«3, 
ff an ndour of hydmcLkirio aeah It dlssolvea easily ui warm 
r, forming i frothy noutral sololion, which depoaits yellow flocks 
4>n coobhp-,* xhihit^with fcrroue sulphate the blood-rod coloarof [ipiiiJi 
And is jirecipttated by neutra! acetate of kad (y. Planta & Wallace). — 
d. Apiiu liented with wrVnc acid yields ahirge ijuantity of picric, and a 
tnre nf nxahV acid (Braconnot). v. Planla & Wallaee did iio( obtulji 
c^ilhrr of these (Lcidri by Itoiling^ pure apiin with fufiic acid ; but impure 
apiin ^nelded orango-yollow detonating uodulce iind a large quantity 
of ouilic acid, — 6, Apiin heated with ptvnide of manganese and diht& 
ta/tithiiric acid gives off carbouic, fomiic and acetic acids [v. Plants A:* 

Afiiin disfto]T«H in oUof vt^riol^ forming ^i oraufTC-red eolutjou 
*li lihit-kcns when heated) andgives off Ruljihunuis acid. From the 
tkihjiion in ojild oil of vitriol, water separatee n large quantity uf yi-Ilnw 
flocka, which appear yellowish brown after drying, dlsBolve sparingly 
ill walur. and Kxlatitiiso to a certain extent. Tbcsc Hocks contain 
69-Ofi p, c. 0.» &'08 n. and 35'8G C, CMnvsponding, acoivlin^-- to v. 
Tl^uta ik Wallace, with tlie funuulii C^IV'O^K — Stro/ii/ hydrochhnc 



acid acts like chI oF vitriol, Aud on heating the liquid^ datk brown fl 
are seoaiHted. Wlu'u liyJroclilurio add gas is [la-bBcd uvvr u|.iiiu dried 
at IDQ , tin; apiiii itdHniitett u deep yellitw c^^luur, and Lucrcuea 
weight by o"12 per ceot. (v. Plauta A Wallace). 

A hot aqueous sublion of ajjiiu bt^ilod f;^ eome limo with <iil<i 
acitkn becomes turbid, and thickcaa to a ycllowisli pulp, wldch, when 
washed dq the filter, le[iv<!Q ei lig'ht yelluw luustf, which sepamtot* from 
its solutions, do longvr au a. jelJy^ hut as a white dejioait, a.rii1 furms 
bloo^l-red fl<x!lcR with ferrous sulphate. The liquid which nitiK offlB 
found, after ueutrahaation with chalk, to coutoiu a eeriuiu quantity of 
Bug-flT (liraconnijt). The white 9ocka which t*c|:tfiratc un kiilifjg apiin 
willi dilult! Bulphuric or hydrochhjrio acid, diy up* afttr wosliin^, to % 
lighi-hrown mass, which Ins the BiMU'composiiiou^wliicherurof the two 
ucidn U oiDploji^d, Olid whether the boJling'iB c*iHtbtiod for a short time 
only or For ft day, vi^„ on thoavcrn^ G3"lo p.(^ L\, 4-52 li,,aiid32'030i 
These flijek« di*4»jlv,^ very S|>aii[idy iu bitJing water, and se^KUuto 
SigiLiu, on cooling, in the form of white flocks i tui*y diaiiolve readily In 
boiling alcoliolj anH funn a red-brown precipitate with fen'mifi Ridpliul^. 
Tho«".* prepared with hydrochJoHo arid dif^eolve more easily in boiltiL^ 
water, formiiiKayenywiBh solntiou which doea not gcUtiriiao ou coolin^j. 
The Bohnioii filteivtl From iho fiocka auJ frcL-d from aulphiiric iicidliy 
nu'bonalo of baryta, leaves a swectiah ayriip, |irob;ibly cijritaiuiii|f 
rcrmaiufi of the doc^ki^ and sug^r* 


Citfthnuttuifis.^ Witfi ^caftr: Apilo dried o^'er oil of vitriol 
off attho beat of the wuter-bath, 1-21 p. c. water, wluch it absor 
Hi^aUi from the ail in the course of a uife'ht (v. Piauta iLWallaoo). U 
dissolves eai^ity in bojllni^ water, fi'rujiug a clear liunid (ti^jxviiilly aftt^r 
fusion, aecordui^ to v. PlantH & Wal]aei.ij, whkit immediaiely gi^lu- 
tinjate on cjiviliug, or on ndditioo of cold water (Braootitietj, A aol 
tion coutaining; oiily 1 pt. Qpiiu in 1,&U1! pta. water yivldfi a looao j ' 
on cooling (v»Planta & Wallace)- 

It dlbbt^vee ea&ily, eE'lxxiiilly In the gc1atliLi>UFi HiatP, in Ui^aeo 
nmtnonit and attntine IktirhtmnUgj forinin? yelluwiflh flultition^ wl 



yii^ldgelalihOiiB preeipttaletj wJlhaeida. No decompotiitioa t4kkea blAiC^^ 
evrn an*?r contuiuod boiLn^ wilh potosh-ltyT the oranpj-rcd aofui 
still gt'lalijiiflia^^ when uuutraliaed witli ao acid (Dracoiuiot» 

the oranpj-rcd Botuii 
D acid (Dr 
", coiujjlettb 
\i\ )\x\wi\Mw*U par1,bil)y iMA-'uniiug tu v, Planla A, Wallace, 

Pkunta Ac WjJlaci"). It disfn'/lves in iHic-ionfcr, coiujjlettly aco 

Apiin iij )iriL prectpUated fium iu aquoouB or uluoholic aolution by 
rm»<?t)ilB oAAm'iie fl/ Jwirrtim, nentnit iicftate of lft$d, i»r nitraie <>/ tUvtr, 
An aUiiholic anlulion of neutral oeetate of lead Foriiia vvitb ttl(x>holio 
aiiihi a di*i-p yclUiw jtredpitnli', coutuiiiiug from 53 G to (il'l p. e. \tmd* 
cHudi' (r. Plaijtu fit Wallaixr). 

The »obittori of apiiu lu baling water la coloured doop blood-rod 
fefivva milph^U, uvt^u when vitv dUuto. 

Apiii) <U^»K)lvcA iu iHhibhic aicttfioU and oolidlQcAto a jelly nn 
(UrwxTiaol). It di».w»lvcH iu Uyo [iIm. oF old alei^liol ^v, Planta 
WaUao.'). The hot aijui'cniM huluiioit niixod with ftVri-r* nf </iiHt 
dilW mi c^^olin^ to n ivhito itpaqiiu j<^lyi wUidi bcci>iiieA li«|uid 
wheu hcat<^i (bnv^'ijQiHKJ. 

CKicm. 97 

2. Guicin. 

Nativellz. J. Chitit. Wrf.21, 69. 

Fr. Scbibb. Compl, rmd. 15, 802 ; J, pr. Chem. 29, 191 ; A^m. Pharm, 

Ut 289, 
DEBBAioms & CiUDTABD, N, J, Pliamu 21,26; JT. R^MTt. 1,219, 

Cmanrim. Cardvihfnedicle/tbit/r,\ Discovered iii 1839 by Nativelle iii 
the leaves of Cfiicm beiiedictm {Handb, viii, Phytochem. 68), It occurs 
also in Centaurea Cakitrappa and manj other C^naroce^ke. — On an 
■morpbouB bitter substance from Cnicus benedictvs, see Morin {J. Chim. 
wM. 3, lOd), Od an amorphous acid. Calcitrappic addt from Centattrea 
CaJdtrappa, see Cali^on (jV. Bi\ Arch, 83, 18G), 

Prepared like Balida (Nativclle). Probably therefore by preci- 
ntatiiig the decoction with neutral acetate of lead, filterinep, separating 
the lead by hydrosulphuric acid, evaporating-, and decororiHing with 
ttimial charcoal (Kr). 

Transparent colourless needlea having a Bilky lustre. Inodorous 
with a strong bitter taste. Permanent in the air. Neutral. Fusible, 
but not volatile without dccompoeition (Scribe). — Dextrorotatoryj 
r«]r = I30"e8° (for cnjcin dried over quicklime at mean temperature). 
The addition of 1 p.c. hydrochloric acid reduces the deflcctiou by one- 
fifth ; if the solution be then supersaturated with soda, it acquires a 
&int colour, loses its bitter taste, and half of its still remaining rota- 
tofy power, which is only partially restored by addition of hydrochloric 
•dd* (Bouchardat, Coinpt. rtnd. 18, 299 ; J. pr. Chem. 32, 91.) 

CalriittditM oMordinff to 1 

4S £ea ,.. 

28 H aft 


63 ... 

7 ... 
30 ... 


63-9 ., 

7-0 .. 

30-1 .. 

A. ChaaCttid. 



ISO .., 


C*H^^ ,.,- 

400 .... 

..... 100 ,„. 

100-0 ., 

...... 100-0 

The fbnnnliB caH'"0", C*"H»0". C«S"0". and olhen, hkewiae require Dumber* 
•fliMiag with the uuJytCA {Sand«. 2 Aud. 2 [S], 799). 

J)econpo3itioHa. CnicLU decomposes when stronglv heated^ becoming 
jqUdw and resinous, takes fire, bums with a white name, and leaves a 
tOBiefied Charcot which bums away without residue- — It dissolves 
with Inight red colour in oil of vHriol^ the solution turning black when 
beftted- The cold solution turns violet when miied with water, and 
yeJiow on Hubsequent addition of ammoda. — Cold concentrated hydro- 
dUoric acid dissolves cnicin with green colour; the solution turns 
brown when heated, and becomes turbid from separation of oil-drops, 
which, on cooling, form a yellow resin (Scribe). 

Cmcin is nearly insoluble in cold water^ but much more soluble in 
bcnUng water- The solution turns brown when boiled for some time, 
and on cooling deposits a thick turpentine -like oil. 

Coicm dissolves in all proportions in wood-^irit and in alcohol, scarcely 
in «cAer, not at all mod of turpentine or in fired otU (Scribe)* 

TCO. XVf. H 



3, Lycopodium-bitler. 
Kamp St. Boedeker (1856). Ann. Fhf4rm. 100, 300; abstr- J. pr, 

70. an. 

lnL^pod!iiiii 0tt"nw{rypejris8iJ3. An fl.looholieeTtrftctia6rBt pTupfti 
from the herbj thon an a/iocoua extract frdm the n^eiijuc x the u-jaiv 
BolntioiiB of both arc precipitated eaccOBsiTely by neatral and by bi 
acetate of Itad ; and the filtrate, freeil from eitxres of lead by hydi 
Biilpburic aeiJ, lm evupfinit^Ml. The rt'rtidiie exhuimt*id witli alci.rbi 
givea up ijflncofle ti:> that nolvent, while the bitter reioaiiiB behind 
may be dTseolvcd in wftlf^r and prijcipitatcd by baaic iCi?tato of \*f^ 
The precir.'itafc? ifl decom|x>sed imder water by hydrosulphiiHc acid, tbo 
t1ii; ficilutioii freifd fioin the Hulpliide of lead is fenneutcd with yeut, 
evafioraled after the fermentatioTi ia ended, and eihausled with flbMV 
lute alf^ljol. The alcohnl [hon takes up the bitter* and. when etJapo- 
rattd. leaves a pyrup mixed with ccriourless nccdlea. — It i» not rtrj imtf 
to MV whj the bitter should bo i^rucipitablK hy buiii; ucL-totQ of Tcwl, vxd tulnW in 
■bitdttM aJcahal in tbo latter flto^ <jf the pfccoH, vhcFOai lA tbo farmer Jt nliLfcili 

]^u9 u very bitter and aanBeating^ taste, NeutRLU Fme frrn 
nitpo^en. — Oii o/ vitriol colours it deep red at tiret. then brown* la 
very dilute ai|uooue mjlutioa it k-Trna witli tincture o/ loduit & dofp 
BCark't precipilalu ; l» mure ci»iiC4?utitited soiiitinrie, a red-bmvm pra- 
dpitate. It reduces cuprnns oxide from an aikafinf cHpric iohition^ nnt 
miim-diuttlyT but after bniliiitr with dJuie eulpburie acid. I^nw 
ttitrtifr •'/ ai7iw- it Ihrowe down Ok white prcoipitate, which tuns blM^ 
on bi.iiliiig. 

Soluttb m utaier, akokol iuk) ether. 

a. Lycostearone* 

KaKV k BoEDEKETt 4nn, Phtrm. 100. 302. 

Iti L*rrtipfi*ihim Chaman/pnnMtiM. S(>pant4>n frnm 111** iili>^hoH<r tJMV 
tun? of tlui herb urt <FVik[irirali<m ; imd by wnehiii^ with o^M ihKvhnf iM 
WAti^r, and n^p'.'Uted aolutiou in bodiuf^ aliMhul, with aid <d l^i ' i ^1 
ehaP^-iiiU it ia ohtaibed OD cooliuif ns a jullx* whicb drivii ap l<.< ■* 
runylsHviMM niA^K. 

Ainnq>hriti«^. tnndnnniH and lajitidiKii itiuhr, wlildi njMtR pArtiall; rt 
76°, cyrnplctidy at Unt\ XeuiraL 

30 C ISO 7VS8 , T41» 

» H„,^ _. SO „.„, IB'40 lA^ 

*o .^.. ag , la-tt lata 

c^ip«» sia ,„.-. loow lOMxi 

Wbra hftftlfd, it h^t'-nt with rtti orlnur nf fat. »- WiMl 

wErM it tmui bnjwu, witb hut oil of vitriol, block : with 4' 



firfft. Twl- Tl Ih infl{>!nh]p m cold, fiparingly floliihtfl In bf^iTmj]: v^fiffr, 
ctifiily in rifkfthf aad Mtrtifw carboriafr'p, and ia preciplatt*J thcr<*fi"orn 
by acid?. — DiE^BolvGo epariugly in cold nlcohol Euid 6fAfr, abundantly at 

b. LycoresLQ* 

Kajtp & BoEDEKER 0656). Ann. I^ann. 100, 303d 

In Lt/copodfum Ciiai'i^L'ifparimis. — The tnotlier-litfaorp remnining 
tAXvx tJie sL'pamtJon of lycofilcarone (r^. «/.l are yyaporatvd, tho 
resi'Juij in treittflJ witU watur, and the imdisBolvcd portion is boiltd 
TrilJi ^ small ^iiaiitily of Hoda-lcy. Tlie Ut^tiid on cooliug, depoaito 
lycorMrin, wbica njay be reci^stallised frtnn bniliu^ aJcoboL 

JVqpsriw. MitstiBcopir, fonr-ffldcd prisma with (hbllque end Tfice. 

36 C _ Ilfi 77-14 „.„ 77'<H 

33 H as 11-ta .„ ii-ae 

*0.... S3 ...... 11-1,3 ..„ 1171 

C*H«0* 2B0 , 10000 lOO-OO 

Healed to about 170'» H mplte, decomposep, and &»i™^liko Tvain. 
— C^dniira ffU nf vitriol oraoET!, lifon browu, — - Bj iL<'[m?<Tiin athdis it td 
diBsnlvt-ii sparingly \n llii?<;"Kl, anO iJuL^juipitsi^il vrht^M bt-nfi'd. 

Iimolnbi** ill irtitrr. — With imut ineUtfUc nnltft it fiirnifl nn pi^cipitate, 
wJtb un alcoholic BOlutiou of mci-ctiriL' clloritlc, & wtiite precipitato, 

DisffOlves abundantly in alcohol and cfAtfTp 

4. FarigUn. 

Pallotta. BH-j7fl, Gi/ww, 17,38$; J5cfKff,U,U7i N.Tr.10,2, 120; 

-tfa^. Phanii. 'J, 140. 
Tbubcuf. J.i'huTta. 18, 734; 5cAw. G?, 282; J. Pharpt. 20, 162 and 

BkTKjL. Ann. Plfrmi. I], 3I3- — J. Fhirrm. 20, 43. 
PCKWIALE. J. Pkarin. ^0, 553 J J, Chtm. mcd. 10, 577 i ^"i. Phanii* 

13, 84, 
Ohk. FcTEJifiEK. ^rrn. Pi^nnnv 15, 74; 17, 166. 

Pinn«rnl in JSai hy PitUottii, di^igimlfld bj Fokhi u Smitopin, hj Thabpaf, 
m 1R31. w hSi/f/m^*, hj RnthnAa Pari/fic aritt- PifrgiulA nhnw^l Tkat tJi* modes 

{Rr^'rrt, 53, ll^iv^i^rJcxl iiAri|iliiii» IdcQl.ic:^ ffitli cliiiiuTui, wUidi «mn woa licvPTer 
nAiInl by pFtcnen** iiiudjaiAp 

Oi'in*rrf^re. In BarBftpftriUa root {UmnIbrKh, vin. Phytochsr%n, fi5), 
mi^rc ubLindjtiidy in tbt^ Surk tbuii iti the inner piLrt. 

By l"Oiliii|^ the liark of fimiitix Chinn [Ilendhudi^ viii. J'/iyhc/tcr^t. 86) 

jmlverwKl and oxliaueted with etbor, with aJcohol cf 75 p. c, eva- 

a S 

GtrcosiDts wrra cxDnnni cotvtM- 

priraung the tmctare, ftod ponnog wv&tr on the tVflHtoe, Bei 
obtaiitei] ba Smihd^ «U^ at firat se^nlitd in flocb Uid WIS 
aft«!nrafda oonterted into crjEUlfine *f*i"^ Thu fli^tBii>ce i« 
ttwgtoai, MVlraL md jWUsl witb witvr, a aototkm whidi Crotb» 
lifce «oi|i-«ude. Ktfftiacli At fii^i ni^trlMi H •• idortkil vitht ^^t^" 

JoAHLjv-, Plar«i.a,41; farther AM. ^. i^fanc fi^ 291 ; 9, 109.) 

Tbe DUBB Smtbt^trie ^ii waa gkva hf Oardm (ZdwdL Jfof. <^. 
M, d09t mb«tr. A^pM «C, 268) to o^vbili whidi irp» c>bfAiiic<l frtn 
Uwoitnct<rf the ItalMA nrH^xrSft €>f Sk^^ra^wv [nwir^ Currvcdjr 
Aa:ordlQe- to Bnckaer, Jvnu {Apvt, Ih ^\\ hvm tlu- orifnlAl nkX^ 
mnlla of i7niHl0nMii firfct], tbcce lttsIJ* hftve bol Utile odoor, a 

n^ction. Tbey nwlt al 4K, And ^rjidi^r on cnotift^. vhiiri tmirl 

Toktifive coopMdy boluw 10Q'', Tbrir MlntMi in <nl "f ri 
bttxnoeA blocia-riid '^\\^n Heated, palp r?d on i^^Unn of uratrr. 
They ffinsolv^ «parin^y in culd, more fi^\j ia boi wmier, ibuiiilAiitlT 
ia AlcoboL, eUi«r, uid oiU iMtb tixed and volatile, aad tppotf Ift f<*nn 
ajBtalliaablo oocnp' iiLDds with the alkalis. — Laadcfor(A^p><rf. 71^ 
■bo dcMnbee crrstalf diSereat from tbe preceding, irhicfa srrpai^t '- 

ur 3^ fiom Cbe aqueous extranet of tbe root of Smitax ofj/rru. I'btv 
'cotitfliued lim^, ver« fiE^tly add. «pariuHy soluble in alcobul lioJ 
ether, and were (coloured blood-red by cold oil of Titiiol* yellow on 
bcatiDg, And Seu^j cnrboiused. 

i I 

Prtp(tnMtion, 1. The root is e^bnosted with bot nkobot ; { of the 
■loohol dktiiled off fmm the ltiictor«- ; the reddue trvat4?d vitb ftnbnaJ 
cbbK^oal ; hDd tho %aid Gltermi offer 21 — 78 h*>tir«, wh^r^npon 
ptkh^loi twpar&t4?B in tho form of a ^r&nuUir f^fwd^t u-hkh n^ay 
jitiribcd by recrfutatliflatioD from okv>hol fTini^-euft Posrr;*fe>- 1'*' 
ftf tUeroolayiefjflUjot 3oz.ijf iiari^'Ua(Thubeijf), — 3. The exHact-f 
th« root prepared with Tx>lliug WAt4>r U mixed n-ith suHirieut miLkijf tiiui^ 
to pfi^'o Li an Alkaline reactioti ; lh<? predpitato is culli-cl^d tm a linni 
cloth, docoroposcd bv carbouic ociJ, and Ihiik^l, iiftcr dryinjr a»i 
pill vcriMns, with epiril of 40"^ B, ; auJ Ibc tiiicturrB avo evaporti-J 
till thtfj fUnxmU porigltn on afaudm^ (Palhitta). Bjilhik trratn 
cjitracl of tho T*yoX prepared with abepuluio a!(H>h<il, wilb lH»jling vn 
which IukL*s «n Iht' ^lariglini eTopcratCs to dn'in*ft« ; trfiUs 
residue with hydrix:blf»nc arid; Ihon vraebt'a and drici Ihc lUiokfl w! 
hthuuh UTiJisaolvc-d. — 3, A eimiJtr pnn.vw U to prccioita' ■ 
cunlral4.'J iJtuK'liou of the root with bydriH^hlonc ^a^\A\ " 
iK^ahrA pn^ripiiftU' ifi snlp^Mrit' FiniJ ; pi-t-dpitiir** wirh ifcinnuni-ifl 
!f ri*r''npur>', pimfy lln^ ia-*4ij-i(u(v by rofiefltt-'i enhition iii nJ-.'^) 
and rreiitmi'ul with iinimnl cliniwiiil (Po^palo). — 4, Thi- oonii 
ro<*i b <'ihLiiiM<'d rtilli fi'Mliiii; nli:ohol -, iW tindurc S« prccipil 
Kvutrri tin- pr(>npi|[itt' wusht'd with eJhrr, mi'! d(Bw>lv»Hi m al' 
aod thr lijpjiil e^'n|N»rik'i! iif(or iI*'^*r*l-fr[ilioij by animal c 
(LitriuUrhf iV. IlfpfT-f, Pkttrm. C, '^■'i^)- Thr ulooTi^jlic '■hIdk'I i 
bi" diHB'ilviHJ ill wnlLT, awX ohfloKilr alc^'h'"! iuMt'il to thf •''■\\\X 

f>ajiKlxr» iti Ihrii piyripilii[i.-rl, r*fi;rth*T \iiili nTbei »<)il''^ 
■r t^xTrwU-J by JxaHti^ ;ll^■lpl,^^l, Ur tl-<' a'i«unint r\|]. 
with rtlniUnl n/ 7^1 p, c., iho tirioiure evapurut.'iL un*J lire 
ili^ri viih Vp-ator, which Ivi^'CFf iJn* jAriglia iiiidkiuK>lvcd. 




Prr^tcttiet, Porigflin (hjdratcdi accoi'dbig to Puggiale, rid. mf,) 
cryaUliiBes i;i wbiic ntfcdlea QiaJo ap cif cadiatiug liiuiiiiiti (ThubcuF). 
It ia u^UliHj obt^ed as a li^lit jiuwdei" picniioDcui in Ltie uir (Paltolu), 
from ilIouIioI in td*>iider needlfs (Pogp'inle). Meltn belcw 125° 
^PuUoltaJ. Heavier than watgr (Poggialt). llaa a peculiar odcrnr 
(Pallottu), uo odour (Thubcuf, Po^giale). TudtoE bitter aud eharp, 
slightly aatriogeut aitd oauaeatiug (Pallotta)^ in tbc dry state it is 
oem'l^ ta.At4rJetii4, itt ^iliiHuu it t^Ie^^ liharp aiLd bitter (Tliuhf-uf), 
Btroii^ nud nawBfatiiig (Poggiale), Id aqueous or alcfiholie solution it 
it-ddeRti turmeric filighlJy tPsdJolta, Foggiale), toroa videt-jiiice green, 
but, hna no iiction on liiraiis (PogginlLs), Potereou found pang'lin, 
even iu sobiLlou, lubttlesa and neutral to turmeric. Batka'e parjglin 
his arj add roactbn, arising, ats^'irdiug Ut Poggiale, from adbenng 

hydroc])loric acid. B^ral 

[J. Chim. ntetL 15, 

134} regards parigl 




4A C »..,.„, 25B 


I* iia ,.„,. 

ti3-31 33 C 

aaifi la o 

193 .,. 
30 ... 

96 ... 

.... doas 

-.„ 3019 

, 100 00 c»n*o^.. 

31B .. 

..„ lOOOO 

^^K 30 


^^^m oo u 

^^^1 10 

ao .„ 

^^^M C*°H"0" 



atlOlfi tnaan. 


60 93 

to liaos 

^ H , . ,. 973 

„ ayo 



1 00-00 


SVtM bvm DitTDgen (TUiiboiiF). O- Henri' foutkd in purer {laciglJD S'7 p. v- 
hTtbocvn- — n, ACcunLing lu Hold's {N. Jahrlr- Phar*n. W, 3tiO) - Pdedi^o giTei thii 
r«niirii C^H'^KJ*- t^elerton (.l-i.. fi^im. 17^ ltit>| the foramli L^HUU*; thaw 
fbnnuliv. nittkipLefl b^ -l ami bj 1 rpBppcliTPiy, jibIjI thp fcinmilie i and f. — A<J- 
cordiag Ui Wnilz [.V. JaAr& Ph&rn. Yi. 155), DulLlb iLiid O. Omeliu (Ann. P^drpi, 
no, 174), puriglii bi'Iougd lo tbc gluxwdds, a virv which u nut reccuciUble wiUi 
Uu fUtoujculi uf PD)^^i&lr. 

Decofhitot^riojui. 1. Puriglin hpated In a f^lnsa IiiIh", tneltH, gives off 
a pongeat odijiir like thai ot burut broads and Ibifu aij udoiu- of rt**iin 
(Tbubeuf). — 2- On rod-hot coals, it takes fire ami hifrts itway witbout 
ruaiduc. — 3. Heated with mtlphitrj \i melts ond ilvcomjioeoa, giving 
ufT eu!|r1]Qroua JLud b^droaulirhiirii: afjida nnd forutiug anlplkuric acid 
(Poggtalo), — 3. Chiuritte gt;s lit ordinary temporaianja tcloura it 
yelluw, and cnnverta it, at tlie meltJMfr point of pariglin, into a Bofi 
jrcllow 6nb&tapiu<^ whicfi becomca iudi^tinctiy crystalline' on cooliog 
(Pogifiale). — 4. Jl& niiueoua solution frn-ms a Bud'ron-coloiired liquid 
witlj ifdiiif (Thubeuf). — 1\. It dipsoKi-H in ulroug nitnt:acidt the eolu- 
liun whtMi hpjitcd giving iiif k Inrge ijimntity of oitroua gas* aiid 
Invitiff when evaporLlt^^<l n brittle roaidsn-i wtuch diesolvea uomplclely 



hi bfiiliiig water, eettli's davrjt in wlitte Hocktt on cooling, uii doev not 
Ciyalikllis^-' froQi ulcfiliol (Thak?uf). When luni^liii ib diawjlvcd in 
<v>t J fitrf>ng nitric add, |jurt of it turns ydlow ^u6 Sooimpo***^. Imt f lie 
prt\;ipitttto IhrMwn ilown hmti Uiu ^olutirjn by water o^msisls uUuoat 
wl^ollj of undec^ajpo^-d pari^im (P<>^giale)-— In this rt-aclion (or 
acccirJiri^ tj* Batkji, wlien tlje scilulioii in evaporated with jnUic add), 
neiUior oxalic acid (Poggiale), nor mucic add ie produced, uid Ll^ 
pimglirj remoijiB undecoraposed (B&tka), " 

6. When oil of vitriol ib dropped apon pariglin, tlic paiiglm 
a dark rt'il. thezi a viulet^ luid lastly a \ni\c j'oHow colour, diMol 
and U prrcipitat>'d fri>m tlie Holuthiii hy wutur m iia rJiiglnaJ vtate 
(Pfi^giitlc)- The red soKition in oil of vitiiol bt'Comes purple-red oa 
addilioix of a drop [jf watot (Batku), violel-red when gently ht?atad 
(Thubeuf). — Pjiriglin diasQlrec in htfdfochh'ric acid^ the solution 
nHMiiniiug' Ibe colour of wiue-leea, wbcn fj^^nlly h<?utcd, rtud N^lidifylu^ 
to a Jidly ^Thnhenf, Wala). Amordin^Tu Batka iMirig-lin is predp[(at«d 
by hydrochloric acid from itfi a^ueoug eolation. According to Po^giile* 
tbc i^olution of pari^hn in by dn.'ch loric acid yields by cvaporatioii, 
well developed cryatals ; pariglin dJBGolves better in acidalati^d than io 
pure water, and in pjtiripitjit*^ ismw the Bolutiona hy nlkabri- Thn 
dilute h J droc.hl*>ric acid solntimi loaves on fviLporation *unall MiTBUic; 
th^ Hulphiuic add tioltition leaves prianit; of oth^rwiac unaltered pari^Uj 
(Po|-g;iaJe). According to PalottUy purigLLa forma aaltr^ with acids. 

C(mAinaiifir\4, — With ipoior- CryBtalliecd }iarigUa loees \xl dryin|f, 
8"5e p,c^ water* 

Pari^lin diKHolviw in cold, atid rnorc abundantly !n hot wnter> eepi^ 
rating rnt aa the aolution cools (Thubenf). The solution frolhe w' " 
ehoicen (Batka). 

It diBsolv^^fl la acpwHjiiB nT^unonin^ pMmh an3 9oda (Poggialc), Wi 
Anunotiia it forma an emulf-ion, which liccfjmes clew and frothy as the 
i'xros» of ammonia eNafHirnk'^i, and leaveft a fmthy mftSR when ivirai- 
plrli'ly evajmraiod. The latter fomig wiih water an opaletwt'nt fiolu- 
liikn. wliirh iMHOc^iiies tnrhid on additJon of a drop of at>8diitc alcohol, 
and haa an ncid roartiou (Balka), — If la pn^ipiiated from lis atiuuDue 
a'^hdiou hy thhi-i*!r uf r'ltiimn ; tnnu ll»^ alwihfdii; Hotulirjii by alooholfo 
tieutrij! nccfatB i^ ie'iU {Wwtkn). — Uil^efl 0i»t ootubinc with magmni^ 

Pari^liii fUnBolvtiB very Kli(jhtly in e<ild» very easily m Uiiling 
aicoJiof, iomunn a fnttby liquid O'oHotta, Pftg^piali.-). It \s more aoluble 
in hydrali'd thun in nhsulum aleohcl (Thubeuf, Batka). — Aocardu 
to l'oer^rii*l*'t it diswjlvj-a iu Ijoilintr cJlier : w^eurding lo Th(ib«tif 
]jiuiialM;h, neither in dild nor in lulling ether, but ciuiily aooordiag 
TlkuU'uf in hot ft/i4r'<4Ui>heL^-ll difiM^Ivoe \atoi*uiU, \v$n fiw^ 
fij^ Oik (Foggiolft). 


0. Xylostcui- 

UtaBscitMxm, Vtrhanta, da Schums4t ApoiMmmwumUX 
J. B, Jbn. Pham. Viwi^. 6, 19S| aUtr. dm. CnCr. 1850* 198. 

KARUr-4E. ^^^^^ lOS 

The Irittor priiidplo of the butTice of the fly loocyBuckJc {rjoniitra 

Frtpanttiiin, L Tlip bcrriceftrc t?xh<iufltcd with alcohol j tho tinoturo 
ia dj^^ted iritb milk of YmtG; the alcoliul ie distiUed off from the 
filtrali? ; theM^aidtJc (» treatt'd will) uthert whicli takcvf it|i tbe xylneli'^Iii ; 
ttie floli](ictn is evapor&ted to drynesu ; and the rGBidus is disBolvod in 
boiling R&t«r and troatcd with uiiiinal charcoal; xjlOBton tliea 
ctysultiacs from the filtrate, ^2, This cniehod berriesarc boiled with a 
Bufficieiit <jiiaDtitj of water; the d<>coctioQ is precipitated by liciitral 
Acetule of lead ; the If ad is n-mnvorl irtmi the iiltntte hy hj'dTOBul|jbunc 
■I'id - and the liiiiiid, ag^ain filtered, is Gvaporated in a BTrup. Tbia 
vy ru p reyhcat edly shaken up Avith elhGryioldfisyloateVn which ciralaliieee 
out by spoDtancouB evaporation and may be rinsed with cold water 

Prapertka, Colourless, veij lottg needlofl or priama, Inodoroua, 
SK^bflv bitter. Melts at 100^ ti> cokiuilesa drofe whicli salidify in the 
(U^f^llme f(;m] on cooling. NeutraL Freo from nitrogen (llUbachuianiif 

Dtcompoeitiom. When heattd it ^voe off heavy whiti* fnmee, fornj8 
a cryeiabiuii BubliuiatCi and Ioutoh charcoal (ILLJliaclirnaDii). — Oit of 
vitriol colours it browi^ — Ilia not attacked by diluliA adds in the eold, 
but wbeu hunted it iff resolved into sugar aiLd ether prudu{:La (Eusj, 

Ctflnhimitiuw, SpaniiKly soJiihle in ciild, eaflily in botling wttfei; 
whence it crTBtallises on cooling, ^ The (aqueous?) solution eiliibita 
a white turbidity when miiGd with btm^ acetate of lead (Ena), It 
di&Bolvea very eaaily in alcvhoi and cMct- (Htlbechmaim). 



F^DTZSCHE, (HaJioine, HarraaJioe, and their derivalivefl). 1. Fetfinhirg, 
M<MLB^di.^, W;/./7r, CAfffl,41,3l; aad42,!^7&; Fhttnu. Cf^tr. 

Johrat- 1S47'8, 63(3. — 2. Pattrib, Acad. Bull. G, £43 ; PhtD^m. Ct>iir. 
1847, 7C9; i,j'*j^. ^o/^. J"^i/j/Wa lfl47-fi, *U1'J. — a. Peferitb, Aciid. BulL 
6, ^f<J; C/ifw, 43, \i\-, Phanu. Cfitr. 1»48, 49; Ann. Phitr.n. 
BH, 8;'l; /V, /. PM™. U. 73; Li^. Kopp. Jt^h^h. iy.l7-», *i41,— 

T- -,, 

— - '■ -1 - ■- — -- ^i. .■•U'-<^ ^•li'i. lit 

!■ Tli: IdlP -H.: i 

^ -i> 

Jj' :" ^~ ^ ',. -- _ I:'—- 1^-' Ti^-:-; with 

I;."; ::■■ ; i-.-r- "--, z .: t-t-? v":.*:-! '.riTrt 
:= ■■■' — ■ -: - TT : .?>'■■ '---"i v.: :. ^^ 
':;t: :_,: ;- -.;:■-. - Jr :- - -_:■- t^z-^'.i i-^r-1 
r-: -■::--, -:: . —-■",-,-. >T,Li : :::::. 

:^- :„.-."-- "'-'. *' ■ 

_.. -^-__ I.: : u' ; '..I'r. ::■' ~:,i.' :,>. " :■--■..:: ,: ::<-: z. Tri:t :* icxvip 

- '^:..' :...-v.^. ■■:■'' :*- ;'i:".:i': ■; ":.-- '".:,: ::- ■«■:. \ -^ ii in 

:» . .,: , -..-./;:■'.■ "t "-:_■':■' - '..: l .^ :j- —*;.>,; J»iVi'de- 
^ . ... 7':- v: .' :;j- ::ut::^:- :: u?- ■!►"!*,:/:'; if liUiiStj Vv iv- 

':h^ _"■ ~ -.- -'. -. >~TTb:'; ■■_' jJkTCii-^' ■■■ ri-ir'-d wiih i 
..„\:..-' : "^^ .' ' :- "i. ii ■. i u: .. ^ ■ v . .:. *-_iiJi^ ]j-:** :.1I iJi.' li.jiiiJ 

:.-': , ;;■ . _ . -- :... ::>' i.virv:.. -^tt- of harmiutf 

■ .* . . "■. ■ -:«,.' iT— ■ Ti Tr." *i.t!T > '^ r<>'i<i. nnrihi-d 

. .■ . :i „ ..: J ':!^-' ] . li ;:; <■ vl w.iTi-r: fiTni rhir 

, . : .;..'.■ y \* '.\-\. : .j :,.:.: i.^i. 1: i::ny K- j-Tiritii d t-v 

_ i. ..: " i. .,..»:■■- T« .:■: K.:'ii!iur:r :!■ i-.l- uiii ■J'-"l"rjtt'n with 

^ -' .■»iiiT\v*:<-' " : .'^ H:v.'.:'.:,.T.?.i: V.:-. a \h! >.i!ii!J'->:i wiih iivJuN-Jil-mi: 

\ oil sa]j,' avii. t ijitrair "f &.ni«- oiihor tA wLU'h 

■n tho hanij:iii* in tlie ff^nu f a hA\\. Fn-m thi- h-i 

■tioo of this ^ali. ibe Lanninf i.-^ ;iivci|jitati'i) hy tlUuE*' 



ru^utoiw limmuiiiii in \-i?ry nleiidef rrj'slals; larger crysUU are ob- 
t&Lued by diaeoWiug il iii the amalleMt ]x>&sible t|uaTvtily of aeetic ar^id, 
slowly hoating the Bulutinnj and collcotin^^ tbo cryslalE before tbe 
L'qiiid cods. — a. Whoa UchromiLto of liarmalmu is heated to abore 
120° in a capacious ^aek fioiii which the nir is (exclude i]« decoinpoBitbii 
takes pX&ce. a.rictiiltMl with evoliilioii nf htat, add part of tho baruiine 
tbereby produced Tcilatiliaoa ami collecls on tho aides of tfie flaflfc. 
The pr("luct id difieolvcd in boiliii;^ aloobol, or in warm water acidu- 
Uttd with hydi-ochlorit acid, a dark -(-o loured flecondaiy pn>duct then 
retiiainiag behind, aud the svlution is tri?iiled a8 abuve described (B, 1). 
B; Lhle |>roue» onljr une-fburlJi i^ibubbbmrnBifi u f b vimJiim lued ie nruterLtid lalo 

Pnipeiiie^^ CoIourles^B, \erj brittle cryetals, baTui^ a atroug laatro 
HiA h\^}i ivfractiTig: power (Frit/j^lic). Rhynifixc firisme, with aiig-Iee 
of 121'^ 18' aud 5:>° 42' (Nordenakjoeld, Fetcrsb. Acud. Bull, fi, 243). 
Oblique rhombie piiBme f/ Qfy, 96J bovin^ the bnenl end-faee I and tbo 
frt>[it ubliquc end-face i (Jiff. USJ set ujwu tliG aouie lalerjl edgea 
filHj trv oliiu9K in ihe fiiiun') -, the edpea between I aud tt behind truncated 
by Ibe octabcdiiil factfn ft. itnglc u : n in front ^ <j3^ -IB'; i* ; / ^ 
97^32' : / : r"= Ifi.'i " ,^2' (uali;. Ifi.^" 34'); i : ii — 103" -Si' cale. i h : h 
= 118^ 0' ealc,; h : 1 = lAb" 5'; /; : ^ = 117^ 23'h The charact^^r of 
tbe erystals Id priBniatic, sometimes i* eometimee I predominating at 
the eudfl- The i^rieina are about l€ min» long, only | nmip thick, often 
LoUov^, imd hare an adamantine lustre CSchabus). 

Tasteless in tbe snbd htale, litttir in Boluiioa. Permanent in tbe 
air boib ic the solid Ptaie and Iti aolution. 






., 73' 6M .. 

. 7361 

,-.. 7370 ,. 

. 74-13 

a N 

aft . 

-, 13-ai „ 



12 H 

« Dil7 » 

, S«3 

,.,. fi^tl ,. 



^ 10 . 

,. re* 



pao". „ 2ia . 

- lOtHK) 


II and b mofS reMTit ^ p mHA of older viK^yiw, FriiiKlLft on^aUj gave for 
lannirV] liHmiikLiii? find thPir dHrivaiirp^, furmu)« tviiEiLinirg 1 et. cu-tioii more. 
GeHurdt (tufjyiJ, CAim, l8lfl, 3-1(5) *ijggf»ttii funiiubr wiihfiS (it. ciu-bon. 

By heating ite bifhtoinait^ itia converted into a new base. 

Nearly iueolnblc in wjafer, 

Ilarmiue fuime with acids colourlcas or faintly yellowiBb a'yetal- 
liBable KtiUf, whoHe eoucfutialpd wolutiouH liavf i yi^llowisli e(.iJoTir, 
ffherens the dilute (especially tbe alcoholie) solutions appear blniph by 
reflected lijrht. The suite dissolve frir ibu moat part moro abuiidantlj 
in pure tban in ucidolatc-d watt^r, and nre precipitated fcuiu their 
KTOcius srilutious Uy addition of hjdroehlcric acid, nitric aCid, cumniou 
■alt, or nitrate of Kt-da. From tbL- snlcitiuna of thi! rtEilis, pitiwli and 
niufn^iiiia thrnw down liflrmme, part of whieh^ Iioivever, r(?raains dia- 
BoKcd. Frora tie aoucouB solution of unimonia-BalU!, haniiijie at the 
buibn;^ heat expeL-j tlie ammonia, but Icft:^ easily than ha,rmabne. — 
B[caflHiti:ile of ^KrUL^h, aud Libydioaulpbate of amuiOLioi added tu 
4i>ltLlioi>p4 of harmine-sitlttff alficj throw down the base iu the freo 
.U^ tbo fijinn of a ^t* 

jxT-.-H-'TtTixarr^ .^s-'-^^y. 

Tl-'r 1 1^=-:'*.^ I.e.) 

--i .:;- rZlli. Iir T" 

'— " "-^ ij » Li's; f- 

£ ■ 

-^ L ^l" 



KtL.I?'. » « . * 



aqaeoufl Bolution of hydTnchlnnite of liarminp, thi'owH tlown li curdy 
pretupitAle ; from a hot Hiilutirtii it thrriws down ciyel^Is. 

ChlornphiJiH^e. of Jla/tainc — From & dilute solutiuii of bydro- 
chlonite uf banome. bbUinldc of platiuuiu tlirow4 down flocke, 
which becxime crystalline wbon heated to 50°. 

25 Q 

2 K 
13 H 


3 01 




106- S 



8 70 



, 37" yo 

. BIT 

. £2-£3 

C^IJ'H'KPiHCUPta .... 417-9 10000 

Ha.nAine doea not form a aalt with hydrocyanic acid. 

Hydn/mlpfujq/itnaft ofJItammt. — ■Dozzliiig' wlilte, eleader infeilacec! 
nftedle-siiiijTfcl crjstjilfi, pR'djjitntcd by [lilute aqiJt*)nB aolpliooyiitiide 
of |»iitiLflniTiiii frcim iij'drof'hUkrate of harnuiif. Dinflrtlves HpariDgEy 
ill CulJ> eubily IQ UMng wELtcL", and soptLmtcs oq cooJjiig, 

Ifydr-afirrocyajiate of ffarmiw. — Proci[ntftled by ferrocyBTiide Op 

E^taenium frrfm hannino-ealls as a lig-ht yollow eryfltallini? sutfitanro- 
oiling soiulione yield f^ran^o-yulJo^i*, oiihydri>ua ci-ystiils, which whuu 
cxpoecd to moitit air. diajj^-o their form and take ap water, which they 
part with ut the bi^ilin^ ht^uL 

S^drofsTricifapate of Harmine, — Dirty yellow flocks precipitated by 
feiricyaaLdc of jxitiitiaiiim /ioid cold solutions of hihrouDc sails. 

AtftitU of Ha7iniii6. rLarniiae difiaolvee abondantly in cold acttio 
acid, the iiolution when licated depoaitin^ lianaino, arid leaving it 
jLlnn^at free from acetic ftcid, when evaptjvatod o^er the water- bath, 
If the Hijliitiou !«■ C'vajiorattd al ui'?iVti Ii^niiK'rattjre, frue banniiic in at 
first obtairi^dn the aoelate cjyfitallising out rmly when tbe fioluUon 
btfoomet coDcoDtrated to a eyrup, 

Oralate. — A. DiadrK (Xeaffur)^ — Prewhly prediiitaled hanniiiP is 
added to a boiling F^nlutLon cif harmirio ia oxalic acid, oritil a ci^atallinQ 
precipitate, difficiLltly eoluble m water, separates out. 

b- M^rui^iicid. — Tile Biibitbn cf hnnmiie in eicesa of cinalicneid 
depoaJte tini? tufts of needles, coutaiiiiDg 5"67 p- c. water (2 at, = 
G*$2 p. c). Difticultly soluble in wld tfofdr. 


SO .-™ 180 BS-SO 60-0$ 

a N ..™ 28 , S'37 

14 H „„,„ 14 ,. 4-M „...„ 4'58 

10 O.,., „. 80 26*ft 

^■gA^;, ] 

<?Wff*0',0'HW .,. S03 100-00 

Hairmne diaaolvee with difficulty hi cold, moie eaidly in bolting- 
oL It ir* pom*"whflt Eohihh^ in etfirr, slightly Huihihle in nkik'OiX 
readily eclublo iu 0U9 of tvrpwtmej orje^tt/m aatl ofoiiiuet 

- , Jr... -^. ■«- 'JKT. :^<«^ d». 

v.! JLtic iT-rtdiiLn: adi or 

.. — *.:^:.:a::i_ii ^7 iT*r>Aloric 

cw »i*r 

i-ft . 4-tt 

—...■* 1 .- ti];:i im>: -vrcii ariftw. i.vntHpODdmg' to 

art' TiTv i:*i;M. -.' - . : it, .: th. - _rc:i:z-:if acid^ or huIia. Tie 

wj.'^irjt: [I : .I'.:- ; . ir:..:.-. -^riir. ^ iir^ fiiuntilj ft water ii 
[■i*tiu'i.l L^vi; '.::► i:,- .I::,-:-' u^ :*._ «'<* :. srn tii:bti>r.kltinniac (roai tbdf 
Hpliirioii-^ J* AL .i:.." ."''. -i<^ :■ l- ';-'■'.;:* j"'l'>'= soluiiou of ooda acU in 
llir siuuT* \VL4y, {■-.: .- i^-r- ^.v< :..■■ j'no[..iiAto btvoruL^Jt cr>-8tdliDe 
wlii'ii L>ti^ li :j .1 w::.' .1 .T-. i: vi',1'*.'* <i' f>"*lii m>luti<ni- ^ Wcbli>K>* 
Ijjtnnuii' il>[ U-> « L ::Lia- ■ :' aha:. - i\a ir><uj a t"iiting- solution of id 
iiri^iiiorii.ic : \ .\x\ ■ : \u,- iil>^> lv> <i i ;<M-'Eh JutniiiiLL^ hL']iiiL'atca out on 
I'liiiljzi^-, Inrl [III- r>-«( Hjjiy ,H|f addit:- .i >-[' uh.iu'ijua tit t)ic' Hltrnto. 

inH-H'nile vf Hi f,:-r"hw-i,i,i>\ — iPhtJiiui'd l>i' ibssnhiHg Iwhliflv- 

iu wttliT cutlikitiiu^'' i(vilrin"hi<irk' aoid, wtid jircfipituiiu^ by 

f l^ydrochloric utid, Cr>'ata]li'*oi» f rttin water m needle*, fma 

alcohol iu krgfr cryatQls; dilumic of swUam separates it from its 
aolHtinns in the fonii of ti j^Uy whidj tiirrrt it\ nfledlr'-shaped ciystala. 
Contains 4 al. uulei', wUich it gi^es off iil ]OiJ% but i-eabSDrbti 2 at, 
if i'xpi5*fNl Ui nimflt air. \V1rmi ln?fttr.-il much ahovo 10*1", it btcomca 
yeUow and loeot; liydroehlonc add; molls bctircen 1hO° and 200° to 
a browti yellow liquid which dieftolres in water aud contains a newly 
f(»nDed base. 

Nilraie. — Precipitated aa a jelly, which afterwards changea to 
cryataliinc needlfe, |jy addition of excera of iiitrid add t^J a aniuttnn cf 
IjicJiioriibammie (n watrr containing nitric arid. AnhydrmiH and leas 
aohiMe \u water than tlie hydrochlomtG. When moltod it ^vob off 
add vayxmra and yields a brown maaa, from tlic Holntion of wLicli in 
aijunnue nikalla iicide throw down brawn flocks. 

Nitrate of bichloroliarniine ^iir^ciipitates froQi oaidi of argejttanL- 
nioniant a paK'-L'«vfni«li jelly, eonTaiiiing- silver, — When tydro- 
dilcrate of biehloroharnuiQi; is mixed with nitrato of silver, a jelly ia 
pTecipitaied, without formatioa of chloride of ailvert but* on ^doihg 
nitric acid to the jelly, chloride of silver is furmud. 

Bii;lii'"roharTni[;c disHolves in almfiof. r/hfr, btrrt:enf, and sulphide of 
carboii, iriuch mora eanity when heated than it does in the cold. 


Fettksche. Sec referencen 7 and 8 under Hanjunc, 

Xitrofrtrmiffinr. — VrfidiiG^r] hy the ftCtiOTJ of hot conceotrated nitric 
add on hanunlinc or on nitroharnialine. 

Prtpi^r/tiioft. One piirt of harmaline is dissolved in 9 pts, wat^r 
iiml the ncccbHary <]uuiility of acetic acid, and the eclution is allowed 
to flow in a Sne stream into 12 pte. boiling nitric acid of apoe. i^rnv. 1-4; 
ft violent evuliilinii of red fumea enfiuett* «fter which the ebnllition ia 
tttill onlirnied for a nhnrl llnvf - f lie liquid Ih then ctrnlhd by nddilioii 
of ic*", »r by luring jjlaeeii in enld water, and is raided with exeesa of 
potaeh-l'^"^- wEiiuti prccipit.atefl nitr^liarmine, but retains in solution a 
refein, fon'iiiid at ihe f^Jime lime, which ^vcp it a red-brown coionr, Tbo 
iiilritliTirmlni- ia diswolvediti liol water containing hydrochWnc acid ; the 
*io|rition [a filtered hot and rni^eil with concenti-rirf.-d LydnK^hlonc acid ; 
thi' bydi'>i.'blorale. which 90(iarQteH on allowing; the liquid ti^ stiind for 
a conni'ki'abk time, ia cullocted, washed with dilute hydroehloric acid, 
d!"***jlve<l in bf^lliny; water, and the (Solution is deo^mpoacd by ammonia. 
The ni:roharniinc? rhnp [necipitalt^l is i-etrvfttnllieed from hot alcohoh 
[( !<<•* TiiEni' HL'ld ii rlTiplojri>d tbjui lliu quuuUly prcsi^ribi^d Hburi?, luuiif rrato ii 
formal- It is utw> ficuFVinry lu DVuld UBiQg nit-'ic acid ci/ntAmin^ bjilnjcUlDiia ikci^, 
uid iwiL lo ihJ"1 (be iwid gr»iliifcUT lo Oio ^olulion mf ImrcoaLnc, uinco b Ihc Cret cnau 
dJortpflitroliMTuiDO ia pfotlncpdiiiTid io tho icoond, nUrgp quijititj t-f retin. 

7^ '-^'. ?"--■ ---."v-r— " T- z — f!ts- T t nlkr FnstTCf or 
!■:■ .1--.- —. ^- '-.-.: I::^ t iIl" coUi; Si-^Intion*; 


5 --r- *V73 

T=S . fr3l 

i" -^i L'.- ii*^iii: T ?TT- h Ar m iTi ^ into Kb- 

-/I'l.T: v. Vt^ 'z^^-r^.■^K' Es^i-'?* *i:^d7 zi crH ctrfcr, iwffv 

i- .::.■.»/.■ - 1 : - ri. - ^^ : ^ \^-'^: -^ i^i^ zurd^j^ '?a ix^i^hng. 

^: > V .. -r^^":.'.^ •■'-. r^i'. j^Z-:-w m,:** whicli hate 

s <. ^ .?■ 7:- " u" T ' '.:.-"a>': TrrE their Ajue<^n* solu- 

^-i ■ : 1 .*. :.'**! *^.i^ ::-i_:'r7 t i-urj.rii^ :r:ci ^ boiling wId- 

, .__-,-,- .., ^, ^ .-_ :- v-'i -vir-: Tir-T: *?:hc.'^o aoM is »ddpd 

■ , ^..■■. ■ 're. v ': ^ I':-' ■:: : Ani ttw miiiare v 

^».^»= s.! : i^ ■' ■ '^ '■' — - ' -^^ ■'■- — "-'^ ?- -t:-. ti i.'[ liw inoiK>-ao(I 

J ...^. ^ I,' .v: ■■-■ -':-?\i:'^'- -s ■:-~^>^i.'^L_i^, 

u:itt;-, n.r.r ,- 'a ■- ';■ ,r •■_■.■ r-. v.L ,- z_s^'*i »iih ^^loess ttf coil- 

1. 1 ...-.,. .-'^^ , \ ^-i. ': .« v^ x.r '.. L :'io s Imi-'u dij:v*ttfJ upon 

,'oiiiitn I ,.:. « ^^7 ^^■- '"■' ^' " ' ■ v::7. L— tilubJe m witer 



i*\ \U ^v 


. rs^^a 


>** ^ 

. lU* 


. _ *S - .- 


c^S'iB^^.Ha - 4H0, sa*.* — i<*w» 



JVifratf; a. Ba^c* — Wbeta Freahly procipitate'l Ditrobaiinine iB 
eiiPpf'inlei In water, and » qiijintity of nitric aHil i» inirled, I^&n thjin 
enffiei^iii to dissolve it, Iben dilute ammonia anfil turbidity commeiioeH, 
the filtered lnjuid df'pOHitti n email quantity of a dccp-joUjw pre- 
dpitatCi and a furtlicr qnanlily on additioit f>f luumimiiu Uudor 
the microHCOpe, this pra^ipitntr jipjKJurs lo bo composed of Gbree nmch 
crumpled and twisled. It contftinn nitric acid^ and ia pmbnhly ImHic 
nitfute of nitrohaiTQino. It ifl slightly soluble in oold wattr, partially 
achitlo in boiling wator, with Boparation of aoi?dLcB. Ainmnnia &ud 
fldution of potash do not act upon it id the cold ; when heated with. 
"fllQ Utter it chaagf^ to ncedJee ; coluhle In hot tJcohot, and eepai^tes 
in pAtt vnchan^ed on co^ilitig, i 

h. Mom-nriil. — Preciprtatwl by nitric aoM, frv>m soliitionB of the 
ealttfof nilroharmino, in bria'tit yellmv not?dli*Bj which, when left in the 
IJ<lEiid, chjiugo to dark yellow ^rctnuloi?- — Slightly aolublo in pure 
vntor i still Ices so in prescKJcc of uitiic acid, 

Chromate. — Crystalline prcoipitatc thrown down by neutral or 
acid chroEaate of poti^h from golutioim of the salts of uitrohanaiiie. 

ChtoromtrCMraft. — Morcuric chloride throwe down a aoeculout jelly 
from cold iM|ucoiift hydi'ocLlomtc of nitrobarniinc ; from hot dduto 
BolutiooB it tbrows down uiicrUfiCOpiL^ bundles of ciy^tnla. 

Nitroharitmc find SUi'cr-oj^vlt^ — The pcifeully neutral ftolutioti of 
nitrate of iiirrifhunnini.- is mhed with iirniuonio- nitrate cd sllvt'r. The 

E»duct is a riaTL% oranre-rcdT trauBparoni jelly, whieh dricB up to 
iwuiwii red amorphous lumpe, 

Chlitnyjif'Ttitin^f.. — IVlu^ji bidiliiriHe of pliitimnn h dropped into & 
dilufu b<Hliii^ £(LitutIon of hydiochlorate of niii^^hai-ialtiu, ue^dlee or 
foliated prisme strparato outf which axo dilficultly soinUo in ooldot 
boUiug water, 

BySn>fim>q/nrtare, — FoirocyauTdo of potaBBtam predpitBtcs from 
oc>!d concentrated fiohitioaa of n^troharminc salte, a jelly ; from boiling 
or acid- very dihit<? HoiutionaT brown microetopic crystale, which are 
very flligblly sciuble in water- 
fly rfr-^fcrrtdci/nHfrff. — Obta.iiied liko tho prcviona arilt with fcrridcy- 
anide of poUt.-i&ium, More solublo in boibug- water tban the laat salt, 
and Bi^jmiatts in yellow grauules ou coolbii^. 

Ctfanidf <'/ Mvri.'firy nnd Nitroharmme. — Yellow priamfi, which 6Cpa- 
nUe on coobng- from Boltitiona of acetate of nitl'oharmine and nier- 
euric cyanide, mixed boiling hot, 

JIi/(lrovufphoc?iafi^te. — Very email, abnoet colourlGsa noedica, pre- 
dpitated by Bulphocyatudc of potaaaitim from solutiona of nitrolianube 

Acettrie. — A boihu^, sfltTU-ated solution of nitrohaniunc in conccn- 
traLed ac*'tic acid nnd akoliol, gradiiallj' deposits yellow, weil-fonnod, 
U4nK|<iiron( crystals. Tlii-y lieconm upai|ui: wht-n WJinhi'd with wuter, 
and nn? (Mri}iierrly decomposed, by boiling with water, iQlo nitro- 
hanniAQ and acetic add. 


Oxt/hvmorutroaso-nnckits CN'XBrH'O'. 

CN-BrH^W = C"WXBrH»0»,H». 
Fbttzsgbb. Sec reference 8, page 104. 


WLcn dilute brumine-water is added to a very dilate Boludon of a 
salt of Ditroharmuiei the amcll of bromiiic disappears imDiediattilVf and 
on mdditioa of anitnoniaf bromonitroharmiuc is precipitated, and may 
be purified by reerydtallis^tion from alcohol, 

BeflombloK chloronitroharminc (aee below). Forme Balta with acida, 
ind unitea with iodine and bromiiic- 

Bibromide of Bromonitrohanninei 

Frttzsghe. See reference 8, page 104, 

Bi^roaiide of Bromonitrohartnidine. 

Bromine-watcrf added in moderate exceas to a eolutton of brouo- 
ButFoharmiae in weak alcohol^ causes a milky torbidity, which dis- 
^i^tearH by a gontio beat. The compound Bcparatee on cooliug and 
^niDg'f in yellow^ microscopic needles. 

o»nk;ibp>o* = c"N"xciH>o',m 

FftmscHE. See reference 6, page 104. 

CUoromtfokanadine. — Formed by the actjon of chlorine on nitro- 
hanninef or of nitrobydroctiloric acid on harmaline. 

Pr^aration. 1 . Chlorine-water ia added to aqueoua hydroctdorato 
OTftoetate of nltioharmine, aa long aa the smetl of chlorioe is destroyed; 
or chlorino gas is paBJsed into the solution, whereupoti chloronitro- 
lunnine aeparates out in the form of a jelly- The too long continued 
Mstioa of chlorine givefi rise to a yelfow rcsiu. The mixture is heated 
to boOingr and the residting eoluUon is preciiHtated by the cautious 
adffitioii of ammonia, drop by drop, with constant stirringi A more 

VOL. XVI, 1 

n. ' -i ' '^" 

-:z ^ ■ -^a 

--■ :i:c 

jn - 


r.T iL; 

. 'uv". T':;i i-_r'.' *^- 

rr : ^. -. ... 
iftj-an.!!,- . 

A"-.. , ''V'>T! r* il»^i with Si*ti:t>^0 


fisit fieparatea on cooling in globular ^oups of capillarj needles. 
It ie obtained in bright jeUow, gelatinous flocfca by cooUng tie hot 
aqneouB aolatjon. 

b. Bi-add. — The concentrated, hot, alcoholic aolntion of harmiDC 
mixed with excess of enlp^mric acid, ^aduallj yielda needles of the 
add aalt on cooling. 

HydrochloraU. — ChloroDitrohannme ia diasolved in hot alcohol 
mixed with eicesa of hydrocbloiic add. — Fine capllary ciystalfl 
moderately soluble in water. Precipitated from its aqucoua solution 
\tf a large excees of hydrochloric acid, as a jcliow jelly ; by chloride 
of sodium in white flocks, 

NitmU. — Stellate groups of fine needles. 

Ckloronitrohaniiine vjith Oxide of Stiver. - — Precipitated by ammonio- 
nitiate of silver from a perfectly neutral solution of nitrate of 

Chloroplatinate. — Hot Blcoholic solutions of hydrocblorate of cbloro- 
tutroharmine and bichloride of platinum deposit this salt, on cooling, 
in fine yellow prisms, 

ae C XBfl 31-40 3307 

5 N la frM 

11 H 11 frSl ..-..., a-BT 

6 O 46 fr64 

4 a «- 141-6 28-60 

Pt 9*7 19'81 IfrBS 

C^oTPXClH^O^^CajtCP- 497-3 10(HI0 " 

Chloronitroharmine is moderately soluble in boiling t^cohol, but 
ebghtly soluble in aher. It dissolves abundantly in boiling coal-t<w 
lu^htha and in rock^mL 

Biniodidd of Chloromtrolianmne. 

FRTTzscaE, See reference 8, page 104- 

Smiodide <jf Chloronitrokarmidine. 

Separates in fine needlesi resembling biniodidc of nitroharmine, 
from a mixture of the hot eolutiona of iodine and chloronitroharraine 
m alcohol or in coal-tar naphtha, — Mort' Boluble in alcohol than 
biniodide of nitroharmine ; dissolves easily in warm alcobolic hydro- 
cyanic aad, and separatea on cooling in brown, rounded granules. 


C«S»XC1H»0= 291-4 53-62 5348 

BI 262 46"38 4662 

C»H»XC1H"0',P M3'4 IDCHX) 100-00 



or IcBB crystokEIiuo product is thus ikbtaiiicd, when^oef from oold 
tloriES, a jelly is predpjtated, wliitL 16 ditttcult to wash. — £< A si^lutfi 
of ] ]>t. hihriDiilirre in 2 jiIh. water anJ tliu n'ljuiaite quaiilitj 
lUMitip aci4 ifi poured iutri 12 pts. of boiliag Ditric in-id of sft >cr. 
I'iU, Ukd 2 pts. of fuming^ liydroclil'^iic acid are ariik'd tri thu- mit 
tiiro; or tho hanuaihio Bolutu'n in poured iato the iHtiliuK- mist 
of the two acids. The liciuid bccomcB rcd-broWE, froths up strou;^ 
jLitd ovolvi^K li \-i>\at\lK Kubt4l,.-LtirL- w)iec}l utiiu:kr4 llii- I'yt.'H, but i\v-\ff 
nothing but resin on cof>luig. Tn ordfr to HRpamtf^ lli<* dism*! 
cblni-nnitTuh:knaiiie, a solution of eal-rimmoimc, c^K^Icd by [»\w.i 
lumps of ico in H, is poured into tbo liqmd i tliis ia diltitrd witb n 
au equal bulk of watei' ; atjd cauetii^ avd^ is tLen iiddnd, luitil it wells 
etrougly of uiiiinnni!*, whcn.'by lui abundiirit pTtc.ijiitHl*' of unp 
chlorDnitrohimiiue Is tbrnwn dowij. The piijiWt ia wsHhi'd v\ 
diful^^ hytlroohloriff ivcid atid heated witb wa1i?r; the Holutioft freed 
filtration from undiasolvod rcsm^ fiod precipitated by jf^^duul addilt 
of Aiuinoiim i and tlic precitolate purified by crystalU&utioii from h*ri 
i'i>b«b The enide eblonutilciibaJ-inini' m^y iilho hi.< iJ!ssolvi*d in bc^iUtxg 
water, with addition of jn«l the neceSBary tiHaotity of uitrie acid, uid 
preeipilolod aft uJlrato frnni the cooled filtrate by addition of lutrc 
neid m cxceee ; this ealti after being washed, may be dissolved in bol 
water, and pare chlorocitrobaniiitie pn^cipituted from the ti.iilmghot 
filtered Holutrou by means of cauatlc ammonia. 



Pmjtertif^. Bright yt41'>w, bnllld taiOA. o;iriiponed of 
necdlea, whieh cannot be diatinelly perceived, even under a 
powJ.T nf aOO, Amraotuu prccipitatea it frnni cobl air-lations, aA ah 
alniif^t trana|hireat, deep yclbw, very bulky jelly, which shrinlss very 
muoh oa drying*. Tosteleea; id sulutiuu sli^flitly bitter and rmigfi. 
Lobea 11-44 pL'r oent. wati^r at 100'' (4 at. = lO'UH per oent.), 
baoomeH orangt-'yeUow. 


at 100\ 



1318 .. 

... M-ai 

3 N 

ion -.. 


e --.. 

.-, 42 

.... 10 

.^« 48 « 



Hfcinnpnfntittnji, Aft/T drying at !00'» It leavow a rT*ddi«Ii-*a 

ivftiduo when alrohol ttr coal-tar naphtha is p^mreri npf»n it, bat 
eolrea complelfly u'htui b<j]lod with dilute nithe and. — S9tut!tm tf 
ioiiinti coavi'i'tn it intcj bijiioJidr of tblijiraiiliiihnnjiiHr ({y. llfi\ WUtt^i 
iniii<c] with hobitioa of iiidlrJr iif |)utaHKlum, and then with nitric acid^H 
U di.'|>oj«jTfl a dfi'p blue prrdjiitate. ^^| 

Offn^'rutfwmj-. Dii«n>lv#*n IfliT ftlij^tly in Wild wnTfr: iimrv atmoduily 
in b("hnK wat^'T, ;:pvin^ a yellow eolijtion. 

U formfl pale ^rllow satu with ^u'ids, WhcD bcolH whll Bnhitina 
oT a«]*animiviiar. it nily iilAwly dtv|daccB n tTOC« of atnmovi*, 

bfttmibe I* dmiUoJ in wiuni oluulKd iimiiuniu^ sulfJiuric fici^ 



s&k separates on coollag in globular groups of csLi^ullory neeilles. 
It is ffbtainpd in bright ytllow, gclntiDons flocks by coolijig tlje hot 

b. Bi-ddd.—'ThG coacentratoJ, hot, ulcohDlit: fiolutian of hanninB 
mixed with exc<^B^ of EuJphtiric aad^ gni&iial]j yicldEt aeediea of the 
»cid salt on cooling, 

Bj/droehloratA. — Cliloronitrnharmioo is dissolved id hot alcchol 
mixed with exwss of h)'drochloric add, — Fine cBfoUary crvst»ls 
modcrat&ly eoluhle iii water, Precipitatoi from its aqueous flolution 
by a Inrgv excels of hvliochluric acid, as a yellow jelly ; by chJoiidc 
uf hodium ill iv lute flocks, 

JV'iCTTjftf. ^ Stellate groupa of fine needles. 

Chloronitrohaname letrh OxifU of Silver. ^ Pret'ipitiited by ammonio- 
nitr&le of silver from a perfectly aeutral solution of nitrate of 
cb lorofutroharmine. 

Clit'TfTpl'itmafi^. — Hot alcohnlicsolnliooa of hydr^whlorate of diloro* 
uitrt^b firm 1 lie aud liichloride of pUlmuta deposit tliie ealt, on cooling, 
in fine yellow prisms- 

BS D - . _...... 

Jl Iff ,.„ _ 

.. IBS 

,. 4S 

„ 11 ,. 

„ 4a H>-.-- 




, SffOT 

4 a-. - 

pt ^ 

^ iii-e 

« &87 

. loefl 

CbI'MYi-iiiTrohamiinc is moderately fioluMc in boiling alcoholj bnt 
eHgliUy flolnbic in rfAff, It dieBoivee abuiidfliitly in boiling co^-tar 
Kt^tha And in rvC't-tffA 

Biniodide of Chloronltrolianaijie. 
Fritzbohb. See tefereoco S, poffC 104i 

Simntdidt of Chi^tromifohitnmdine, 

Si-|Nir«.tes ID SriR needlfx* rpRr?mli1in^ hiuindidc nf nitn^bsiiujue, 
friiui u misluro of the hoi aolniions of ioiliiu' und dilorDriilrr>harn]iiie 
in iJr-oliol or in conl-tar naj-htha, — -Mur*? soluble in aleubul tban 
If^ni Kjiifc of nifroharmine i dissolvoH easily in warm alcoholic bydro- 
cjiiriic acii!, and scptiratc-s on t'ooliug in br^^wii, roiiiided grutiulet* 

c»5^ciH»o2 ara-4 

ai 2&3 

... &349 
„, ■M>&2 

c*s»xcin"0',n Mi looiw 


1 s 



fSyflEL [18il)- -JrtJ'. P-5flr/j. 38, 3C3- 
VAiinivynLiPP Ic WiLi- All'*. Pharm, 39, 269, 
Fkitzsche* See refereuceH on page 104. 

lilt; preparation of hamiLlinp inui fiv%\ cIiiWM-ibfkl b;* QAbd, Bft^r tt lad 

Ooourreitci. To tUs cxleut of 2 lo 3 per coiit, ia the wocda 
iV.gnneiH* IFarftah : alnwRl exclaaiveJy in the liuaksf BCurocly a trocc 
the graijK 

iVejiomifFm. If in the jirejuLvntiort of bamiinc, ns de^cHbpd 
104, a femall <iuantity of fimmo'iia i^ added t<i the hylrooh]^! 
flolulioit af harmifio and hanQuUiio, Uic Former it^ prrciiiilibtf'H an'l 
the latter rcmmna m sulnlioii. The lii(iiLil \s then mixed witb cxtvAu 
iif iiijintnnia ; tho [in'^cip'Ltutc; Is t'iirt[ieiidc^J lu w^kter; jLei<tie (LCid w 
UfUli'd until nearly nil i» d]»i«olvi'il; the fiUrati^ ia jiroei|>it[Lt'?i wjtli 
TLitralo of bodo, <'blaiii)o of dodiiinif or Lydrcx'lileiie neid; oiid tLi! 
Iji-edpitotf?*! Buk in ^Tishcd ^vith ci dilute ft<»lutwni of tUc 1 4-<x;ipitmiit, 
find purified by treMment in aq^ueDus solution vntii aitimjtl cliArtv*!. 
The nJirmuUiie in i>re<!ipitiU'<l fnmi tli<> Kulmiun hy rsi'fSH nf in>i*iib» 
l<?y. and wasbod at flr«t vritli watm'. finallv witli ahHuhih* Aloitliol : ii 
\i tlieri dutg^il^ed in boiling ahHotnie nler>hi:i1, tuid the fl^>hitL'~kn 14 aLIowciI 
to cool, comi>let<."ly pi'^lL-L'ted fi'omtlji: nir(t'iitasehe)« — f!i>bel exliftualc 
tlu' poiiiided wcoa with lioiiiug w*xtet aeifbilftted with Boe(i»: Ari^i; 
piedpit^teH with j»otash ; eryKlalbni-'s ihe pmilucl fmiii nh^itiuli 

iLtiiEiiul ehiire-^al ; procijjjiuteH with potailior auimoQin ■ hTuleryMilliiMf^ 
ii^jvin Frnin ulenhi^b Tbe eryatttlR thus tiblaiiicd Jiuve titill a vellcivri«lf 
Liijwii i:<>loiir, 

P,-iipei-tirf. (IbtiiiJied fitnn Its aleolinlic finlutinn, jf t^ta\ 
|irotoirt''il from air, in eohinrlesfl cryMiiT'*, U'lim^j^ing t-> tho rbomlHO 
n^^ht prism a lie By fit em, Fi^. 71 nithont u^ hut with the I'Hiffit 
"ice r» (^7>Ta). ".-ff (over v) = llG°34'; rt.-*r(lH^bmd) = lar 
'z n 0>^W) — 63" :--*'. (Noi-deiihkiiilil, /"Hrr^i, Ai:ad. B^U. ft. 
\\\ i1rii>1f it hfli* HCJiret'ly ;iriy taste ; iti Motulioii it lUHten piirrly hllliT 
(l*V(?4(.'he] i hjUK ft biiJit bitter taste, uiul ia afterwELrdn tiomvn'li ' 
nmuh lutd »*biu'p (ti^tMrl). DtH^ not li>^ n'Ciifht nl 190^ (VftmuUM 

& wai). 

T«reiilrKpii yriUicAw* 

mem: earitM-* labr, 

MC..^ IM .„ 73IPU ,., TaiS ... 7940 ... f»n 

1 Zr . — , U », 18^ ,.. 13-U .... LI-98 

UR U -. «-U .-.. «-W -. a'lO ,^ 

10 IB ^. T-W ..., S'W .. 7W 

(WPHHD*- Hi ™ lOCW .„ 100-00 



TArrentranp A Will nnaljued Cii^bera hiniuUinfl -- thej 
C^"^H'*0. l>itiM^he'B rarlier formula PonliuDi ST ut. Dajboo. 

Dft-tj/'tivt^irions, 1, HiuinaliiL<i he/ifM in a [ilatinum epoon iucIIh it 
u brown- red liquid, evolve a *U3iigt\*oubly amtlliii^ wliitc vapourSj 
tiikea fire, and leaves a uombiiMtibb cindori ^Vheu heated m u timall 
liiUe it yields :i while, iiioiily tinMijtiafo (Gobel). — 5. Prcshly prc- 
cipital»>d or aqnoouB hfltmaliuo is criloitred bitjwn by expoBiu^ to itir, 
cepociaHy air contaming- animfniia. (Fi'itzeclie). for G<ibera rta-teuitnt 
wpHnrmala iTd{p,119.) — 3. A'ri/fifc of linnnttlinc, ^V^rmcd with aI\:ijholic 
k^h-ot:hhm acidy is cuiiverkd iut^^ liaiiiiliic (p. ]04) : 0"N"II**O' + 0* 
_ C'*N'EPW -h ^no. Hiirmaliru-j tx)i[(*d with iM^OftW of nitric ac'df 

S'elflH rtrfit uitiTjIirmuiUiiiG ; tlioD, by longpp boiling-T uitrohannine, — 
j'linjl Mtroh/droohltirio aci't yidda chloroiiitroharmiiio, - — -1, BitJu-omatc 
of harmahuc, hoattd ub^.>va liJO'^, undtrp"oi*a a dcccmpasi tinn which 
propogateia itself through the whole niasH, und produccH harjainfi and 
a dark-uoloiired rpsin. — b. With h^drve^anic acittf it Fonus bydixj- 
Fj'iinhanaalinc (Fritzacht!). 

Combimttio'i^. HafmaLiiio \s vory filijrlitlj eoluhis in laater. 

It neutrdidoa od'li aad forma with them coaily Bolublc, cryetalUnfi 
w/m (GObtl). Thed<i and thc-U' sc»lutii.iua arc yellow (pure aulphm- 
yelhjw : FritKf^chL')T liiivc a bitter taste, and arc dcntiniposeil by 
ammonia or the fixed nlkaliu, with separation of fuLrnialiae (Gribcl), 
although a Tar^r quautity of tho bnno rcmiuns dieeolved tlian c:nr- 
reHpouda to itfl t^Uihility in •vmi'^v (Fnt^sLho). From tuld iiqucovia 
lLaruialhie-BalE.e, ammonia and pot<ksh precj[atatu rriI-drou8T which 
e/ill<N?l to I'efJifiourt ejincretiiina in strong K<*lii|i'nis, and qnickly thangt! 
to frystwU in dilute »uhitiou*i. In. hot iiquide, the oily-dropa appear 
'»hly f'^'t an mt^taut. - — WJtEi the aid ol hiiat, hanaaliDe< dii^places 
ammonia froca its saltd^ - — Tho aalts of iiarmalino {like tho rorrcB" 
IHiiidiag banuine'fealts) am more Hohibie in puro water tlian in water 
Mintdtiniijg a^idn or willtf, and are pi-odpitaled Trom Ihoir aijueouB 
fFoluliouH by acidfi and salXe (Fntzscho)- 

Carloitfitir of Harritaiinf. — The BLiltfl of harDialincr yield with normal 
fclkaliut? earboTifltt^ either tin pif cipitatc, or a pn-ocipitate of hanuoline, 
— \Vhe(i concentrated noluliOTifi of bicarbonate of potaah and acetate 
of liaraudirio are miM^d together, biejirbouiite i>f Itariualine Ih thiuw^ii 
HouHt and can be obtained, without mndi decomposition, by washing 
vrUU very eold water, Liod i^uiokly prcsying and dr^ln^ in ttie air. — 
y\nv iLcedlcfif eualaiuing' about 13 per cent, cai'bome aeid, and easily 
dii-'Uinpotfed by water into harniaJiue and carbonic acid gas (Fritsache), 

Pho9pJ*<AU, — Eiciets, according to Gbbol, in tho Boody of Fv^anum 
J!i$,ntitUt. — The neutral ealt is obtu.incd in needle- shaped ciyatala by 
l»oIliug eice^a of baiTualine witli dilute phodplionc aeid and evaporating 
X\\v tiltrate, PhoHphi.irJi; jicJd preeiphatrs an acid aalt fmui tho aLpeona 
inlution of tho nvutrul sitlt (trit^Goho). 

Sitlptiite^—^'Ww^ Hiilution of hainjallne in aqueoiia eidphnrouK acid 
drii-g up T"» a yellow ivnin, wiiljout any tiHces of (TystalliKalinii 

5ij/pAflJ*. — a. 3/o^o-rtcu;/, — A yellow K^an, which cliaugcw to a 

118 primart nucleus cp^h"; oxtaso-nucleus <^sm«o^,^^^M 

radiated cry Htai line maas over oil of vitriol, obt&iaod by dig^tin^^^ilU 
stJphuHo d^Id niwa eiccAs of bonDaliDc aud evaporatiag tbc nitntek 

— U BioL-Ul. — Pfetipituted ill iieedlt'8, which diasolve eaailj ia ^^^^ 
by adijing snlphnric acid lo the solnticHi of a. (Fritzsche), ^^^^H 

B^dnmi^haU, — By icLdng co&ceatmted aolutww of blHpE^^ 
sulphute of aniEuoniA Biid ac(.-tateorLarnuilij]t\ liue iiriHma &re obUJnud, 
vhjch quickly docomposc in thv air after sepanxtionof the molbcr* 

liquor (FnUeche), _ 

Sj/dni>date^ — GrystoIUQc prccipitjitOj difficultly eolublc in yr\Us, ^H 

fft/drochlnrate. ^ Aiiuii{iit» itc*iUiU^. fi( hamiAlino ia [ireci[MtAtr>fl ^^| 
excefciM iif hyclrochlnrjo tidd, and the prroi^Hiate \s washed with dlli^H 
liydrochLorii:^ acid. If iha ualt hufi not a puroyi^liow ci^lotir, il i3<l;i^»ilri^H 
in walcT Aud precipitated by pouiiii^ iha solutiou Into diluti.- hydr^l 
cblL-rit add- — h'fnsf alcoder, yeUow iieeJlcftt which |f»ap 12'l^p«T crut 
water when ht?ati?d (4 kL ^ l^'i^T jiet cent. waUsr),^ DiHscilroB' 
in water and alt.'ohol^ <?*<pecially vrilh l\\o ^ of luwi| slow! 
hydroolilono ^id or eolation of cotmnon salt. 


. of 115-. MM, 

t 18 1C6 eB'W 6SH 

K an ..,.. .„.. SB jris 

W 16 H „.. IB 6-mi Sfi3 

■ to 16 6W 

I a , ae-i i*u »- la's* 

^ CS^'^O'.Ha. SfiO-* 10(H» 

Nitraie. — By prtxdpltatio^ ac^iats of liannalino with dEuto 
odd, OT with i^itrate uf ammonia, ueedlou ftro r'btmued which ftTC 
spanngly nohihlc in pure water^ and ahnoet Infiolubte In wster 0CAtt|||^J 
in^ nitric add (Piitzsche). '^^^^M 

Ckromale. &. MvnO'aci'l -^ On miiuig together rliluto lolntbni nTw^^H 

of moiioi^hromato of hannalirie ar<? obtained by adding MWtat« of baff^ 
mftline, drop by drop, lo * eold, suturatoi* twjueous oolntion fJ mo fti>- i 
ohiTKuiti; of potafiU ae lou^^ an ImmialLEii^ is Hrporati^d^ thL-ii lilU'iing. a^|H 
lidding more acctiLim>f liHrinuliiic [ii the filrriLU',- — Thi? uimt t'ijmp'<u^^| 
HpparatPn ari a iK'iTii-rluiil* i^iriy y^'llim nt&&ti when crj'Nialii of imio^^f 
chrr>inal4> ol polai^h aic thi^^wn into a c<>nL?L>utratod fiolutii>n \ti na-t^^H 
of hannalinn. if Ihi^ innua in rinsed with a litlio watrr, diw^^-^^v*^! bi • 
W^rer quantity, and tho ei*Ititi<>n uddtd to ihc ^^►th»'r-liijUor, crynUJ* 
of tho tittll HTfiamlo cmt. — Brij^ht yi.Jlow, Ilftlt^;r»'d uoidleH, njiftnart' 
soluh^fl hi WHii^r Efijiily doooui|Kiafd into hurmjilimi and Ihi* tndd 
B!i1i : Oil additir:4i of lux-tin ucid, tliia dcoompoeition InJcua plftoo limD«- 
dutcly (FriTuchc). 

b. Jtifind. -^ ArmeuaA chmmio add, iconm^hriimati^ ind bUkromatti 
of [>ii(aMh tlimu' ilim-n, h'^Tii <L]tii(t fK'iii eL^lntiimtt of bunoalinv mIi** 
orni^-oiliiuri.'il <!jvn>fl, whioli enxi hardi'ji t'» Ijiuiolit'a of cryatalx* — 
BeOUdn* ilticiuing^Hl 111 121^^ Vvt Itir* drmniiKWii^iu m\ blfUvT tmy nW^J 
>M Hffi I IT SitiinMrly wihibh* in ivaU'r, 4-iyFi[allim<Ft ttvoi Itfl nnfaticoii 
bckluig 4ttc^ibol, bill 1)4 dLv^}nijH>40il l>y coniiniud rlmllition (l^HtvcboX 

CUM«Mf«iiraf«.^tiopu^t«aiu tho (nmi oF fiiui luwdle* wfa^M 

HAHMAUKB-RHD. ^^^^T 119 

BolDtioiui of merciino cbloride and hydmcWorate of harmftliiie arc mixed 
logi^ltier; Trum cold eoliitioria it^epurateb aa a thick ^occultitt pi'e- 
cipitate (Pritische), 

Chkroplaciaiila. — Briglit-yeUow, light powder, (Xjmposed of micros- 
cofQc crystaJs- 


as O 158 « 3T-1B 37-63 

« Jf..^ „. £8 6-67 

Ifi H 15 ■■67 ,.,.,„. 3'5fl 

a o.„.,.„.«.. «..., 19 s-aa 

a a .„«««-, , losa zsss 

Pfc ,-. D8'7 33-50 £8'Ba 

C?T<'H"<V.n01.PtCl' 4199 lOOOO 

Contoiaft S4'5a |>er cvat. plntinom (TtLTrcnlrapp Jl WiU)^ 

Htfdroniiphficfftviate. — Obtained from euIphocyaTkit^Q of potaSBinm 
aad b^drochlcrnteor LarmaLiuc. Bri^fhtydlow cr^'atallinc predpilAtc ; 
afu-r reci7striUisjiticn, slender ficittcDi^d Leodlce, with a silky lufitre. 

Hydroftrrfc^nate. — A dilute Golation of hydrochlorate of liarmft- 
line i« prccipitfttod at boiling- heal with forro<:yaijiclf.' of jjotaaaium In 
esccas, Vennilioa-rad cryfltaUiue pcjwder and lar^^er cryaUls, Quite 
iriKolulJe iu water (Frltzfldie). 

Hydrofimde^anait^. — Scpatatea from cold solutions in dro|ja which 
change to dark grecuish blue cryetaltt. Ineokble in water (rritzsche). 

Acaaie^ ^- Tho &<^lntii^Q of hormnliiie In acetic acid yields acetate of 
barmiLlme ua an caBily soluble cryfitallino salt by spoutan^i^UB evo- 
poration ; by ovaporatioiL a,t highor tempcraturee^ barmaliuc eoparatcs 

Ovaiatfr — Xf aqTieoua oxalic odd is boiled with linrmaline in eiceas, 
n^Odlee of the diac^d aalt Rcparatti on cooliu^; from their BoluUon, 
oxalic acid pre«:ipitatce the mono-acid salt (Fnizache), 

nanoaliae dissolvt-ft wiih diffictilty in L'uld ftlt^ohat, eanily on bniling-. 
It LB sparingly eolnble in r^iA^r, and w precipitated hy ether from tlie con- 
cGDtraied moi^holio solution as a eryBtnlEiuo powder. It ie fiomowbat 
aotoblein rock wV, oil of Urpcntine^ and oil of Utnona ,- the frcalily dietillei 
oil* diaeolvc it witbout coloration if protected from the air.^ Oil of 
turpentiiLe^ which ban beeti OKmned to the mr, rjIouis hitnnallne rod 
on ht'tHinff; oil of bmouB eolonrw It dark brown, — Ifydrochlorate 
of har(Luit[Ue dyes doth Diordanted with alum u pnle iLud fu^tiva 
ycUuvr (FritEBohtj). See aJso HarmalB-rHl. 

A-ppentHa io Harmailne. 


OdSU- ^1". Pharm. 38, S63. 

DOLLriSS ^ ^cVHJATM&EltUER. -/. pr. CliCii. 30, 41, 
FanMCiiK. Petn-AL Actvl. BulL fi, 300 ; /. pr. Cftera. if\, XnTi i I^in. 
Vetilr, IS Ifct. 74, 



Edrmaia, Porph^r^atnm.—^Sa^TUiAh-tiX'Xi UT lued fur obtuninf k nd li jf . 
OMwl prrpand t]i9 cQloujing nuttor, bul did no) demribe Tiis pnx^iML lie n 
hvmaU-red M a product of oxidalioii of Ljimiuliriu ; FriUncUri bowi:T(r dis^u' 

Wbeu ] pt. of powdered haimalu-ticotla iv molatciicd witU 3 p 
alcohul of 80 per ecnt^ &ad allowed to et&ad For et}^hl days or n fort- 
night in HL'loSfcl vt'esel, tbt mixture acquires a dark-red (ynloiir, whitrh 
^eomos brighter and piiror wbou tbo oioJEteLiiii^ willi ftlcohul is ny 
pouted, fttid the Bmdi of tbo latter at Ibo sumG lime diBApi-o^ire. Tbi* 
colouring mottcr thus formed caii be precipitated* but not quite p»irc, 
froiiJ ita aciil eolations by nlkatis. Beautiful purple-red, almost gel^v 
tinoLm fli>ckri are t\i\\s (jblidnerl, wbiefi dry up to a dark, opnque itwm. 
wilb ft ^rocni^b irideeceuce, aud arever^' ab^btly tiriluble tn water. U 
dias'ilv^d in ncid ckfter drying, alkfilifl no longer prcd|Hta1e it pqr| 
but yelhiAvitfh'red (Fi'iiiir^che), 

GijWl'rt haiiuab-red ja Insoluble in water, piridoratcly soluble ixi i*lh 
nnd aolubls irt all propoLtionn in abnolufe aleoh^'i]. With aci^s it fo 
red aalte, and dyea wool or silk mordanted with solpliate of al 
Frnm the Itghlcat pink to the deopeat p'jppy-rod. 

Coaju/fitted CcmjroumlB f*f HcnftveHnf, 


FnrTZftCHS. See referent^oa 3 and G, pa^v 103, 

Forinatiort. By bringing- toKethor Imtmaliiic wid hydrooymic 
or h&niui]uie-Qalt& and cyanide of poioAt^ium, 

preparation. I. Hflpnnaline ifl added to boiling dilute aloob 
livdnH:yariie add. aa li'ng uh it ih thereby dist^tilvpfl ; the (iidntion 
filtt-red hot, and on cooling hydrrieyanhannalinc cry»lAlliH.« out. 
9. A eotioentrated solution of acetate '>f liart»aliue le uiixtrd with b 
drocyanic ncidi whereupon bydroiiyAolmnnaLLitc scparateit nfter 
timet 011(1 niuy l>e freed from the motbcr-liguor by iviLrthin^ with val 
On]^ ■ iiiibU pnuliu^t ii tbiu nblojiitxl far tbi? iiii4E ptTtr-^*^' AH ftOVOint 

tolutiou of a bnrmaliiJO'HfiU in mixed w^ih solution of cyftaiila o( 

Siolaiit'ium, and Ibc rosulting amorpboua precipitate, whieli would b« 
lcconip(tHt'd by dryijiff in the uir» in diasofvod wJiilu atJll inobi ld 
boiling ub'ifhuK iLhd fallowed Eo cryAtAl]isi> liy coiiliiigp QyuiidD of 
iHtiaMMmui ^ivLW nn ititini^diate (Tl'y^talUIlc> iireuipiLate will] ftlcoliiolb 
liftniuklJiie-AaliH. Any baniuiline that may ivmj^i mixed with il* «itt 
be removed by meana of diluto aeutio odd, ^vbieh ftttttcks 
cyuibuinaline t-^mporAtively little. 

and in vk'Uo. 


Colotirb-w, tikin, rhombic p1atc»; p^rnUDtnt En 1^ lir 



29 C 
3 M 

3 O 

IBS ... 

15 .„ 

16 ... 

17' iS 


C**I«FH'HJ",HCy .„. ?41 


Dfcojapofithiis. 1. ,Vrj*orpiioiLH moiflt liydiocyanhnrmaliDC ie [Xirlialiy 
dfCompytM-d, It lirjiiig iu tijc uir, into hydrocyaiiii; add a\id harm&linci 
orvKtalUacd hydrofyauhurmaliuu dmua not midorgo & rtimilrtr partiQl 
dL*^ro[iH»>Hitioii till bt-akid abuvo 100° ; 3t abmil 180°, it is ciuiiplt?lf-ly 
docoin|MiTii'*l into Iho h:iiih.' pn>duolH. — ■ y. If likiwiBo Hplila uj* jiitij 
liydz'ocyuiiJc acid and Uaramline when boilod vitli wvTffr or (//t'oW. — 
3- When liydrocyanhorraalmc !*i.if ponded in wiiUr is heated to boiling, 
vnih. a grt^at eic^^cia of t\itrn: uciilt the liquid ASJi^cjruct] a beautiful 
purple-red coloiu'r aiid doimtiitf^, wbec culd, a hpk-ad[d n-d, aMLurjibiiiiif 
]wiwdor, rk furtber quantity of whiLili quo. be obluiiiod from ibe itiulUor- 
jiijuoi' by additiou of wator, or by puiiHl ncutrulitiatioii witb aaiaiojiiiL. 
The red ]>f>wdcr is clittu^^d to ii fiuc ffrot^n by ttniaiimiai »lct>Uul 
dusBolvcfl it v^ilh buautifiil purple aibxu', whtcii] however, soon |mstit'?i 
ioioadiflyyeUnw, but dues iiutyiold it again uiiitltt'iod in avajHirittiim, 
Ether is not coloiir*>d by it, but disaolrea a piut, probably a foruigu 
admixture* — If hydroc^'tmlittrmaliao ie atin'ed up with water and 
poured into boJinjr uitric acid, a mucb ntuallcr quEuitiiy of the red 
fiubat&nci? h foru^ccl. If alculioL Ih Ubud iiit^tca-d of wati^r^ otber ]]n)- 
dnciH of dt^eoniportition ni-e foTmed. — Hyditn^^aabjimialiuu heated 
with hycb(>ch!onc acid and chltfrats of potash ia eonvtriled iuto ft reeiii. 

Coriibm/ithns, llydi'ocyHiiharmnliao is iaBolwhle in toa/er. — With 
acids it fyrmfl cohmilosd satit oi iiydrfjeyftnburniaUae* These are 
pftrtially decotniwaud, evoa by r^eparation from their Bolntioue, and 
mora easily Li prtjpovtiou as the lattLT aro niDre dJluli'. Thuy are 
deeoaaposed with peculiar facility wlica dried and tept. They cannot 
be prc^parud by acting on the crorreapoudbig hanrialiao'Balta with 
hydrocyanic acid, 

SuJphaU *)/ Jliitf rovf/uri/'tirrnaliiii. ^Oi\ of vitriul disBolvcH bydm- 
tyanUarmaliue witliout dccoru>0f*itioji, fumiiu^ a yellow li^iiid, which, 
by ahsorbirj^ muistiui! frtuu ibt- air* or by taieful diUdioa with water, 
is rendered o i|i nii"le«*! and d^posilt i^rystalu t>f the KuJphale. Moderately 
eoneenlr;ited ealpburic acid converts bydrocyLLuharmaline iatn milpbnto, 
without visibly L'haugiti^ its form or dJanolvLnt-- it. Hydrocyan- 
Lanniitlne diseolvea iu very dilute Hulphuric acid to Li clcart eoloiirlrmi 
liquid, whidi di.'}>usilH part i»f the wiU after a thno ia deofle, 
liUCTOscopic cry stale. 

Jltftlr^d'hi-aU. — GVystalft of hydrutyiiuharnialipio, nfOiBtcned wJth 
a aniiill <jUi*aLity of water or alcohol aiid then covered with bydro- 
clJi»ri«: a<.id. are converted into the Ijydroetdorato, wilh(*nt visible clmTi*:© 
ef furiri, though auder the mici-oacope they ar^ aecn to be rnadc up of 
an a^grogatinu of siaall crystals. — Finely tlividL-d hydiocyunharnialiuo 
diiisolvea to a clear liquid in Buflidenlly dilnre bydrochlori[^ aeiil, 
wUuricc ft cryetalhae powder is gGnemiry depoflited. This muat btt 
Heparatvd from tljc mother- liquor itu mediately, iji order that \%. 


uiuy not be criiflaminuleil willi ItydriTchlorat^ of hannalinct 
waabed with wiiter, atid dried as qnkrkly as |iosaihl(! l«rtw«'n lili 
Hft|Kir, — Colourleps rh^^mbic acUljoortMiB. SpliU up mio hy 
acid and hjdruchlcratc of harmttliiie when builud witb water. 




77-U :4fU 

8-ra 9ai 

laia la^sfl 

(FH»H»0«^C1.„, 277-4 IWKW OT'WO 

Nitrate. ^Nltjic acid combtuos will* hydmcyflTihannftliQe, foi 
a salt whicb In, olejipnoua at fu'st. but soLidiEeH aXi^x some tunc 
ctj'filalliuo niiLSB. t'iuuly divided Lydr'x'yjiuhHnuiUiiiL' niiseO wi 
Itirgr qiiaiilily oF wntor, diisfiolvc^ on arjilitioii uF iiitrit' Jkcid, lo a 
liqaid, wliich deposits aft*r a wUlle cryataU of nUnilfl of h 
ojaiiUmTiLaline^ uud prcacuTly ntso of nttTftt^? iif barirmliair. 

Gold concpntraltil arffi'c ^td gnulimllj dinHi-ilvt-a bvditHiTiii 
hArmHltiii*; biil ibe aix-tale imiuot be ubtaini'd m tik* r^olid form fmi 
ill!' flnhilion, ihe yellow colour of whii?b noi^irifi tn indii^hl*' ihai 
harmabiio oxiate in it no ]ong(?r id coiDbinatiork wUh bjdrocy 

nydrocyanhannaluiQ disBolrce spancgly in cctd, more jibundnntlj 
ill IkiI alcithuL 


FioTZBCttB. Sea rofensucea 4 to 7, pages li)d» 104i 

Chfyt^karmm^. HitfoJutrmaSidiikt, 

ForrAati<^n, By iho uction of uitrto acid on hMUOlLno* 
fnjmrfttiiffK L Two ^ihrirt of wstoT arc poured Ufw^ii 1 pi 

nolntioii iH poiuvd In a Hue Miveljii into ^4 |i1k "f bi>i]in|f nitric 
(d aij. iiH^. I'12I). Ah mM>n lu Uitt alonny t^vnliiliitn nf vtni tuinM* 
wlii^ib iak*:» jilact* ou niixiji^^^ tht' IJquitlHf bw ^mbtiidcd, th« Lunp k r^ 
ntuvcdi (bu li^iuLd \t^ ciiolod ^h tjujokly as poti»[b1c, aT;0 oxix^M M «toU 
ill u^ld^d, wbcTuby uitnibiirn^ubuo ie r>ri.xnjiiluU'd, und a i^-hIu ftuntcd tl 
tlic Kiiint: tiniv ia k(?[i|, in HitluEioN, 'nit! wu^brd |iriH:J|fitiitt- ia IxitoraBtd 

itutioij, whfTcbv livdnTchlonilu '4 nit rviUnrrn&line Ih i 11 

IK di»K'4vH ill mkowann w]kii_T» aud nitivliaiinalirii .'< ,, 
fpiiji cbi" Hf.ilutirfii hy an alkali. —i, Six to riglit f«rtn 
WMK'I iviif. air jxiiirrd iijinn 1 \tU li:»niiidiTip. njid ^ t *' "* ■* 
tuldrj; when lhi> wbolo lit drKMrLvcJ, "2 piii. of lu 
iiLtrk- acid am oddi^-cl, luid Ibir mixUtro iti |iL[t{vd tu ii"l ■^uit.-t^ 

^^^^^^^^ NITROUABMAUNB- ^^■P 12S 

cniiar^qnencc of the jK^tioii of tho nitric aeid upon the aWiliol, violent 
cbulJltJiiTi of the liqiii-i noon gel* ii», nud mast he stopped, sSivr a ehtirt 
tiui& Li^ rapidly oooliti^ the mixture, whi?fQupoQ ncurly all tho mtro- 
liEinnftlitic Uiat hiis beon formcJ h deposited aa liBulphatc. This pro- 
duct b wifcflheU with akoliol coiitiiiuiug sal^iUuric ^d, arid diflflolved in 
luketmriB w&t^r; dilute sol iiHuu of ruustie ^lota^h ia added dn:)|i by drop 
to ttie solution when quite coM, until a pennan^nt predpitat^ is pro- 
duced, and Iho ti^jlijur of tho liquid hae becomo puro gjoldon yollowj 
foreign admixtor^^s ate thus separati^d, and the aolution Is then quickly 
tiered [uto a timuEl quaaLity of add. Tho feebly add Bulutiou ia 
wa.rwed to 4u° Ltr 30% juuE nii i:xe(?RH uF cuuHtiu potaHli of animouia ta 
added all at ciuCG WLth oom^tant stin'iu^t ^ crynInlJiuc precipitate of 
uitrohunn&iue is thiit; fiijnieJ almost iiLntiiiitly. It cr^u be obtained La 
BomewliAt lurgtiv urystals by ret n'St till isotJOu frinn b-kiling water. 
Crude iiitruharmalinQ inuy aL4i> bo purilied by precipitatiiig^ itH solution 
in Hulphuric add by moani* of eoramou hiU nr nitrntc of Hoda.. dis- 
solvinff the procipilatcd fiydrochlorate or lutrato in cold watcf, and 
thro^nng down the nitroiiarDiJtlicc from the filtereif Rolution, IF 
bArmalinc oi' barminc ia ftlill pre&cnl, thu pmiduct iB etbied up with 
water to a mud, and rxrchii of concentrated aquiMus Eul[)burouH ueid 
is added, whereby thi? whnle i^ di^Hnlved- after a whiln^ however, the 
bibulphate of uilrobaiiQulLiie scparatci; c}ai nimoet completely^ wfailo 
huriiune and liarmEilhjo reuiniji dteanh'cd. The prtidiiot is washed 
M'ith dilute aulphurouja itcid. djntfolved iu (rarin wibturf ttod the fioiutiou 
preoipitated by exct^HS oi alkikLL i 

Prtrpcrfifn^ Small, oraugo-yelluw prisnin, which mi^lt at 120"^, 
often at lover temporatnrefi, to a browu reaio, and aolidiry a^^aiu oa 


«6 158 „„„„ 60-lS m-ia 6016 i 

a If. 4S ie«a 15-27 

18 H „,«, U „.-... B-Oa C'14 49a 

6 ^. 49 .^ 18-Si .,, IBA^r I 

Ch'^xn'^c .... asa lo&oo loooo 

DKOfnposit^ns. I. Boiling ooncoatrated niVnc acid couverts nitro- 
lunu&lme into nitmhanniae, — 2, On beating thu l/icArGinaUr a. violent 
ikHyiinpOHitloti »&t6 hi. wliGreby a pecul'iHr h;iAe ih produoed. — 3, Hjf- 
droeffonit: avid converts it iitto bydrocyaiLnitioharinflliiiep 

C<frnhtnntioiM, Dissolves in cold waifff to a very flight eitoot, 
colottriug it yellow ; it diasolvcfl raorc readily in Ixiiting' water. 

With acids it Fonna vellow, crystal! liable salle, rchembluig those of 
hftrmaUne- The neutral salts are deeonipoaed by toiling their solutionB; 
the basic ealte are deoompoiaed by merely Ptsindrng- iu tho air, and 
ftpliiire a greenish-yellow colour, a dark-coloured suLrHtancc prccipitable 
l>y ulkihii bciitg formed at the sauie tunc. AlkaU added to the salta of 
nitntbamJAliae in ijiiautily U^.»h thaii sufficient For complete deiMjm- 
pi>flitii»n> Tie para tea the bAi^ in the Fomi of lui o'tlor n^ain w^Lch ^didifies 
ouly ttii fitaiidiiig, — Nitrtth.iraialjjio disflidvoB abundantly in wiirm solu- 
ticQ oE Bid-aDUUomaCr and displaces ammonia on boiling. 

124 O^YNlTBOAZO-NUCLRtlS C^N^XlTirV. ^^^^| 

S\ifphUe of Nitrvfiurirtnlme, — ¥T<iBh\y precipitiitod nitrohanodine 
diHAolvf's ahiinduutly in aqueous mtlphuiic acia> and acpaiuteu almont 
C4nu|ilL'tely, aftei twmc time, iuh bimilpbil^j, ^Spariii^ly soluble iawi 
fltill lesfl in aqueouH sulphnric ficid. 

SfilfihaU. — ft. Mono-acid, — Tho aaueous flolutimi tif neutral acctaj 
of iiltruliikrniuliiii- is bzituriilcd with sulptiLk^ uf iiinmohtA ; orcjild ililf 
sulphoncadd in dig(?Httd with e3:crBK of nitrohannaliin?, aiid ftUoi 
to ev'a[H>rDtc at tlit common lomporaturc!. Easily soluble in Water. 

b. £mcrjii. -^ Nitrobarmalmo in di<i6t>lv<id ill bullLng atcoliol miinl 
with a grtat excL-HH of niiljjtiuric acid, and tlio flolntion ia all«>w«d i& 
cool ; or it in diRncilxa^d in cxuiiRe of oJ of vitriol juid tho dnrk browu' 
red solution ia pomx-d drop by drop i:ito cold water willi consTsnl 
btiLTiiig*, juid the crvsiallliic powder whicli wpuiutea \» wji^bed with 
water. — Bright yelbw crysiala, difficultly suluble in water. 


C»NSH'*0* ,.,.. 269 .... 7B-6* .... 72-77 

- £So' BO ... £34a «. Sl'9a 

■ snO 16 ..., COl ,.,. e^ 

O»N'XE«0",iH0.eSO» ,.„ 357 ..^ 100-00 _ 100i» 

Hifdri&daU and IIr/tirobrs>intitf of Xitrohttrrnafirtt. — Obtained bf 
double dccflmpofiition, Uryst^ls voryftimilrirto th^ hydrwhlomte, 

Bj/drocftiorate. — X, Nitrobarmalino is covered with alcohol, a J^*^' 
eiccna of hydixiobloric acid ia Added, tho Uiixturc ia hcatod untS ibe 
wtiid<^ iFi diHholvi'd und then nlluwi^c] to cool- — 2. Aauoous n^etAlt! of 
niiroharmalino m preH|)it!ited by esceaa of bydrochlonc acid or ohloridn 
of aodinm. — 5mun,yi>IJow crystals soluble in water and alcohol, in< 
soluble in hydrochloric acid or BoluLicn of chloride of aodiuuL 

TritiKhc. ^^^^J 
C^'H'K)' 259 87^ 67-U ^^H 

nn agj lass i>u ^^^H 

e->"''XH'»0',Ha.,. KS^I 10(HK> H..H.„ 6^-35 ^ 

JTjfrof^. — Acelalo of nitroharmallne ia precipitated with ntineadJ 
or nitratf of nodu; or FrL'HhIy pi-ociptatod ttitroharmaUne \m diaftdvW 
ill bot djlot<^ njlH<:- ncid« wlicnco tbi' hult aeporatcs □ncaoLinif, Yolknr 
nr^nlicK E ratb(^r difHruItly eoluble in pure water, and etiU Icflt •daUi) 
In water t<m(aiuiuK niiric acid- 

Bk^nvMt4. — On miKitig aolutions of nitroharmalinc and of ohnoic 
acid or UobToiiulc uf pota»ib. oily droi>e ecparatc which soou noUdifjr 

Ln the ctyatKlliiirHtiiIc,^8[iLi'in|{[y bolnblc iit ixildwatcr, but ditfolm 
m€\Tc v\Mi\y In iKiilfn^ watirr, and t4> aojuo extent in alcuholf wilbiwl 

Ckhr<i}Hai-uriaf. — AVlicn cold Hrtiuibim uf mercuric rlilEkHdr boJ 
liydrochlorate al niiv*>lmrnmli(i« an? minud rigotbi/i', yellow iWIcm ic|** 
ratVf whkh Huori turlidify in tbi< cry^tullino form, (rum hoi Hfliitvus 
IttTKOr uccdlc-Ahftped ciyutaU nrc oltaiucd *Ai cw-'ling. 

K^rohiirmalint with SUver-ojidf, <— A jturfeclly n^nCral ioliitkia of 



nitrate cif nitmhniTualbe, niixeJ with ammonio-nitrato of ftil vcr ; ikposits 
u g^latinoOH, yc:ll(>Tvlsh-red jfH^L'iiiital*', whJi^li bn^coaies Huiuuwlutt dtnser 
if left in tJie litjiiid, luid shiinkB on drying to brown-red auiorpLioua 

<yim^'^ 259 69^ 88-44 

A.gO ,. IIG ao-33 oaoQ 

CWfTSlPK}»H^O ,„ a76 ,. 100-00 98-4* 

?Fit}-iite of XitrnharmfUine and Silver. — Qbtain&l hy mixing Blcoholic 
ni troll Brmaliiio witJj iiitr^ite of eilvt^r, Briglit yellow flocks, made 
up of trij-ht yellow, Hitcrinccd needles CMjmmonly micglcd with dark 
oraiigc-yellf^w griuinlcH. 

Chlaroplatmnte — Ocimixing; ti>gctl»er Bolnlioiie of hydrix^hlorato of 
uitruharmaliuc and platioic chloride, briffhtyeilow flooka arc prcdpibitt'd, 
which soon cliange to jnicn^ftcopic Ltystab, of a durker coloiu, gi'oiiped 
in »la.Jii, 

26 € 
3 N 


6 O 



ise -,. 
4£ ... 

14 «. 
48 ... 
1062 ... 

se-T ... 



SI -23 

„,. B4-1S 
.,. 3-0* 


TTi/^rofifToc^anute. — n^mftll brigjit brown feathery d'yatals, com- 
pottod of hifittllfti needier. Very difficultly suhible, 

Hyilrofcti-iifcffinHUe* — Soporatca in oily drope, which change hi the 
c^ursQ of a ffsw niouH'uts t^j li yclU.>w tryBtiillhie jMJwder, uii uiixhig 
tolutionn of femdcyjiuLde of potiXHsiiiin Jind a tialt of iiitro-hamudme. 

U^-oaulpJiocffrtnalc. — Bright yellow, microacopic needles, ratiit^r diffi- 
cultly Holuljleiii WOliT. 

AcetaU. — NitruhQrmaliuc disnolvcs eaaiiy in acetic acid. By cva- 
at the ordinary temperature, the aalt in obtained in tin- 
tir^fllAlliuc form. 

Ojr^late. — Nitrohanunliuo di^olvca ooBily in aqueous osalic odd^ 
and is not pL-ecipitnted from its aolutiona by csccsa of oxalic acid The 
Bolt JK i>litairii?d i-rysUl lined by tvapf "ration of ItH solnlinnn. 

Sitrohnniinliiio diflBolvcn with tolf>rable t-nse in cold alcohoi, 
bnt mnclj mor<' easily in hrjt alcohol, cryfitallieing on (.'oolinff. — It dia- 
eoiwH b^il liltlo in <;old, somewhat more in bulling, cMf r, and is not pre- 
cipitated by c the I' from its cold saturated alcoholic tulution. ^ DiHaolvcB 
abundantly ht Imt volatiU itnd ff^tt'/ oth^ sopnmting again nii coolmg. 
f>om the solution in warm foo^-o^'f, there separato, toother with cran^- 
yellow cryatalfl of uitrohjirmaliiif, bright yellow iiccdIcB containing Q'6 
l-ifi'Slp. crock-oil, smelhng faintly of roct-oil, and uualtcicdat 100°. 
They split up iato uitrohnrmalinc and rock-oil, slnwly wlicti bgilcd 
Willi tratcr, more quickly by contact with aoidh or nlcohoh 



FarrzaCHK. See references 5 and G, po^c 104. 

Separil«« on cooliog from q fioluti^n of tiitroh^rmalino Id vitna 
oicolioLic hydrocyanic add, or when a miiture nf m^t&tif of ni 

hftniiftliiH' anil cict^es <■►/ hydrc^vrkQic acid is left to sUuid. — ■ It » 

ohbuntyl by mbdug togellitr n^Ad :iqiie(>ns eoit* of oitiMbannaJIiie 
^i«^R of hydrrirynnlc ai^id. nnrl aijclrn^ arnmrtikia ; it ihotk dL'jaratfB 
Brat as a j^fiy, hut floon lx*cr>an?s crystalline. 

YoUow iiocdloe, uiiallcrahlc in dry air; smellA of ajntnooia in 4unp 

of IW. Ftiludiv. 

t?Ti^Zff*0» ....„ »69 ,. SOW 

HOj 87 S-M S6< 

SpKl« np when boilecl with trnfer into hydTT>ryftriic &cid and idtn^ 
harmaline. — Dccompostirl by oonc^Dtrated atnmoniti and by pofoab-Ajt 
ftcuuirinc; a darker eulour. 

DiBsi-lVca in oil cf vitriol tit ordiuury tt^rupernturce to abrowr-yello* 
liquid, which deposits ne'sdios of sulphate of byd^ocyauiutroliAinutuitf 
when dn^ippfxl iiilo a small quantity ^^t water, Tbeee ueedJea deoco- 
poHJ when w&^ed. 

Filicic AcicL 

£. Lccii. 4u'4. i'Wm, 54, 119 ; JoAr^ pr. Pharm. ^, IS?, 

0(winm«- In the toote of Aapidiamfilixmat* 

Jhtptvaiion. K Wl-U prcucH'tH*. which •« fltiH pn^n wlirt 
bniki'ii, nr<f cimnM<ly |iowdi.'iv<l nml n*fi>>^t4<illy iMhaQeiod wilh w&iV 
ethj^r rr4.'<i Fr^iiii ;iloi>hol ; the Qtlicr in ihutilM <^ from Ui& vtln- 
taj- Hull 1h<- n^HMtuu liikfl the C01>8iHt4.-ik(^' of olivc-f^l wh«ft i>tt-i ; h ^ 
ihL'n allowrd tn nttiJid fur ftcvcml dayti, wht-t>?u|nui yr1U*w ctuMai' 
tlhcic acid iiri? di.'jHtFiittvi on \\iv< fikli-'n 1.1F rbrr \f fiHrk. II1U iiNkfliirf 
in ii>]|ri^[(il nil u lilti>r, wnflhi'd with NiiiiUl 'fiinrirjti*-j< fif n 
(HgtU)] t'jbinieii nf bt>fK»iafc alivihot and i^thi>r, tht^M wtrh :^ 
V 1>ri(, iiU:iilk<d nnd I pU i^rhi>r, until thi' n^AJdnr* hni>; hotvriiir h 
yvlhiw* ^mJiiykilullUinl fiKia lh>diii;[; i-Ehr-r; Mud Ihr rryMt-i);* .. . ■ .^ . 
Willi jh litlh* rthiM-dci'hiFl, — A tiliU livltrrr itki*lhi<d in li> wn^i Jk* 
yi-lLow cruata ouly oucv witli (■tbcr-alcubi^l, iltett ]irrM Uiam tUmco 

fiLiac Acn>- 


'filtcr-pnpor, dissolvo in alcoliol of tK)"* warmed to 35% and then add 

fc<|iieou8 aramoDin uatil a turbid aolutioQ is produced. The li-juid is 
qiiicldj tilterod auJ nllo« eil tu flow at oiumt iuto cliiuto hydrochloric add ; 
Vitl t{\G procijiit&Fo m wuBhod witli water aiirl thE^ri ^ith wjinn nloolml 
of 80 |). c. aa lotiff aa tLis liquid is coloured by it- — 3. TJie ethereal 
■extract of the fern-root is dilated with ether- alcohol, then with 
[2 lucosuics of water &t 40° and i toeasure of ^queouA amTtionia. or so 
^niur-h tli^l the litjuid 8irie;llH of aiuEiriuta, aud IJie whole is ehukeo- 
jAripr flfSLTidmgj the lowi?rhmwn layi^r is sopamtpd fiom the supernjilunt 
iOil; it ia filtered and proeipitated witlj dilute liyilrochloric acid, which 
jthrnws down an nhnudnul pveciT^itnto that qniokly halla torother to n 
(•o/t pliwtcT- Thib if* kneaded with wann water and tryalultiacd from 
rlKMling- absolute alenlml; ftud the crystals are waahoi with alcohol 
lof ftOp.c, BJid purified by Bo]uiion ill ammonia and precipitation by 
Acid, OB in J. 

Prfjipfties. Smallj greenish -yellow, rhombic laminSH, CT lig"bt, bright 
yeil'kw erystuHino i^owJor- TTis a faint smell, aud a alightj imiifteona 
Uifllc. Bocomea ♦slectrio when rubbed. Melts at 1»>1°, and fiolidifiee on 
tooliuif to an amorphous, px'CQifih -yellow, transparent maae. Its 
ethereal solution ha^ an acid rcaction- 

Cilc*ltUion actoniiitg to lutk. 
S6 156 ... 64-30 

15 H 15 .... eiT 

9 O 7£ .... E9-63 

63' B7 to 
2906 „ 




am*Kf.., *43 — JOtKlO 

TbBMfore pwbapi CWH'^D',HO. 


Df^cmpoiiciofis, 1, When keaitui, it yields an oily distillate amellnig 
lof butyric acid.^S Bums with himinoua flame wlieu heated on 
[platinuin-fi/il, and leitveH a shining dmreoaL — 3, Dissolves in fuming 
k^l nf vitriol at cooimon tempemluroe tiii a brown liquid, from which, 
[when it has stood only aahort ttme, water ©opatotes tihcicandfihmelJBi- 
^a.lphuaiu (sv. 26) Jtdde, but only ihc latter acid when it Las stood for 
l2<^r3houra, butyric i*cid being fonoed at the s^ne time. — Common 
ioil of vilrif)l Htems to net similarly. — 4. l>ry chlorine converts it into 
iohlorcfUicLc a<:Ld, with evolution o£ hydrochlono acid ; chlorine paesod 
bto the aiiuoou^ eolution oovorts it into torehlorofilicic odd. — 5. Filicic 
ftca^ quickly assjumes a dart brown-yellow colour when heated wiUi 
iqutNtoH nniffWJiia or catittic pottafi, und, in absence of air, in eoDv^erted 
ioto Slimeli^LC acid : if air has access, it taVes np oxygen and becemoa 
filipT>(o^c acid (IV. 2i;j, When heated with lamps of nfitft^h-hydrato 
it gives off a amoll of amber and mint. — 6. The aoJa-Balt reduces 
^mfOMS nitrate oftUvet by louff contact, 

Vofnbinatitftig. De^d not diaaolve in vmifr. With ectli^tU bfisea it 
forms the /ilicalC9, According!: to Luck, the acid llten takes up 1 »t. 
WBt€r additional, ao that the foimula of tho lead-salt in G^-fT^O", PliO, 

Fihcaie of Soth. — TIk- aold in dij^etled with aqtiooijs cari)onatc 
of aoda at CO°i the liii?art>i"tnflte ao ^r'»duccd is pitcipitftttd witli abso- 
luli' alcohol, ami the Buiutifjn is evaporated in vacuo over oil of vitriol. 
Lfi a gummy masii, 


oxycHLOHrNE-NiJci,KLis c*cnp>o*. 

Aqueous filicjitu of aodft prccipit&tct> Uw eolutions of llic folTowii 
J»ull« : i:lilaijdc8 of hai-ium and citdaiu hli-^hlly, yi?llDwisll whit^ nw 
i\ncc.\i\*^jii ■ chloridGH of taaffnEi^ium^ altij\tinvin^ and ^fNcinvm, rvpioii)«lji 
white; cbloride ftf c^fbolf, fli^ah -coloured ; chloride of picLet, briphl 
ftpple-greon; chloride of hwhjjci/ww, i^'lnte; ferro*^ e/itondt, durk red' 
browii ; finite chit/ride, cinnfttQon-Colonrcdj ct'pnc chhrkfr, and cArorfli 
chhridf, green; mPrt-uric thhndt, »*lig[jtl_y wlnte ; pUdiiuc ckUrridt, 
dirty yellow. 

Fithatt fff Lead. — Dilute aoueoup iilicatc <tf Bodn lb pN*cJpitaU^ 
■with Bngar of lead, and the j-ello-wiftli-wUte^ curdy prccifMdUc lo dricJ 
at thi; comiDou tcnrjieT^fure» or in vacuo. — -At 100^. it tuketi ir|i 
o\ygcn and becdnies darker coloured. — Sat'»f ti^ ^*^^^ ])W!ei|iiUtrt 
from aloi^hotie Hlicate of eoda mixed with jLC^tic acid, other saitH ijcn- 
tainiiig BinaUor and vamblo proportioiiB of lead. 

CnlawiatUm iKcordiMtj to Luck. 

U .,.., .- 166 ., 43 91 .- 

le H 10 440 .,. 

PbO ,., us „ 3(yG9 ... 

. .. 4312 

,-,. ai-flB 
.,„ so-ra 

C"H»0»,PbO ..- 301 ...... 10000 ... 

..,. 100-00 

Fihuc acid difiHolvcBLut spaiin^ly hi a<|iteoiiB aicohots but is Holahk lU 
luiitini^nbficJute alenbnL' — ItinoLuysli^litly more soluble in boiling tlimo 
ill cold rfA^r^ but diKeoK'enmoro r<.!nhl^ lu jiri,^si?rice of ful ojIh. Vr^ 
efttiily flohiLlL^ ut s^itphid^ oj'cirhon and ni/tJ* and voUttih t>ih (Luck). 

CUorofllicic Acid. 
C^IIP'O' ^ C«^3in"0»,0* T 

When 1I17 chlorine is pnescd over fiHoic acid containdd iu % Inl^ 

liiLtv n irciitlo heat beinjf upplird at the riiU of the operation, \\^\ ^ 
4'vttlved ai*d hydrtichlufic iM'id fonried, and iliere b pnidiiced a mqn's- 
tiue-liko niae** whioli, wbon dinnolved in alw.diol iif 8f> p. c, mid abandunnJ 
li> bpoiitAUcoufl evaporation^ tti deiiosited in yelloW'bT\>wn drop*- Thcw^ 
un: waahcd with water and diic-a at tlie cnnuuou tempcrmttETO- 

PrcjttHitg. An fcOiotphouK niuw*. yielding a yellow powder. « 
caking tJigrllirr at u ffentk' heat into n tnmapurput reain. It "''' "' 
litmiu when dkAolved iu nlcohtd. 


Caieulatttni onvrdfn^ to Luoh. Luck, 

28 C 

16 H 

15G ..„ 

.... fil-47 

.„ 12'3e 
.... 27tH 

111 racnOf 

over oil of titnol. 




3j-3 -„, 

.;... 80 .... 



23G-5 .... 

.... loaoo 


Becomes coluui'od wilt! ti huuttid willi aqueous carbonated or cavs£ic 
altaliat and forms alkaliuc clilondc. 

InBoluble in water; dissolves iu alkaline liquids with yellow colour. 
The solution of chlorofilicate of soda, obtained by dissolving the acid 
in aqueous carbonate of soda» and freed from excess of carbonate by 
precipitation with absolute alcohol, precipitates ferrous and fitrtc 
chlorides dark brown, and produces a faint turbidity, soluble in nitric 
acid, with nitrate ofsiher. 

Lead'SitU. — Obtained by precipitatiuff tlie alcoholic acid with sngar 
of lead- Bright clay-coloured pftwder, Contains 39-12 p. c. C.» 3-30 H., 
and 28-27 PhO„ and is therefore C»Il»CIO*°, PbO ((■altubtion -. SO-20 1>, <.-. €., 
S-76 H.. lud 28-03 PbO). (Luck.) 

Chlorofilicic acid \b soluble in alcohol, ethert sulphkU of vai'bonj and 

Oa^htonne-nucUas CWl'H^O*! 

Terchlorofilicic Acid. 
c»*ct-HiK)" = c-cra^oso*! 

Luck. Phornu 22, 137. 

Chlorine gas is passed into water in which fiticic acid is suaueirded 
imtil free chlorine is still present in the liquid after twenty-fourliOurB ; 
the product is collected, washed with water, diied, and dissolved iu 
alcohol. The solution, abandoned to spontaneous evaporation, leaves a 
residue of amorphous terchlorofilicic add, which must be washed with 

It forms an amorphous mass, yielding a yellow powder^ fusible in 
hot water, and having a faint bitter taste- Heads acid. 

Caleu/tUion according to Luck. Lupt 

over oil of vitriol. 

1B6 ..., 

. 13 „.. 
106-S ... 

, SO .... 

.... 43-91 .... 
.... 3'66 ,.-, 

.... a9-90 .... 

.„, 2a- G4 ... 



3 a 

,., . 29'81 

10 , 


PeFtup< C»CPH"0»^HO? 

355-5 .... 

.... 100-00 ... 

..... 100-00 



fa^H «Bd teroa tt Kodoe c( 

£«arf.MlL— OUaacd fte AkxtOtM^ af Ind (paeri? 120), «» « 
wTcr oil of tHtoL 33-91 p.t. C_ t-83 fl, ud 24-08 PhO., nn.l U iUi 

Tike Mid diBMlvctf a ffbaitj; u fldb-t sad ill 0& boU) /dt ud 


(Von oooccdj C^-VETH)*.) 
W^iiunu Am. i^Wm. 50^ 19- 

Axou»»x. ££*Ai. Oyirf ^or. TrMu. 20, 3, 347; C^m. 5br. Qn. l 

&,t^7i al»tr. ^a^ rkn.d6, ITS; J. pr. f%ftn. &7, S^A; fM. 

A'offt J««r«a. lti&2y &Z7. 
MtrruiMtfci A r^sm iVL n«w. IMS, 94tl; nUi. Scv. J.^1 

043; nUtr. Aw. by. ;>(ic^ 11, dT; Jn-. i^orw. ^•v^'/. 1. 33K 

;Vw. i^. ^{oc. IS. ML 

far »ihm>wd >o *«^it oT IIjIm^ Jirw b a d ia Ifat e mt imttiKu 

ApMiTiin. /Vvm wmCvv. 1. Jfy bcdbg it with iK^rrtiEde fit okei* 

imti' -tf ii*n>>1iiK< Villi ntf^cas of biohkmdcof pUtinimHi^h'tti).-*!. Gf 
llio ftoliihU ^>f dihilc ttitrio ftod on tarovluio (Audcnoti). Udlii^ 

iqikwr ta-'d (in. tfT) t» Apnwd U llrt ibbv Imm. 

AvpumUvm. 1. VHktm MroMke le decompoAed hy peroxide d 
nsnisf^ivytm^ ^ivi «n]|4uric add, m for tho {wpmiiun at v^/k^ 
Aviil |Mv. Vj:) thit r«d^fclk>w ■Jthe i ^ ^uo r rommag iiiu!-T nci^iou*! 
of ill- h^i^aJiit' tiad* i>>atjvns ooiftmiii' ' 'i"i\ ^hich cou U j'V' 

ei|jilikTiM| h\ (iiKiviirk^ chtoridc or) !■ ^ ilatiiinm, 'Thr yiv- 

111! I hi* i-iil^iJliiic I'f |iiiii JtUmi i> Tnii"--! ^ulii rXCCM of l\i 

hi«rik[i'il fit dn m^KH. »j|d tlu' <'< itoniilii.' in doytulvrd iin 

toiiJ i^lw'Ji It ^'<.->«U*n^ UJgrUjwwilhoj^rl^-irmcpof Uiyli •^ 
Off if liiirtmm by nmott of alcoM <Wuhlor}.— S. U w* 




deooDipofliliou of na/cMtino by bioUloridc o£ platmiiia, oB dcacribed at 
pAge 4^7, Tol. iiv>, crystals o[ tlilijrDpIatiualc of cotamine Bepurite 
mmi the diirk-fW liquid nTUr lmlf-iku-briur*ft Ixjilioj^, wbili- ri^iamt^ rtinl 
heniipimt! (siv, 43l>) flcida renmin irt Roliit.mti- TUp cryeUiTs :irt^ wssliod 
'witb water, heat4?d to boibr^^ with anueone aramonin, docomjxjetd by 
Jcadiiij^ hydriiBulpluiric ocJd iiit^; tbi: bqiiid, aud llie witok' la evaporated 
to dryuiWH. TbL- itsidntr ia tivated with water acidulated by liydro- 
cbloriL' U4^id, to decnmpctie tbu i^>[iijH>ii[id of b[suIpIiLd(' uf platiiiuni and 
Balplude of ainuioriiun^ lb<^ liquid lillored, !irid ttii3 greater puit of tbe 
cot&mine pnjcipitatod from tlio tillmte by addilioo of potasli. Tho 
rctuaiadcr, whict lolccpt in Bo!utii>ij by the umaiojiiei contained ui Ito 
liqaid* in ee^^r^Lted by cva|Mirittiou. The whole rjuaulity of coUiniiiic 
«o (d»fHirn*d iH purified hy trvftiin^ \t» Bohjlinri in hydrtHzhlorio acid with 
Bfcnuil ebajToal ttiid pr<wtpita tin jr with potash (Ilfyth). — 3. Colanvin<i 
Bbeo obtaioc-d by bojlb^ nftrtiotine with iiiti-ie acid, aa deflcribcd under 
' B. vol* xiv. ijH^ge 423 (AiidereooJ, — 1- Mattbiesaen & Foster gi\c 
tiiD fL^Howuig rrrx-T^tw for tbe piejiamtinn nf cntamiTu) : 2 pts. 
of uareotiiio Is disBolvcd iri a ausfiire of 30 pis. water and 3 pts, 
eulphnric acid j the ealution ia heated to boding, aud 3 pi*, 
peroxide of rnaiig^iiiCBC in fine powder b added to it a^ qnicsly 
as possible, care biin^ taken that it does Dot cause the hqnid to boil 
over: the jnlxtun; :h IIjoh qtiii'kly fill^rud tbmu^h a fmiiiel HiirRmEwW 
Ly boiling water, I'he mfilber-liquor, drained off frtim the opiauic acid 
whicb cijtitalZieeEi from tbe hltrato en coohnf^, is misted wilb D 
quantity ef milhof hmei aufiicient to neutiuJido the free aulphurio acid 
uid to precipitate the greater pail al tbe mangnuese, tben with excceu 
of (;arb(jnate of RnrlsL ; tin? whole \a next lienipd U> hniliri^ for n firw 
minuter, :i rid Littt>ri'd ; tbe liLtrcktc r» ueutrnlt^ed with diluto enlphnric 
acid, ei'aporated rapidly 1o a email bulk, allowod to cool eoiiiphilf^ly, 
poured oil from any sulphate of soda tbiit may have crystal lised «uti 
aud finally niiird with escetiH of titriing' pt)Ia&lL-li:y whiireby thti cotar- 
Tune if* preefpiUited- Thi- prodiirt 8f» nbtainrd loay be disunlvftd in 
i' hy droi;bloric acid and doooloriecd with aoiiual cliareoal if iiccesaary.^ 

Propertitg. Cryntallised eotamiiie (p. 132) losos water at 100'', 
•'find melle to a brown leasB (Blyth)> Keacta feebly al^bue* I'tiBlcs 
>erj bitter (Woblcr). 

\t H 

i« . 

la ., 

4« .. 

... 66-76 

... GOB 
,. 6G0 

., Bi-oa 


N -, 

..... Ififl 


.... la 

.... 67'53 

.... e^w 
... ^^ 

.... ea Q5 
'.Z eSQ 

6 .... 


>• „. 21» . 

,., 1[»00 


..... aai 

... 10000 

^^Tafpcrting to MatthieBBcn k FoHtfTi thp fbfmiilo C^NH^'O* (&)t™a ppopofled 
bir Chiriianir iPrAw de Chimie orjftlmqne. 2. IW. Ufi@, Psrin* l^ibf kjliI Lnun-ut 
,(>'. Ann. Cirtm. Thv»^ 19, 970: -i"'t< Ph<AFfit. 02. 11>4J. W<>y<]r gavv llw I'tjiuulii 

DfCfHApotiiiffTtM. 1. Melirt wbrii hriitf/l -.ii\(\ chai-H, giving olT a die- 
agreeaNe tiniell { W'oldor). — 2- By gently wnnniiig-cotaniif^o with very 
iViUiU.' nifruj 'tciti, critaniiu acid (p, VS-\] iiud idtralu of nictbylamint' aro 


— Tf cotoiDme i^ diasolved m lu trie odd rill uied with two meumw 
tif wMcr, and the enl^ition boiled with miditi^u of strung nitric 
(whereupini nitrous fiimfH are cvr»!ved) until a. sample dcjit»sits 
whea mixed witU etlH't-alcoliol, apophjllic iiciti (siiL 1541 Ja l>r 
clticic'd. Th<i i[if>thor'-3ii]iior of thia add fluids, by dry lUglillaliniL, 
syni|j, \vh\vh cvolvGf methykmine, ethyhniine {binn'ihvliuiiiuo ? Kr.),'i 
jforhupti otiier baactt when treated with putush. (Andurtiini). Colarui 
disBulvea with dark red colour iu coniiL-titrati^i nitrio acid (Blytli) ; tsiA 
LA ctn]verl4?d by it, on boiling, iiiln rixriliL' iicid (Audc^fsoji). 

Od ohd ocn4<1on Andnnou ohtoiniKl, a1 the somr thac u apophjIJjp bt^jLl. jdlm 
ot'ii] DovJleii, DiL-ltiu^ tu a vdUuw o\l, and BolidlTjiiig to & rrybUJUutf uum uri tvulufif. 
TluB vtHB BjJiLbto iu Pflli^r. iiuJ CQulti'iJU-U cinr liuir' 55'^ p, o, C-, ttad J~^l 11-; 
dikiiUit^i' linii^, whiTj drk-4] ut 100', il contnint^d til-^i p. t\ C, VKI^., 3 01 11.. a«^H 
30 60 O., nbicli lutti^i- numbtn tvrreep^iul to Itit foniiulit CNUi^" (Au.Ltt^onJ.^H 

Y 3. Cotaminei heated in a ecttlcd tube with aqui^oiie hyth-vcMonc 
(iiydriftdii; nr aidphiiriu) oaV;, yk^UlH livdivK-'lilcirato uf tiJtiin»Ji»Tilc 
acid (p. 134) and clilorlde nf moChyl ; C">'H'*0* + 511(1 + iflTri ^ 
0*NH»0",1HJI + C'll^LI (Matthieeecn &. Koator). — i. Distilled witii 
caustic pottLifi it yields iimtiioiiia and mclhylfkaiinc, tiii np^wmiri.v no bi- «r 

r*r- mpTlijLuiiinefMatth, &FoHtcr)H IF — 5. Ueatedwitli abw»lul<? jikud 
ViiidiiMFiifrifit/f, it in ciiivt-rlud itiTii bydrioda-te uf cuiandtio (Mcbdvi 
widioiit ibrmation uf tn sUitl-ciotuiiiao (QoWj, 

Combinatuyns. — H'l'M Wa/ei\ — Crifsialiifed Coiftrnim^ — CqIoj 
noedbs, ^Touptxi in etaiti tBlylh)» ycUowiuli i^r bikff {M&tthTntni-n 
Foster). t#«mcfl 7'22 U> 7"5l p. c wnt^a- ot HHJ'' (Blyth). 7^45 j^ 
(MaltLieBaeu it Foater ; a at, - 7"K* p- 1.'.). Wtihler ubluitjed (bydr^Udl 
cotATidnu &H a doep yollow niitas of radiating cryKfals. 

Otw ttH /tf fifriof. 

s* ^ IU «..», eo-Te 

ir 14 &-90 

16 H 15 R'Sa 

a O „■> ^.-^ 6* B7-01 

C»*NH"0*,2HO Xar - lOOtD 

b. Bl,\th, \fall)ii(w«ii & Kc 

«0 ..— ,., 16S „,. caes »« ei'ii ... &>Ki .h, 

N 14 ,.„ 6-fiB ,.. 6"M „., 6WI _ frfti 

IB H -, 15 .... fi-OB .... rt-ss , ., a^&a -^ fl*o 

so - ft* .-,, 2fiTl ... 26-6fl .... BC-Sl ..„ 1T<M 

c*sn"tH,aiio ,.. iiw ,.., luooo ..., loo-oo .,, lotKw ,„, iweo 

CirtaniiEm ditwokea coeily in icMfer with d^pyalbw rnlf^iir ( W&U«i). 
It di^suU'vi^ slightly in aL|ii<.-<^ua ittfuuutiia, not in pottuA^lof, and duM 
mil culijur /frrFc ati/;^ fBlylli), 

Tl]i' Jir^/w ^Z" ffi/jini/n/ an* nl>tnhiwi bv diaftoTving wiTambio m dibiir 
vids ; tb*jy ore casUy aoluUu. AiiHooud cotamiiie procipitatea ti^rit 
d j^riowi pult* (Blyth). 

HigtJri.xhiu itf C"f»t}^iiiitf, — Ohriviin.'fl M!= II red'bfflwn iHicryftidlUiiil' 
_ ^y IjeuUJ^g liiidy |iowdoLod eotuniiuij with ftlM<ilut<^ fticuiiol _*urL 



iodide of ethy! to 100° in tv eeoled tube, InHobible in cold wator j dia- 
SOlvGB readily iu lot watt-r, B v ircnlnipnl wiiii nilmtt* of oilycr nnd iLcn with 
t^drocLlDric luricl, it la convertod iuto hjiinx-hlomte oTcorflrmnc. (llow.) 

ITf/tbvchlorate. — Loug iioedlee, having n silky lustre, losing 14'51 
to 15'y4 p, c. water at lOO' (? iat, - lasip. oO, '^d veiy soluble in 
wftlvr (Bljth). 



seae „. 

^. &7ao 


14 ..M.,. 


14 H _. 

...,.- 14 

5-48 ,-. 

.. 673 

fl -_„.. 


01 „ .., 

..„ MS 




Ckiuriffn^curaie^ — Separates aa a thick, pale yellow precipitate, 
wTiich Btiiiii btconiea crystalline, tm mixiinj ccild solntinTiri [if hydro- 
chlorate of cotantiiio and mercuric clilonde ; crystal [is os on cooling 
from wann dilute Bolutione in Bmal! yeJiow priBma. Appcara to bo 
4ecomixi?ied by recrvstallieiitjon. A spccinicu, wlik-h was pcrfiaps not 
quite pure, cootaiaeil 37''Jri \>. c Eg., gO'Gtt 01., 2-52 S. (WoMer; 
I'alL'ulBtiuu for C"SW\'MH:i2UgCi = 3800 p. c. U^., 20 31 CL 3 Oft N,) 

Chhrftp!afifinte, — Obtained, aa deacribed at page 130, in lung red 
priama; by jjiocijiitatiou of hydrocJil orate of colaTiiino witb bicliloride 
of platinunjj ne a !i?ni(iTi-yolluw ptT?jpitato, rtBiiml'liii^ L'hlomplatinate 
of annnonia, and b<^ooming ii^d riri dryiti^'. — N<»t dotJompoBfd by IkuI- 
mg wi(b aiiueouB annuonia; a]i|H?ain to be dL'LonnJowi.'d by rt'i^ryalalli- 
■Hlion^ Slightly soluble in wator {Wtiblov, lllytb)- 





14* .«, 

^. aa-s* ,. 

.... 34-70 .... 

,.. ai-7fl 


._.., 14 „.. 

„. 3'3£> 

14 H 

U .... 

... 3'39 ,.H 

.H. S'33 PHP, 

... 3"17 

€ O ,„ _. 

«^^. M .,„ 

... n-aa 

... BS03 .., 

.-,. M09 

09 .„. 

.. 23-27 - 

.. 22-80 .,., 

,.. aa-89 


... lOO-OO 

Sav found 2338 p.e. pUfeium ; Matlliiemm & Fort&f 23'10 to Z3'31 p.p. 

Ilydrochlofate of cotamine forxoa a aplondid dark-red double aalt 
witii iercJiicrifk cf goM (BIylb). 

IHMolrt'a readily hi uk'iM with deep yellcw colour fWohlor); with 
brown cinir, »nd cimnnt be ag-tiin nbtamed tr^slalMwjfl (Blytb). 

Efifiily soluble in ahet'. Ilic aolution in hydrndilorlc arid ia pre- 
dpitated by iannio acUL 



Cotamic Add, 

ObUnwd, bot not ihr^ji, togtIheriritliiiTtratgof ipgtliyl«itfii6,ty 
fp^tljhrttmyfnTtirinir-BTfhTrijilflntfTTiitTTii"mrw1 rah^ailmiioTwat 
Am^wwat^tkj^wte^e^iamrl for, 4M>. OoaUms DO nitM|fea ] its UfiieoiU 
f^fnlian reacts ctronrW «dd. — Eacnlj adliiUe in raUr; g\\e^ no^ 
a^atmtkxi with Beaqiuddoride of iron. Qives m white ptvdptUte wit" 
oetfoM of lead, buoInU* in exows of Bcet&te of leftd. 

CMonufe o/* 5iVwr.— Titrate of sHyct pxa^vith die ftqaoonai 
% |rwi[iUte wtudt is aligtitly sohible b Lot water. 

10 O 

-.«. 10 



,„ *17 





The ftcid dimoIrM Bpvicglj in atcoA^i^ and te predpiUted ^on 
eijlatiuu by ether. 


Cotamamic Acid. 

aUrrmmait Jfc Focteh. PAiV. TVou. 1 8C3, SCO ; Ahetr. Proc. Ro^^ 

PrecipilHted ub bu orangc-reii ciyHlulliiii' iwjwtlcr on ''niiU. 
fiddirij^ oqiixinue lunmoiiia or oarUttiukt <>!' tJiiliiiiile nf fitxlH tu t 
mitiiXKia Aulutji:!!) of h^drtu'hlorato cif cot&i uu-Miio uotd. — Dixe^olruA wi 
mun|f4^ colour Ju eicc^BH of iu|UdoUB iilkaltT the solulioLi rui^dly bccuuu 
dark browTL by eipoauro tij air* 

Corabijuitunu, DiBanlvM Rpaiiiit^lv in cold, flontewb&t morc^ &btio* 
dantly Ui billing ir-aUi\ -.i vory HJitiUI quantity imparting on tntWlM 
01«D^ oolotir t'j a likT^-f* btilk uf wuter. 

Jf^drovhlaratf of Cotamanue Add. — FormrtI, togBtJj+»r witbdikirii 

ttjyj, by Ikvatiiiff cotamuiu with three thnoa ita weight of si 



ivitternia li^drocliloric acid tit al-out 140° In & eesJed tube (p. 132), 
Uy the nr.uoii f»f ,IiInK^ li_v(li'iH'iihnM' at'iil on uot'irjiariiiu flci<L 
Pftle yellow toftfi of smoli alky ctiedJea. 




...... 60-87 





^ B73 



S „ 


..„„. &t-05 





tFAilH"0^30l ..-«, 


„..., 10000 


I P&itiaUy decompose, with eepiiratlon of cotara&nuc aclcl, ^hea 
I dieeolved in ptirc walor; djeaolvea witboat decompoBitiou in water 
cootajniog a trtice of bjdrochloric acid* giving a lemon-ycUow eolutinQ 
which beotuita dark gre^^u by esposure tu tin; aii'. — Nittic acid 
dmppL^d into the boiling afjueouB solutieiij eauaoB it to ftsemme a doep 
opaj]iie crimson col-inir whozi spgu by reH(^cled light, and ti^aiiflptirc-ut 
oran^ by trineraitted li^hf ; aflOT aonic mioutefl, fll^ght flffervesoonco 
t&ke9 p]a<^, and the milulion reinams traoapnrcnt, but of a darker 
onLugi! coiour- — EvftjHirktt'd iiejirly t*t dry HBBft with eiw!sa of dilute 
■iilphuric add, it acquires a maguiiicent orimsoa colour, which dianp- 

Kar^ oa addition of w&ter, but is reet<fred ou apiin ovapuratiiig. — 
jduces nitrate of silver ailded in crccas to tbe hot sole tion, — Am- 
monia, carl wmte of soda, erflnl[ibite af Boda, addod to the aqueous 
Hubitiou, tjjruur down Q:iLaniantic ficid, nasily Kidiible in eKceha of the. 

Hydrocbloratc of cotaroamic flcid dJBBolvee very readily in boiling 
water, ojtich leaa easily in cold water. It m slightly soluble ux alcohol i 
iuBtjliible in ether, f- 


Ann, Chm. 45, 271 ; A. TV. 12, I, 223. 

_, Ann. r/ji>*. Phyt. h, 276; Gitb. 67, 163- — X Phm-m, 

IT* 637; Ann, Vh<imi. 3, ^67, — J, Chitn. med. 9» €C i Ann, Cfajn. 
Fhffs. h\. 226 ; ^1^.^*. Phw-m. 5, 88. 

SETtTLbElXEK. GHh. 59, 50. 

DcM\s & PfcLLETiKR. Aim, Chfm. Fhtjs. 24, 18,V 

Merck. Af*)^. Pharm. IS, H7. — J. Phttrm, IG, 380. — -JV- 3V. 20, 1, 
134, —Afit*. J'harm. 21, 2fl2, 

GriGtiK. Muff. rhiinn. 17,221, 

Dri'LOfl. Sc/iir. CA. 217. 

BaAVDP.S- Ann. Ph<inn. 2, 274. 

PELLETiEn. Am>, Chim.Phij3, &0, 240; Aim. Phar-m, 5, 1C9, 

LifiU<l, Ahu. Fhftrm. 0, 35 ; 20, 51 ; Po-f^. 21, SQ. 

CoVEXhE. Ann. fhim. Phifs. 5D. 159 ; Aim. Fhorta. 17, 174. 

Rk(irai.ti.t_ Af'ti. Fhirnn. 26, 27: 29, 60; /. pj-. Ch^m. IG, 2T3. 

WbBiEa. Ana. J^Aomi. 50, 1 ; J. jtr. ijhem. 31, 420; J^^. \M, fi35. 


flr cotitsnoL 


i£.^. 4-^; tlak<;cLl^^l41.— VM.Afa>^&r. 6,109; 

H<nr. £dU^Jb9^Sv.rr««.2hLf7; J-.n«rm.^337i /. pr. 

CLs. O, 300; Otm, <^. tf^i^ *C 
Hattiue;«C( a. FomK. n^ TTvaiL I8CX U5 s «l«tr. Ckem, Soc. J. 

nr] 1,542; i^w^A^Sir. 11.56; j|«. i>ft<rm. S«pl. 1, 330: ^^ 

■aft Mil (dFPMfFB^th ^*^ «*p<M «i«*«to)- — TWprspMPlWttor bucmrad a 
In Brn^^ DoofeuBd 19^ px. ^viBi^^ iAv ■^■■M^ if *MrT t p. fl t Ihaviaa 
■tttvr, 9<ft Md » p. cv (IbCMA n».y. 7>v>. U, a«^«B6 ipJ M»i ^-4. J^Um 

:i-47 |i.r, (SrlufhdWl: ^ — tt\ l|iiia fiV?1. 7^5 p-«- ^VOU), Opimn mlWlAl 
ttum vhjic pi>p|iiak Bt Ertet to UQk cMuvd J-3 p. f nuroCbiA UiAt <ullffrHd 
fWihi bhv po p ofc a to LS& omtttoid 99 : to UW A aBlsnid O'tt 
(BJU, .V. fr. 29, 1. 14& T Ar 
>Hid«| pappj" coaloto 

to# (Wto^K. a^ffC G9, IT) t Ihi^ P^T^pr^LOtdi -hi* 

/V^iffntfiiiitt SjuTolJw 14 ronmoinlT obtiiwd ■> ■ Inr-firDdiKA in Ihvprvfv* 
ibm nf iiu)ppbiii«- 1. W'b^Q ^luu is oihausled vUh ctilil w&li-r K*r ihr 
jM:rj-«e nl jtfvpvin^ moqikme, the grp«t*r part of iho TuiroottT.. 
m^JiDi. ft» ft general Tvk. ia IAm) recMue & but, aoeonliDff t4D Rolr m 
when tJic chantclerv of tlit^ opiam nrtr iliffrrent, tiio vboJOi or vuM «< 
it* inny iKid» iitto irM)1iirio:i willi Uh- imirtJiinc* 

ij- Ttifr n'hj<liji> {if tlio i^piiuii vliidi is tiiM>ltiLli* In n.-nii:r, U d- 

prfx.*i|ji|!iU"<l frvfM iIk- ivaiUlui*; #5l«tiou by muua of f>karb4^fut« of 
B-jd^i iho [jrn'ipilaU- Ih cxIuiuaUh! with alcohol uf 80p. ci onc-btH 
or ^Mic-iikiril of tin- »1o1i>il in iliFitilUHl off, uiJ tho rcndae 'm pound 
Unlm;.: Iiot iiitii H itul v*?ssd, whor*n» tfii? narcotic** crystallW**, aittf 
frimi two lo fcMir liimra. The crvet*!*" tire to l»o w.-wKM with co4i 
aleofujl, liDd rrcryKtalliitrd fivim Ixiilini: »kv>lii»l (B*ir** /^Ari, 6. 2S»t 

i. The cxtrnct jf iPiflum. prvpiirvO wilh coM wAlcT. U cvaptv^ird 
Irt a lliiuk Hym[», aIIhitM m a>-il, Aui minHl op willi 3 or fl |«r." 
wmor; wln*pon|j.m iifiW'^^lino is (ip|)nwtoil m ft bUt'lc-bniwu. ^.i-i.ij . 



fivii|]oratiiig: and Toditijujliiii^ tbe filtrate (Dcirngne). CaiLBti<? or car- 
LK>r»atL*d AlicuUd extr^vct the furol^'ii oi^lmiriji-r H[ilistmn:cR from this 
product, tujtl loavi: nt'^rly wlitu uarcoiinc (WJKff<:rt*),^Kthcr tJikra 
up narcotioe, or narcotiiie together witli foreign matters, from tlie 
eslract ohtain^'i by cilmiistmg I'piiirn wiih waior, urni eva-fn rating. 
The othor 18 drh-(?n off, and the reeidiiiil acid, brown, salia© mass la 
djGfiolvcd in hot wjktcT or nlcyihol. dccriloriacd with ftiiitODl charcoal, 
uid tIjG narcotiue prrcipilatcd Fri>ni the coGled liltrate by ammoDia. 

2. If the o|ium Jiiis I*ph eTchini^^tcd with water conlaiuing hydro- 
clili>rif aoid, ttio Marcotiiio may Ijo |>ir'C"i pita tod from the extract Uy 
diai^lvijig^ chloride of t^odiimi tltcrcin. Tlic liquid, which ia at Bret 
milky, ilcjH^r^Jt>i, ciD Btandiiij^, a hrfiw[i, ciinly jiri-ripitato, nliich is 
diewilvcd in dilute hjdt^Moric ncid, and protipitated hy pet ash -ley 

3. 0|»iiii]i ia exhausted firat with cj^pld ether (wliich lalvvH up the 
lAvali.'i' part 'if th'? fut and roiJHi, i<*gGiher vrith a nmjill <jn:nitiiy of 
Utrcjliue), thpa repeatedly with hoiliiig oth<?i-j thti ejtCraef^ i"^lilamod 
Vy li'tt rtlicr arc evaporated, and Ihc residual narcotiuc is freed frtfm 
adTiijnit^ f-i^ft rcHMi Uy rcpcaU-d cr_¥ftlallisatioa frcimal<whol(Robiquet). 
— tli!rtiinitT UiPLillB wlT j uf thf Hh^r fruiii I hi." flliL-irel i'\[nh:l of opiiiin» -wlicrtiipon 
ihe nviduD fli'iibnitiTa inio a s^iufl t'ruflt buU u^LtLhrr-lcy. biiTlh Lvut'iniDL' niiiT.~ulint. 
He i«inOTrt Ihd reuD from die fonnrr by mmiid of hmtfil oil of Eiirpc<ntiim i nvnhre 
wiib rold, vtd diHolToa in Imilinfi ulcoli&l, and piiwipidLlo* iht- luuxoHnc from ihii 
totuliort (wJiii'Ei ['m?t4 ncirJ vtTli litmus) by oJnrriDrLin, — llu i^riviH^raff^ Ehn molluT- 
liy, i^ihiLt^E* tin* n?*iri[LO irith trntlirig wuk'r, and pTO(*ipil"alp* Ihi"! aniiilinr ntm witli 
unmoiiin. — The L-r^sroliof narcotim?, whidi form on friijf>rBlinglhecLheiviilnlrfU"l 
of oipimri I'an als" Tif ji-piirjii'L* uiwlmnioilly frrmj ihc prrcijiiLuK^iI ri-alii, or bj itwil- 
EUcoil villi diliiUi Uydroi'ldurii' ucid artd prvi:i]}ilHlkpii Vt illi bTEiUiuiiia, ur bj nnnhirg 
With cold Hlicr (Brandcc), In hut.' t^uv nrf: inisiil wUU trvFilala of mcponiu, ibo 
lttt«T eui be rciuai'iHJ bv btiilinj; vhIqv (Sloirli), — On iho pppptUTvtiflO oT imrcolEiiB 
far lue in niv<lu?mf<, a^v O'SliflU^lkacua; {Jt^jrerf- tiU, Q-^J- 

Purifit-ritit,B. By HohTtion in hjdr»>chV*r[c acid. pv(»cfpitatir>n with 
p4it*wh-iey, aitd itcryfitallieation of the washed precipitate from boiling 


Pfopaiif3. Long ncedlea, colourlcps, pcarly-lustroua, aad right 
rhiriultic iiiiHaiP, uflca flat, often nLdiatln^ (Sertilnter, Dcrotsiie). 
CryHlidlirif* form cnrrcBnonds wit!^ that of (ipinninc (p. I4(i) (Sehaljaa). 
floftvior llian water, Melta, when heated to 171)% like wax, aiidsoaks 
into liIU*r-papt'r, loaing, at tho aarao linio [according to PeUcticr & 
DuDiafi) ^ to 3 ]>- c, watsr, and sohdifics at I3G^, to a Radiate mii^e 
wlwrn oji:ilcil ulrjwly, or Xf} a tTanftpurent, fissured rcF'in when c(n>lcd 

Suickly. — Odfliirltsfl- Ta*itelcfi*, — Nenti-al to vpgctHhIo cfdniirs. — 
[■>l«oulai' rotatf*ry power fsv, 245, footnote) to the left, \a]r = 13'i°'6 
or 151"4''i but uot ascertainable with csaelueas on account of dp tilipht 
BoLuMUtytii cr,ld alcohol iiud ether. On addition of acid;*, it acfiiiirea a 
rolalr»ry jiownr lowardn th<* right, t}ie oriyinal rotatory power Iwing 
tmjiiglil l»atic ljy nentraliflutjon with anunonio. Tho rotatory [Kjwer 
of in'id mdulious of iiarcotine waa found hy H-iudmnfat to vary aocord- 
in^r to the quantity and nature of the add (Bouchardat, X Ann. Vf,ini. 
Pl^'^, 'J, 2n. — ^'. J, Pfiitrrti. -21^, 2SSi J. pr. Chan. ^0, llrt), 

I.<*]4H pni>:rmt>ii»4 thiiit TuorphJne. Part- ]iai'cu1irL«- Inih no rfTect OQ 
hiimati l>eingi, even in doEon of 120 grains; lesa thau 140 grains do^a 



nrit produce gidilinesH. Diwolvrd in tiCf^iAC rw liydrocWoric awd, SO I* 
70 fi-raina produces glddinesBT trj?nil>ling, nud f*lio|ili-i<sii«»e. Thirty 
gntJiiB diPHolrfxJ in atvtic ttdd Is a faUl dase for a dog t*)rtiln). Acli 
oA u fcbiifugo (O'Shiiughnoasy). 



2a H 




S7a . 64in 

14 t'V 

15 . HS 


Uf se-ss 

0**NH*O^V 413 

-— . — . — «*<» 

M S-51 

IWOO C-^H"0" 

PpJlclier. Beguult 

431 S« 

_ S-46 B-96 

20*3 2630 

437 ^ P- l«Wl 
A.W. H(£uim. 
, »«> 


...^ 6-60 

O .,., 




H»00 lOKW 





63-78 -,. 6347 


G-fil .... 573 

V(irrentram> A WiH {^nn, PAonn. 89, 283) fr>Ufid S-Tft ^ c. 
Haider found i-AA to SOS p, c, oitrog^n. — MmdikTsm 4 ForttT *uln^ 

opium, e ffom KgJTitioH opium, d from Plt«Jju* npnuu, a from Ej^jphnii -'fiuw, 
nnulliiT B»i"plr,/ from TurtisL Dpiam, Afiollii^ Bomplc. — Iq p]»ct of lli» knf^i'r 

tiDP ((^Mf'^O'^), BI^Hli pn^i4iM>a Ihc lonnnU £- Thr^ drfampoHtiODH of nwMtDi 
m nlEl tH-ir«? piplitinod h^' Mati.hirtHn & FoiEa-'a fonnoln, a. vkibh iiuil^JM tha 

ArcordijiE W AV\nliiiiu (Iutt piist. In addituiii lo the ovixititia mrMtintoJIr 
W&blcr Mid Bljih (nmic^l bj WrcthriraptUjl'n)i™jiiiiOHt«ooltcrl«iBakigt>Uibi»*^ 
diArruig from tliia 1ij^ foTjtainin^ 3 nC carbon and S ftT- bjdrogtm mar* aoJ !<■■ 
rvspeoEiTBlT, Bjid di#Uii|,'ijiibAb]o by Uwlt jiddin^^ wlion lLibIiUfiI vJtb paUi4< 
|iTdT«t4i. tliv funnn prup^rliunilio, uie l&llflr nitfllijIntEiiriP, vbit<i « tli j l4dK«la« 

'•SH^OfMrntlhTl-rmmiliiir). t.'-NUH>i*U*thjl'TiiirTOiiiiP; Wtjhl.'r nrnl imibinr 
Otrtinr), Hul C"NI1^0" Jjuvpjl-iiurpi'tini')- niiili'Tliprgpr n-i^firile \\»- Ifm*- iitnllnbiv 
fW tho prcipamtiDa aflht i:lilD(»nbcrcuri>lo of ntrcolinf^ {p- 14-1) n«B fjiirtb T^rirlt, aa- 

Othi^r nHTid, fviind nil Uin inLri'^iIiiiL't of ih^ iHHitijlWofurm ^^^ liain llw vbiih* ctiD.n* 
tjiiti. uml vi~iTtBiiEDF il ia<tr<i< prutnttilfi tluE ono nnd ll^; WTir nhpi-ulim- (aitiof^ vhan ibs- 
t\\\v\ vilb ]k]ffrlriodic AOLd. it j it^Uli 3 nT iiMrhJrr of rmilt^U miiT ;>rM h; diiiOMM 
HLili ifdUflb hjiinit^, T^dA m4-lb«]jiJTiiDr. fiiim' liirnHbyUiEimc-, n-iul nov I— i—lfcf 
kiiimn i vrbidi Ib^l wliciIi] Kpprftr, Qcronliikg Ui Lliii dcir. lu Iuth bven "ir'T*^ 
hj Wprlbi.tim f<jr lIa iaoiiji.-r propjUoiiar. 

£)fcomfMaiiittru. 1. AVJiou liftrcsttiQC \» hfuftd In aik ofl-both ft U 
dcfiTwfl Fibovo ita rm?ltiJi(f p'ontt it jfradudlly urv^iiirva 4 il-vp 
j'clUw c<)li](LT, nrjd at ntKnit ^fl)" il fluddoidy frndi^ u^« Hint! 
iTVuIvi-H Tji'[Li-l_v [iimMumn'itiiJL, mirl KolrdiHrri ti ah rit'f'rrilmirljr fvini 
nuMia^ LvkiikiEHTirij' ^l 1iumi>pk' ct-id und a mi>ttl ijniinTily uf u ^f^W 
buvi" diHorpKl lr'.«n imrootiiio and 0'>lamln'.\ Il>d^lchl^'nc ari<l 
tnu3t« tUo lw«<.- frtiLi ttua icsiduDt Wfttcr fomia ck >cllow vohitiM 



CObtfttDtng Ibtf cornpouTHl rif the. Imsf* with Immoplc acid, from whicL 
hnmopie add ie precipittitpil by acids (Wohkr). 

IliCMv btue isiJrvcipiWFiirruui Sta ]L^Mlnji:hlDric iti J Bululioti by- morctirii: dilorido 
orhj liichlDfidD of platinum, u a double fodl, l>ul rendiTod impure bTflft«»Dd pro- 
duct vf dfVomuoBitiDn, vhLoli ajlDurs t\tc liquids lUid prwipitotoH hlutf or bliie-^rvi^n. 
Mid prodafivfl b kiluo-tJu;k iv>lDrfltiDii wiEUfenid cbJoride. The double hIU, 1h»d 
*■ Ibt u pOABibli^ frVDi tbii pradnf^l, or« found Id bo tii>1ubli^ En boiling nMitar', uid ut4 
d*fioiBrt*'J on C4.-t>]mg, TJip niprvupj atUi in mnUl vihUi^, the pliUini(Tii-!'ft!r in Amill rpfl- 
dith->eUoir rrjiulfl. Tht LiEtt^r Ool]!* up 3tn:i[|jflj wlieu heated, luiii Lvaviu 
U4 p, v. platiauin u a Hirti bulky BkclaUjd (WUkW}. 

Nurcutifie Mieltr4 Hnd fintliH when mibji^ted to flry dtBtillatJnn, 
yielding carbon jc :idd and combustible gae, water, carbooate 
of ammunia, and cmpyrcuQiiLtic oil, and leaves chai-eoal (DcrosEio]- i 

2. WbonbcotcdboyonditH melting point in contact whh the airTitiB 
coloured purplt, brown, and then Llact ^vea out a dcnt^j brown tiiuoko, 
t&koa Sre, with vivid evulutimi of tiLiuik^, and byms witb red, ali^btly 
■moky flamt;, leaving a Roft, hfnntn^ rhaTciiril (Mtrdi, Diillns, 
Winckler). The smell which it givua oif is tlift ttump as tliat produc^ui 
by quinino and nioconin ( VV^incklur). Narcotino takea firo fin rud-bot 
coftle (Derosnt'),^3. Ht'atcd witb rvaftr ui a soalcd tube tn 200°, it 
diesirlvcf^ coni[>lptHy with rcd-yHlnw col^nn", (;;'ivin^ a ninitral holnlimi 
whicb irt cnloHivd bhu.'k-hbie by ffrnc chloride (Wohlrr). Honted 
with wattT to 340'' or 3 SO'*, it yields propylamine (or rather tcmicthy- 
lumtie) (ReynoBO, Compi. rend. 3-U 799). 

4^ Diaeclc^d in water in thp fnra) nf a enlt, norcotino is violently 
attacked by the elrctric ctirreiit^ in the aanie way m by hot con- 
fttatmted nitric acid (Illaidwcta & It<jch]eder, IKten. AbiU, Bcr^ 
ft, 447), 

B> Kipt«ed to the vft|ionr of brominut it is ooloiirod orange-yellow j 
iaiodiP^VfiVO'aT^ t>rown-yullow ; in chtoride-t^/'iodint vai'<'nr, vormibun- 
iwl to yoHow (Donne, J. Pkat-m^ 16i 372), The aalLa or oariMtiue 
aru not coloured by aqneouB iWic acvi (Serullaa, Atmt Chim* Pftffs. 

In dry chtarine ^\\»^ iian^^linc qnitskly b^womefl red-brown; the 
tnase la partially aobible in water with ffrei?» ualour, whilo o, grceuiHh- 
black residue rooiuine. On Icaiting cJilorine irjto water in which 
oarcotiuo ia anapendcd, it aaiuirctt at l3rst n tJesh-rifd colour, LbiJii 
lifOOineH darker, brown-rod, diasolvee entirely, rind de|HiKiU brown 
flocks ; whila the liq^uid becomea gn?**rnRh, and after lilttiing off the 
flockti, yiulda, when neutrfLliued with ammonin, a amall quantity of a 
tjeautiful irrcca reain. The flocka, by wtiahiug with boQing- water, 
tuue black, friable, and infusible ; tbey arc in^ijluble in aIcohi>l 
*elleiier, ■/, JVup-m. 24, 1C5 ; Ann. Pkunn. 29, ^7). — By pasaing 
chlorine for ten minntpfl through a solution of 1 pt, narcotine in 400 
ijtfl, water acidulated witb eulphunc-add, an nranyc-ycilow colomtion 
U (iTOiluccJ, but no turbidity (Lcpngt*, J. Fham,. 2l5, 140)- If to an 
|ui^iiuH naitnti nil- salt there ia added first aqneons tfjlnnno, (bi*ii very 
Inifs umm*>iiia iiiHlig^t excesKi uiid lastly, caL-efnlly, drop by drop, very 
A1ut4 add, ncarctily uTiy ocloratron (such as would aprtar in prcflcnisr 
c( mr>rpbiic, cini.'boniiie, strvclmine or bnicinc) la ptoanced (Soubdiraa 
' Heury, J. Cfum. m/U. 22, 134). 



fi. By diHlilliMg 2f> grin, nftrcoliiie witll concontrat?*! Af|fTC<M 
h/ftrio'iic ftdd, la gnn. ii>dido of niothjl aie obtained; that leSd 
iijdido of inotUyl (mlLuL 21J grui.) from 1 at naj-coliuo {Blattbie wwaJ 
Foster)* ^H 

7. Wlion a few fJrofH of oil of vitriol nro pi'iiired xii>on nareotiw* 
it litcomefi yollow, and fiu heating, birjwa (Itir^<'l, J. Erdmanu). On 
flddliig powdt-rcri nartTitinft t/i pprfectly pun? oil nf rilriol (frei> fi 
Tiitric ftcid) colored with a fcw di»pH nf wuter, an ambpr-yt'll 
eobiir h pnidnuud, wiiioh poetn^H after a fow hours into »»i'wigc-rcd 
(JmxiucliiiiiJH If air or oxygen in allowed to have access lo iLv 
ctiUniMf'HH iiiUture nf iiarcolinf and nil of vitrin!, it turna yellow, 
afterwards red (Cmierbo), Acreording to Merak, tnX of vitriol o*)Io 
naiootiuo diriy blue, tlien Vrnwn-VL^low; according t<> JSchlieiikamf*, 
ycUow-^cen ; ULtordiii^ to Seniliufi, Bueej', Uiiibourt, and Henri' 4 
Lecami, bri^ihl yellnw; it llien q^iclily bccoiocfi orangc^red, ami a/In 
UnT?e Jays {'xliiliiffi a wiut-red e<nijnr. FTiit oil of vilrmJ dw^okw 
mirc'jliTie with efff-i'Vfsftkv [ind djirk purple -red eolonr towing^ t<j tiie 
prerteiiee of citric acidf Kr.) ^Uufios], — By healing with diU 
eul[Jiii]'ic addt it is coikvertea into sul^houartxitidc (Laun^nt 

8. CoUl jiirric ticitl diasolvee narcotino witlxoot coloration (CniorlicV 

on heating, it i« oolourfd yellow (KiegolJ. Powdered nare*>tiftr a 
cnlourod A tK^autitiil liinoti-yellow by coTictutraled nilrio noid. l»iit ai>l 
til) after a few mimitos fMerck). It ia rfdJeucil by wiuiii mine 
ndd, and dlflsuhi'^, with frM'riialiori of oxalic acid and itrtll'id^d bliUT 
(Ihrount?), without foniiin^'" pierk" sLcid (Uebig). 

Concontrated nLtiic acid, even in llio cold^ attucba it violently aiiJ 
nojiverle it into a denso red reein» evolvixig abmiduiioe of red fjimr*. 
Acid nomowliat more dilute ^fnidiicee a red liquid, w^lticli Uavrjii, -ii 
evaporiM.ion. an ai]ior|rhouH Draiig^HSjlnmi^il iff^liliii^. On botli.^g iW\% 
residue with prftaali-ley, inethylamine is nbtaiiicd (Auderii^in), Hy 
slightly healing narcoHnc witti coiiccntrnled nitric acid, fu n* tJ 
avoid the cvnldtioii of re<i fuiues, a comhiiatiblu ga», *ip|«kreuti/ 
oilrute <if r(h_vl or of methyl, is evolved (Gerhardt, C'nnjti. Chim. 
181,% 117: Trnitr, 4, C-iJ. — When 1 pt. iiar[y>[iiie, top'th*T wilh 
2'H plii, nitric acid of ep* p". 1-4 and 8 ptft, water (r*B in B. vuL 
siv, p, -123), ifl heated luiiformly to 411°, the tmrcotiue ihcIIb io % 
ycllowitih ma«», whiuh ditteolrcH on stirring, without evoliitJou of rr^ 
fnnu'H, nut] then, vvlini Ih** wiliifion it* ni.'aj'ly eomph^ti*, lornjHamTf^-^'' 
(liv, 43G) ifi deiwisiied, while opiunyl (xiv, 4^2), opianioaoid \\\%. i;, i 
hcmitiiiiic aeid (xiv. 43^1), and cotamiue (xvi, lyu) roiiifuu diH6>^I«<^ 
(Atider^ia)- On itiie occaaion Andcra^n otiiaiiied nlso Ijydr&tc "f 
opjaayl f^iv, 424, and ivj. 131). 

Ill I Ilia dnvriiiioaiLiDii upiiuui: Oiud atcl tuliLruiiiL- iiiust Em- rv'^iu"i!rd juririiiui^H 

C7*K11"0*. Tha QpLttn^l inijihi &lsa hv 4iir>iK»(^l to Iv faniiid Uy iho brcukiu rif 

epiuir Aoid : VC'="]1><'(I" ^ (V11■^V' + fiVK)". II10 Jut i>tDiH«#, or lh»ibr«far 

0, Whm at Iciint Iwico ita w<ijthl of ^fffrnti/i-ic mrid i« |i^urrd 

upau 1 or 2 gLin. nnrciitiiiei lh(< inr^lurr at naco ni.^uirni a £^ 

CiiiiLHon eoloiii, kK-iujir^H liiE, fmtltK op, ujeiI givrs 4itT a Im-^ <[iuMJtf 

rmI fUMieH, Aft^ir half a mirnitt* llio aetion diiiiiitiHliea, ]>ut «uddnl5 




1>ecomcs a^aiii move violont» t*^ tlmt tho miiES tahoe fii^ lutd Uiiniu 
with a white Hume- Thci'f rcruuin?* n very inn-oua charcoal, ctm- 
Uiuiiig- picrio acid in tbc iiiaUe. W'atur dei;'jl\;riri«B tho itd ujasH 
at first fnriiifri. (Miiillin, J. Plurnii. 22, J>S3.) — to Cflnerho, 
nitiviii oiidir, niiric oiiilf, ijirrou* ftcitl^ mid hy^ioiiitroua add, hnve no nchon upon 

la cxmtHCt wiUi dU of dtM vorUititiifiij a tr/icfi of nitric acittj 
iiiu^itiii^ takefl n fino blood -rod colour, and culrmrs llio ocid similarly 
(CoiiL-rbc, Lcfnrl); but vh docoloniied on adJilluM oi a Ijttlo nnnvj 

liitl'ic ftoid (Fl-caomim). — TUis biLa^wur wm Gmt obncrvfd Uy Dufioa (^cAv- 
fil, SITJ, but the ouloratiiju wua aacribcil by him lo Ibc adlun of oil of vilriol onlj. 
— A f i]j^1i- ilrup trf EUtriv acid in a jwund of qlI qF ritriol con bo thtu dctoctmL 
Wliflii 6 ^aini ornnivuEiiu la dhflbon with J nu ouncf oil of vilrici], coutD-irimg ati 
n^'rrdiiigly smnll jjumiTitj af iiilnc hphI, the TniiliiTi' herom™ vi'^lLiw, itml nllcp 
8 miiiiiTi<i n-d (CoiiE'rhe). If idlrii' lu-iil is nclili-J Ui iLr miilutv nf iiJiri'aciiiL^ nnd t-'d 
uf vifrjul. il is LX>]ifLitvJ Ant jflluwiili rud. llitu >i>|]gni?h brunU {LiL-lilii:Eit[UiL|i. 
S^ Br- ^ircA. ^. 'i7\>). If r plfl. Jiitric tn-id (li>(Kiiutriu uciJ or iiiCraIti of polBfL) 
Uu mucd vitU 10,OuO |jta. oil of T^lnoli ibo inixtun! bivomea dfirk-vi^d on addition 
uf nimoliiic ; the ^loratbn is bmbiT-rclla^ when ail of vilrii^t ciintoiniua; ^ pEt. 
bilriD «."ic| lo 1,000,000 la iib«1 i and eVm witb a pt*. iiitrii; Mid to BiOW^OOO pU. 
<u)phiiru:ih<id,MmFitlQur hfmrno dnrlt'r Bf^fr & fttw bmm (JtvqnpLkirk, -V. .4 fin. CkiiA, 
Pkyu 7. ly? ; Ctimpt. rrnd. W, til3). Eight 1*1 iWL'niv dn^pa oF od of Tiiriol «m- 
tiiiidiig lailrit EK'id t|]rcj)Vkd bv tuiijii^ G dropa iiitric uuid at a]}. ^. 1 25 with. 
100 L'ub, i^onliiu, vaUir, aiidiKlilmg lOdrcm of diiB luixlurD io 30 gnti. od of TiCriol) 
■ddcd to TiarcDtinCp colour it onioii-rcdi oudafC'Cr ^ddilicn of (purf) oil of vitHoti this 
coluratioii 14 pcmihtiFnt for eight Java or longer. On furthtr oddiuj; to fhi' mixt-uris 
6-94^mt* of pppoiiJp of ntan|jiLnoni^j it bIiow*, iiflp!- oiip h"ur, a ^oLItm' or blnud-red 
DoLauF, vhifh njmfiina nnptiaiigerl, oii-n nfl^-r nLi-i'fui dilnfion willi &oin 4 I^ 6 
mcBflum naE47r, u;d jdmofir- ouint^leTi? nc n [nil i nation wiih unmeEiiA i u slight cii;ou 
<Ff •muionuk dcslru>H rhc djIoLir, running au ubuudih^it dork bro>>n pn:i'i[iilalr. buC it 
u reprodnc^'d uii ftciilifyin^ I J. Erdiuarin, Ann. 2*liuri'i. 130, IttS}. — In jjivscLiut' of 
DibriD eiidc, Jiulphnric ncid colours iiar\^oli.n0 pole e^^^'n i '^ nttr^iu oiidi' is cmploji'd 
« fine r^ L-vlontioD in Inunediat-clf produt^ca (C^oui^rbt). 

^'■rtv^tino U reddeii«l aito bv tLt> following oiidipiiiff iabetiuiOi?^ hAer additiaii cf 
od of Titfiol - — iiidir fifUl, lodatnw, i-AItTU' uriti, fhlara/p anil prt^klftealr iif juitajtk^ 
ttUaftma arid, ckloriti^ ^ potiuk and protoxidf of Uad, tiitftJte of'fiotaak^ aatimoHiate 
iif potitJih. BJid prrotUle of Inaii (Lulurt, Bcv. iHcitnf. 10, 3b^). On lulihlioa of i>ot- 
Qiido of lkiii\ to the aoluliou lii bidphuric acid, it UiVce u dirty red cul^rnr ; aHcr a 
fb* lu>iiF9 lE boconicA pnrplL'-nd tuiA ticket i on ntlilitiifn of Mchrxfina/e of pt/fiw^ jt 
bveuDKd Ijruwti-grcffU aad olltfrwjirds ddrki-r (RiogiJ). 

10, NarcoliriC bcatcd with exceas of dilute fitjlpburic acid and 
finely [ifiwdtTeil pfroj:iii/j of vt'tni/attrnr'. is rc-wilvcd izitxi oifiiiiiit! iictd 
fxiv. 427jQTidoijtai-:imi! (p. 13U), with sli^bl evfilutioii of cnrbwdc odd 
iWoUUt), 0« ijiiu f>t'i;!L*iori wbbkT <ibtaini'd alao upopbyllio iicid 
(xi(L I^tb luid liy Iitatiii;^ iiareotitio with i.H.irjsidc of T]iHin;jranorif; and 
livdnndjloriL" acid, <:»r wjtli pcio^i'h n/ Jciai^ hKial[iia'K add (^W. 4!^0) viixa 
msit pnitlucfd. — By jMDmbijr .tJ|Mi'cjiLH Kulpbntd u/ naicotlriu iiiniu (it- 
oxidt'if lo!»d, ln*;itiDg lo bniliag, aud adding" sulpbiiriL* acid drop by 
drofii 1^> Marohaiid^e naFCf^Wi/te iti Jormodf and thiu, by furtlicr bcikliag, 
as Uiitr^ iifl rffrrfcaccnce coutbmes, is coTivertt^d hiti:i opiaiiiu iu:iil- 
Naroitt'lUL' b bi'uwu, amorplunis, very bitltr; fasily wJublfj iti uitiic 
irid wil>i yt'Uow culuur, irj oil of vitricl will] n|ik'rLtlid ted, in ^vatur 
with y**lloiv eolmir ; tlie last Holution id coloured red-ypllow by 
jAWikonm i*r pnTablt^ and dooj^ tiot pn'oipltntc biiE^ic ncctnto of lead. It 
K Tory nr^bibie in [*l<'oiiol, very bUglitly soliiblo in ctlier (Eug. 
Km-bAud, J. Cfiiw. miki. 20, SCO). 



olcoliolic pot&ah, tiQi^rftiiio h coiiTcittxl mto narc^>cn]atc of pAUfih(p.]- 

(\\';thlcv). — lX<lu:ea with fXCt'Sfl of pQtash^hfdratc to 2()0' or ^*, 
jit'lds [nethylaimiiL- iw tcrruclliylaiiiiue (W^-ilhtiiiO* There is 
IfndufU'd !iri nil}' Imso, Injiliiig jn a miK^li bigli^T U^niiA'ratiiro ll 
tt-niicihyljimiiiii (HofmiiiiU, Ana. Pharm. 7*% 367). r_VTTt»I f»o 
imig Ilit products ul' dpcoiiipiifiitiou (Gt, Williauim Chvm, Gac. 1 

Ibiiic^ liul iLLtordui^ to AlallLii9Eiou& Foilfr'fl fipcriuii-a1d{ rjn tl^ svtion oj hvt 
uL-id Hii^ iiuivuliLJi', y. I ^), diO]-i< \$ DD dohtl>t lUat it miut be ri-gud^d lu tLtr fn 
at IhJ bitfli |)riiTii.>ualj' suggMt^d hy llotiDami (^hh, J'fi'UfH. 7S, 39}, p^f 

p. lasj — 12, JJerctatm'-fftercitnc niti-ote co\o\ii'3 iiarooline yellow, 
btovru (IfOssnigui^T Arut, Chiah Phi/s* 4^ 435 )> 

15. KarcoliiLtj bi:ak'd with (^ice^a of (icAWtZo of jitatinun^ in 
(^in[Kii4ad (wilh riiriii^ticiEi of proln^clilundo of plHiEinirii) titUi i^irbn 
acid, ootamine, aiid opianio noit], heuil|iiiijc acid lM>tEi^ atUo j>nxlui' 
hy Uic dcoi:>mfxiBitiou of the opiunio ]ii7uL Wben iIk^ umallcBt piiHtii' 
csctafl of bicblcirido of (>latmuin m cmploytd, wnxoi^mnc (p, HO) 
FiiiTiieil (Bl^tli). For rormnlA repreiviitiiig the dMompoutiOD, ne Bbonri lh«r, 
bonuviT, btLU tenvu ibo fbrmation cf caHKMiic uiid Ui bo kccounlcd fbf- 


14. Naruotiiie d(H^s u<j(- redniro ttd pr^agiatt cf pttinA in nlkal 
Bolntion (Kit'lTor, Attn. Fkarvu 103, 277). — I'l. It ih not decoin| 
wlit;a beatcJ fur half iiu hour to 100° ^~ith nbeolule ilIcoUoJ loid tixU 
q^' c^JJi^ but it ill pfhitiaU> coELVcrted iato hydriodatu (How), 

Cbm^No/ur/LV. — WilJi tPdter.—^NarcotiDo do<*0 not diwulTe En ttM 
water, aod iu Tiit^ohble or only very slightly soluble io boiKog mM 
(Suftiinjur, DuUi^sJ. NtvrcorinG (*Xkntamin^ ociJ) prepared h\ *\- 
bttUfitiug oi)ium witb ellicr dissolvca iu 25,J00 pts, wjitcr at :i'* , m 
T.OifO pta. Lrijiliiig v'jiti^r; L]ai\X)liiii.' frea fruiu Ui.'iil, pti^poivd l/v 
fiifiHnlviTi^' th'T fiii^^ng in li^drritLbfrit: acid, nroripinuiug wtih 
^unmouia, niid rt'or^'HtuilisJTig from alfohol, dinnolvefl in 1,MH> ptt. 
waller at ^0^ iiud m tiOO pU. brjiliu^ wutor (Urmidcfc). 

With Acids, — Nai'coliiit disaolFee oaaily ib acJdo. combixuiiy wi 
llit'Di lo form (ffl/w bivbig jin add reftclioii (DeitiBne, S<-rriimi 
The ^dlfl itte for ihi? moi^t pari iini:ry still Usable, aiid ta«te more tiltl 
tluiri tliu salti^ of morphiuc-i thotae ooutjuuixig weak adds aro porlii 
d(t^aiipub(.il by a larji:e <iiiwititj- of watefi those coittaiaing y\ 
lu^dt^ aru ulmi dL'CiJiiLpuHt^d jurtially Lj uvaporalinn, with Mcpanitioa 
iianMttiiu (r)[!i^>Hut'i SertUniGrT DiiUua"). It in vt^ry ^.H^htly aulublo 
iu diluti^ nijidH (Mcrckj. Caiwlic iitkali>4 aiid alkaline oarbun^ 
Licarboiiut^-ft prt>ci|JttiLt(s narcotiJie fiuin Bolutioim iif its ^ta it« 
|HJwdu' iiiSulublt} ill c'KCt:Sd of till; pi^cipituut {Deixiniit^ ^OJ 
aud »|ipi.'un^ig iiM iiiudi; rip iif liriLiiduii|f uryhlab luidcr u ui&guxl 
ixiwer Lif 250 (/Vuduriioi]^. Alkidiui; l>):?arbniiat(»a prccipit^tJ^ 
Lut not all (jf tlio iiarti>tine (ihUioi^), The pi't^sLiituo of tarbuio 
diH:H LjEjt prcA'i-iu tbr prrcipitatioti of u;LR'Mtiii('-!5All.« by alkAliiM 
bu:ajb<jrLul<:N {it|*|)irnit;kii]i. ^rifj. Pfmmi. h^, 1^), — Pbit^jJkUti' of hilU 
Ili^itvK diiuri u ulii[i^ jxiwiJi'I't (.-ktuily Ao|it|>l<^ m ljyilrii'l< ' 
(V, riiuiLuJ. Nurcotmo liiui unt tlut i-uwl'I' ui iluL'oui^HtfUii^ 

111 H'lutL4jikd tjf the TiiU'o<jlJiJi:-Milt4), taii:luji 




diiii: |'hMih3l-» (1 ki^nnL-fi-browu |rr»*i:ipi!.ji[o (v. PUiiiuJi \^^t 

^■A\* \ -.\\^\•\^\\\ yeiii'\^ odoial 

]ii|^ i r.'lliiJlit. 

if ol liuie .\ wliiif, cupiy p 

piui<?,H>iubloiJi (^xcow of odd with ^«Jcyutli>w colour; bttininiH 



Ik vrhiits turbidity which dieGpjicai'ft vitboQt coloration on. etirruiff 
(Diiii(«)i tincture ol brouiiue a yi^llow firc^ipitatp (M^rtk), With i>il 
ftf vitriol cnnlaiTtinff mtria arid, tlio ealt^* W^luive litn narpi^tine itwHf 
(p_ Ml) Ji»d an? pn>cipitalpd hy bsisic acotato of lpad(NeoBy, EsL^nlHwh). 
Thcj b»Ti» no ixoliot* ain'itlit'r bponiidooriodjdc oi'|ii)tnsmum (acol'olow), 
nor <}U ifidate, bromate, or clilorate of pdash, Btaimit ctlritido, nier- 
cnnms nilmte, mercmiu nitrates nr nitnilt of eilvet (Moriik, Duflua). 
Tlioy giva no blno coloration with ferric chloride. — The »alts of 
iiaccotitnJ ore ioluble In water, alcohol, and cthor, 

CwliOQAte of narcotmc iauot |irodiiccd, cilhi.'r hy trcaliuff narcottno 
BUSpcuded iu water with carhvnic avid^ or hy predi-iiUliu^ uarco(iuo 
EultH with iilknlirit- carboujitQa (How, Aati^ Pharm. 100, 375; Lieb. 
Kopj^'j Jahrtsb. l8o4, 018). 

fl/ yarcofin*. — Turpcntioe-Uke masB, with crysiala 


(Bran dee). 

St'Jfihiite. — IfH) pta. narcoHiiG ueutraliBU 12"5 ptH- oil (if \'itriol 
(Kobi'^iU't). Tho uiici^-Htalliaablo Bidphftie of narcotine coutaiiiH ll'7 
p. & £idphiiriu aoid (Brandcs). 

Hjitriodate. ^^VRiCn finoly powdered narco tine is hrnted in ft sealed 
tobo witli libeolnto iiJcobol and iodidt' of ethyl to I^HJ" for an hour, 
cry^Lals of naruftinc separate from tlio solution on cooling. The 
liquid |v>Lii'ed off ii-QiB tlie orystula lind uva|Hirhttdf &ft4ir thf* alcoliol 
and iodido of ethyl have heen diRtill:>d off, loitvrr^ a lyrfidiie which 
yifldii Jiydriodate t>l narcotiTio lo hot water, while a Binall ijuciutity ol 
uaro'jtiue rom^U-Tifl Inihiud- — Separatee from ita aoiuti<:>nH wbon i3V!i|ii^- 
ral4fd b|n>EitaneEjiisly> or at lOO^i as an oil, which eaaiiot be t:r3 Hialliycd 
evi>M fnim nlntfn>l or ether. TreatrmuiL wiUi nitnite iif wilvcr itiitl 
UydriK-'iiloric iujid sncoeMsivvTy coiiv*;rts ii into liydrj:K."hlirate of narcO' 
lint" tH*^w). — ludide of iXflaHaium ihruwa down from hydroehlorate 
of narc'line, a dense, wmle jtfwdcv, which m depnaitod in dioja after 
»iome time (v. PlantaJ. liinioiide of iwta**eiimj gi^e», even in vei^y 
dilute sriluiinne of n:irc<:»tinr, & yellowish white, pennanenlly amor- 
|jh'>ns precipitate [Italffa, iV. JafirL Fharm. 3, ;ji j Wagnor, DiiigL 
1^1, -10). 

Sff<irtKiilGrtiU^-^\^ pt«, iiaroatiiie treated with dry hydrochloric 
id gas at IW, th« excels of acid hoing- afterwards dJsplticod by dry 
f, ifi fomtJ Xo havo absorbed 0'5^ pta, hyilrochloria acid (Liobig). 
raix:<>ti[ie ti'eateU witli liy^hijchlorio acid at the common tempuratiire, 
n-tttiiiH VA'^'t {i. e. hydiiichloric a«:id in vacuo over L;biieLic potaf^h ; 
purt (.if t^)tH C!M^j>t'S on heating in a etre^uu of air, ho tliat at llMi" or 
115° the product coutaina 8'tfG p. C (l at. , wJculftiiuD farC^H^NO" - aSB 
p. t hj»lru.lilnrli: i^M]. U dissolvud in wattr, ri;acta octd, and incite with 
cekjrutiiia when heated to ISO'^ (Itegnault). — The solntittn of narco- 
titiL' III a»iu».'His ijydr'H.ihloriij ucid leavt-Js on l-v;i| miration a Iransparynt 
gum, wiiioli di^nlvee L-aady in water, and itjiainis its hydrucidorie neid, 
fttKl c<rn»e4U0iil ^duLility in water uiid aoid roaeliun, even aft<;r re- 
[ntjit*.'d sidutiun aiiij lYaj^nalion (Gfij^vt). ^ Tlio eyiupy solution 
ttoNdilies in the drying ijveii to a rndiale iiiotj?, wLiuh Is Lard and tiemi' 
tttvn«]Kireiit wIipji liiy, and nrti?r drying at 1 Ui° eonlains 8'5l p. c 
hyclr"<hVirii- neid ( iW^'inet), ufter cryfltalllKalintk fn>m alcohol Jul'iS 
»uli). lC«]cLiLitivc^2!!^£EmmfiLULlLbAJl&b?^hlvriu ucid). 



(Knop). — PhM/Jtornoi^fiic acid {-aiL H!4) g^ivee wilb n&rtnlini: h 
Liowuiah yellow, U<jcciilciit jirocipitatc ^S ounce schtin) ; pftosfiimjiiit/mni^ 
iicid (xiv. 227) ^nvi'h n ytlbwiali whiLu ilitcci^lciit pictipiUtt' (:?tliiil3H!). 
— Ilydnirhlrii-aU' itf iiitrcnliiiL' fnriiiK wJtli chhtrkU '\f crufntrum a KeiHt* 

SBtallEiic, HlipLtly tnJubli; umas ^Gt-Qatly, A^ Etiinb, Phil. J. 4, Wi 
. w. CVnrr. 185G,"C0G)h 

Joflitk of mnc'tftj itinE jfntiiJ^'ttT't tlirowfl <lowu ftvini hydrochlorai'' 
cif tmroDliiie u yi'llowiKli wlnti- juiwdL':', insoluble in lijdn>cliloric rai'l 
(v. Plftjitn). The white- procipItiLtf- (jiud also thiit prYniuced liy tu-irmvf' 

atid il al. iodine or bromine; it in scurooly Bolii^ik- in t'olil xraiu, Kul 
ditifl[ilv(?ft in liot wiikr and lU akulnd (Gn>vtSj Cft^m, ^'^vc, Uii^J.iWJll 

Chloi-vriifi^rirate of Narcotitie. — Alraidy obwrrpd hy C^illot (J** Ci** 
JlSwfl- 'l^ aKj).^ ^i^.'TCu^i(; cUIoride Uirowfi down Fruui [ilc'ijimlic hydro- 
cliWatL' of uaiX'oliiie il wliltt? inudpiliik', wliicli, wlit'ii dUsulvtii m i 
coM mixture of 2 measures of iik-ohcd lUid I fKcAwurr of fundnj*' liv*lm- 
cliloric iidd, willj piilisi?qMC!iit addition of wfltt^r «niil lurl^i'lity f^™- 
iTiciit'CH, t<cparulca in small whito iTyntftla (IlintoHxTj^on iVieii, Al-^i 
Ji^r, 7,432; Afm.Pf"in,i. «2, 311 ; J.j'/\Cfte"uiii'*, U4), Not eeiwiU? 
suUdik* m hydrochloric acitl L>r eal'mitmiiulai: (v> PlauU). 

4* ^« 

— "'^ 






a* 11 ...... 




e a .,-,.« 



-™' " 













at IW. 

-,.H 4664 

ST .. 

» H««, . 

.... S'BO 


2 a 

Hg ,.._ 

__.|.Hp1->— 'FT 

..» 18'Ot 

C"NE''0>',UC1,UbCI.„- 571 -,. lOOW 

^H ri4.T<jn-Uji|{; to MnllliicHrn ^ Fonlcr'n forniiilii 
If iiitc'fbfrgrr^ ■']io flLippciat* flic o«inpguud In n>tLtnLia 
diFli-rm^ fn-iu coiuiDon tiuTOtLno bjccnli^iniug jI 
Bii'nboT.*, p. 138. 

ii]ii for tLurfc'liEJD ; 1, MiurdiM^ 
tniu II UHulmr vhri^tv of nutin^ 

H^'drochlorntQ of nai'Coti(k(> Ihrowti down iit^jn chii/ntit r>ffoM% 

f'eWfyvfwU white prccijiilate, whin It lurtj^ jfiven nftcrawhiU', nud m^k* 
lie in at'ldfi witlumtcolofatirmonrduttioii (Dnniw). The di-iiMo, n^d**!!- 
yellow pri'ci pi tttto du^-ii not diHSLilvo [icrcoptiblv in liydrtx*yonc vil 
{v. Plunia). 

CfilnrttjAiilitititt '// N^antttine, — To a cold dilute Holtilitin of lijnlio- 
clilrimUxif nurroliun iri iidih.Hl jvist iis much bicliloHdo of iilfittBttuai 
i« iioc'dcd to f'TuoipjlLtle it i l\yj pivdpitate m uc^Uvctud, (itus*ed| litti*. 

^^^^^^^^^ NARCOTINE* ^^^^^ H5 

rat^il, aiij waHhe<l willi n vpiy aeii^II (juiiniity of puld wsUrr. Lmiffer 
waahiog tir heating with water would Dccasion jjartiaf decora position 
and foi"maliou of cotarEiiiio and opianic ftcid» the formor of which wouJii 
reiuaiii mixed with the product in the form of chloioj^latiDtttc (Blyth). 
— Yellow fiockfl, or it yt'llmv cryHluUine jii\x:ipllat<:. 

Soluble in a veiy li^r^ii qnaritily of ht^L wxtor; ttc solulion 
"becomes brown by several hoiira* boiling-, and aoon afterwards deposits 
^ tilt? platinuin, tugclhor with a amall amount of organic matter, &a 
A black precipitate : ammonia theu prodnces in the filtrate & precipitate 
lesembluig narcolauu (Ajidoraou, Arm. Phana. Sfj, 201). (Fop ih^ drrani- 
pOflilkiQ ffit^ otUDSd irf bicbJutidd uf plotiiiuiu, twu y, 14), 


O _-^^^....M._^ £fll ... ^-61 45 C MM... 27fl .M 43'ET 

M^.H^M. — ■>..« 1* P... 2 30 N., ..... 14 .... 2-31 

H ^ M .... aJ'8T 25 n._..„ «,,.„.,.. £6 .„. 4'10 

wo..-„, .,._ 113 ... le-os H o -.M.H,.-..... iflB .,.. ir-eo 

>C1- — ,. l06-fi ._. 17-19 3 01 ««- 105-5 .,- 16-Bl 

Pt .„. Hi) .... 15-tKj PI UQ 15-6S 

[H=K3J',HCl,inClJ SLfl'B ,.„ lOOlW O^R'U«0",nCL,PtCrJ 633B .,., lOLfOO 

Blyth. WarthBiiu- 

n. h. 

0-,..^ ■ifl'W .... 42-&4 .„, 4317 


H, , H'M .... 4-07 ... 415 

Pi „ IB'SO .„ la-US .,-, 1&'7S 

^ *. iaWflrtLflim'iPihjl-nftmotinB, — Containe ll'58 j>.c, platimam{Liehii^O i 
a6'S9p.c(Regiiaiilt)i 158^ <IIow). 


Bichloride of indium ami suiUant ptecjf itates from hydrochlorato cf 
aarcotiiio an ocUru-yellow puwder, suluhk in bydntcblune acid 
X-v. Planffl). 

I ffj/di^BuIpfmri/ttnale of Xiircotine. — Aci^tsik! oJ iiareoliiie giT(?s no 
'prccipiUto with wnlphDcyaiiidc of potaeaum (^Vrtue, J. pr. Chan. 8, 
^iiI3): n neutral eoJutioLi gives & HooculcDt precipitate (0. Heruy, 
/, iVictrm. 24, IS-l), The precipitate tlirown down from bydroclilorute 
of TiarcotitLe 18 wLitf^ or reddit^li, and ag'^n^^atca to rcddibh Jrups 
Jv, PlttUtix), Appoarfl !W an aniorphtiiifi pawderjCveii miilor a uiagnifyiTig 
Ijtowcr of aoO (AndtireoD, -V. J. Phann. 13, 443), Soluble In hot atco- 

iol (Heiirj-). 

! Aeetaie. — Narcottne dinaolvcfl cftelly iti eoncenfritod oretic ncid, 
^ut not ill the dilute acid, nor in walor coiitaiumg acetic acid. Con- 
iWJiLrat*?d actitlc aoid satarated with narculhio and ovaporatod in vacuo 
Sver iiilplntrlc acid and liiiiti, oxluUits j.ioiats of crvfttalliflution afler a 
J^w diiys, afxd afUT 11 mouth ll»' grc^ator piirt i*f tbr rndt ban solidilitnli 
p'hc molher-loy is thick and can he drawn into tbivada; both niti 
^aoliibie in a pmall qunntity of Wflter, but the nolntiou -nvjti decompwea 
■iiil** an a»;id salt vhich rtTjiaina diasolvod, und titii'L eryi^tale uitln.'i" tjf 
jjiarT^tdiie ur cf a batiic &alt (iferAcliufi, Fogy, ^d| HX)* — 'Ibo eolutiou 




cf narcotinc m corLOcntrntctl acellc aclt] liecoines tuibH on be*t 
(PHlofior), Tifircrttinc «ppnrivring pvcn licfr*re vilniilfsfltHin of 
ariJ takt^s pbcc {RoMr^npiy It is t)roci|>ital(?<i hy wnter (Hhu 

TOHfduc, wtiencc water cxtracla a sniall ttiilDtity t»f acctitto of na 
titii?, whji^lt Irjsf'B tlip rpmaijulor of tTic afietic nrM by a second evnp 
lion (Gc'igpr). — With 18 pts. ncetato of pofnsli iiaaolvi'J in a Bfni 
quantity of wator, ncircoliiio fonns ft eolution, whioli is proCT^itatoJ tij 
Djorc water fllenry). 

Knro^line cTIseoIvea wlitn licaler] with 5 |.its. hiritrh*Uc o/ w ■•■-'■ ' 
ftiid HI jttw. wiitiT* nn<l ts not pri'c.Tpit!tt<'(l (>n <'^n>li[»g or h^' iIiIuNju. 
A solntd'm pri'pnpi^d in thp B^irao -^\iy vrlth bil;irt raf*.' of pji^Bli do- 
poait^ iinveotiiio and bitartrale of poloJih on coolinif (llcnnr)- 

I'f'tyric acitl preci nitatea frt^m nydrocbloratc of narcotinf^,' a denw 
enlfilmr-jdlon- powilcf (v. Plant™), An ethereal t'olution uf narcotiM 
dnflfl nnf precipitate? nlcohnlio picric ncid (Kemp, ffrjtfrt. Tl, ISl)^— 
The aaltHof narcotine are precipitated by uiaHtciieid ur tiTictnn? of g»llS| 
not by f;Tjllia licid (O. Henry, J, Phnrm. 21, 212). fOomp. tu, ITT). 
Tiacturn of ffalb causen in dilute liydnhcUloriite r»l narcotino. a tcJ- 
hid ity which hocoiam a di"Jisfi predpilalL* uu additiou of or«? dm^iil 
hjdrnohtorir acid, i^ud ij^ not perc^pllhly eolnble in more li^dmchknc 
nciil (v. Plantft). 

Njirck'tino di38f>lvcs somewhat more readily in hoilinff jactatk'^f 
thftii in boLlit];^ water (Biandes). It dries not dissolve ciUifr h 
Bi<in*?ona amiaimia nor \\\ p<*[ai4h-lcy (JTerek, Gcigpr). 

Dms"lvon in 100 pts. cold and in 24 pts. l^iliog oknhol, and ia pre- 
cipital<Hi iliH'ofrom by w&ier (Ucronno). Soluble in 120 i>l(i. aWhoJdf 
'M\ p- Ch (Merck)* in 100 ptn. cold and 20 pts. IvMlioff aholu.l o( f*5 p,<k 
(IbiHos). — ^i>liihl*f iu I2fj ptdi cnlrf, and in 48 pts. Iwiliug t^trr d 
t*p. gr, 0-73S (IhiJliii^); In 40 (ifH. twilling i-ther of sp. gr. 0-T2A luJ 
ciysf-'^lUa^B ont on ciolin^ nnlil 1 pt. nnreotine remnina dinc^vcnf h 
100 ptg. plhor (tiL'ijror). 

Difli^ohcw in IS'IjI) fit**. cliln^Jhrm (H. Hctt<^nkrifori A' Jit^rh. i%v^ 
10, 270), in 60 pLs- nceUife tt/ rtfii/i, wlit^nct it is prwripiljitpd l*y ooIaA 
hnl not by water (ircnry). — DiMsJolvf^fl in rrmgnrf, evi-n in tm* ffiW 
(l^'idionhjioU)i s'"d CTyfllalli^os on cooUa^ from its mdntioiia fn vrtina 
voljililc oi]fi (Porofino). 8"luMc hi iOQ pt^. dirt orf (L'cth-nktjfcr). — 
Mi>rr H^'Iublt: in oqucons pkrotad/i {siv. 477) thuu in puiv vaks 
(rellL-tici- A (JouijriieJ, 


tV-r^n. S.^, 4fll.— *ri=-^J, ^^(wi. J/tff. 7, 432 ; Ann, P^nm. 8J, SI»i 
*/.pr. Cft™. 5f, 161. 

Sonn!lin»^H ly^trn m EtTl'^"^" '^pJ'^"*-'"^^"^'" t^'i^* *'* t*ibau»W4 
Wtth wj»t'>i" fort)»o piirpo^n iit jnvparini^ mnrphJm\ mnmoTiTn prr^iiJUJr* 
fii«n Uif eitrnft a mijtinro of tnnrjihiiu* and ootnriiin', Itm pn<c«Hlst* 
in wofllicd with wftt<*r and nlonbiil, driod, njhiflolved in alouJuit •** 
thr tiohitM^o dr<^ih>rif<cd witli animal cbariyial, and altrtFcd iaaytUi- 
ll«p. whnn LTyptidK of (iplaiiiuo u-a Unl dopntutod. 



Propertia. Ooloarlcss, trans parent, well- developed crystale of tlis 
righr jirr^matici sj'slrm. Fig- ^y,^ iviihnnr i [u^t] t. Thr crjtitnlft Qro 
ni^o4]c^ha|i"<1, or tabular bv tlio predoniiiiflUTC of (. The i-ctaliediul 
facofi are tithor only hcmihcaraJ, or, when holcliodral, liu|i"or tlutn tlo 
rrat. m:Ti = llCM'5'i t* ; h' above = 137=* 61' a : m = 155° 12'; 
a :p = 1UM8'; b : a over i* = IflO^ 24"; j : j^ over wi ^ S?"" 8'; 
y :y over/j = S2* 53'. Three pn'ems albO occur aa RwbordinaW forma; 
the firet, bolweon y and m, forma with y an angle of 175* 0*; Ihe 
second likewise lx;twccii j/ ard m, makee an luf^k' of 155'^ 12' with ;/ ; 
the third, letwcpn p an<l lu inalccs aa angle of ^G^ 50' with m and of 
173* 10' with ;». ThesurfatTsaruforthrnRiptpait nlaue; the pni^maLlo 
fftizi^fl, imil sometimes also jtt, are vertically etriaici Cleavage ix^rFoct 
[>ani1]e] to ol, imperfect parallel to L Pmcttiro eoaohoidaL LuBtro 
vitroous, adamantine (i:Jdmhue» BcHhim, \^ 70). 

OfuauLDc has no amell. la aleobolic snlatjon it toatca etroii^ly 

L vrtiou similar to that of morphine. — Uoaherable a 

at 100' 

Calatlatiom aceordiHt/ to ITintep^wrgw. Hintirrtifrffar. 

eO D . _„.„, SB6 ,.. 63-08 63"99 

flK «-. SS 4-48 *« 

aa E S6 57a «.... B-TO 

ai O .., IG8 £6 75 ...... 2706 

C^ITH'BfF' .„, 63fl 100-00 


Sif NmbofliaQ vith fo^o-luTf 0. HiDtwbergf? fuimd [t BmolliT qiLflntity of nitngpti 

SSft p- f^-fi ud honca gtm »t Dm lUo fcr^rnknlii of ftpiAnmo at C*K ll^d^. Anilfi-sfin 
m. IPharn 9F4, SO) tp^ot^ rlip pFii|vtr)i-m i^rf riiirrnit-pi tbus firiind hn the mnrD 
ao^uTBlo.and in ncjwriiniitc Ifiprcwilli, ^'ulfuliilo^ [he form iilaC^NH^O^ for oijiftniHi*, 
pointiTii: tnjl llijit ihii bniHriiiftj tic n-j-unti'd n* fjnueJ by [he tuiifiu of I ^t, cotumlne 
iC^TijPH}') Dint a *t. of tilt wmpoiinil C^ili^Qf* (AnJfiwiiB Wpflictical h\riri<lfl 
«f tii|jiAQj1). Camp,]), 139, — dcrlmrdt (J^aiiS. 4, BB) uid WcltEiou {drff*ttt. 
f^riiind, 667) doubt the cusUnce of DptPEune aa dittinot ht>iii naroctmv. 

Dissolves in'ni? c/ tV/n'o^ cQutft^dng nitvic arul with hlood-rcd ColffliTT 
wliJch becrnaes light yellow by ataading.^Not dccompoacd by oil qf 
vitrwl; dittHoliTBd with yellow coloar by nitric aciiL 

Not solubJe [n ivaUr. 

Optamne crmbiuea with acids to form Sfilts, from tbe aqneona 
solttlioua of which it ia precipitated by amjnomi^ and alkahs in flocka. 

C^lt>rfymiTCiirftte of O/JMnmtf-^- Obtained hi tbe same way fifl tlie 
OOTToepoodiogaarcotine'Compound (p, Hdj. Aclcular crystals, alightly 
Bolubli; ID water and aleohol. 

fie C 

a IT 

B7 H . 

11 O 

HS ....-, 

5 CL 


SOS 40-eo lO'U 

2B a-eo 

97 4-63 4'61 

lea aioo 

100 12-60 122a 

n 987 nai 

C»Tii»y*0",Hn,HgD ... »iy JrX>"Ua 

Witli licfihriik f\f jihlinwt)!^ hydmchloratc of opianino fornia a 
D>ini>oiind de<^nmj>osiible by excels of cbloride of platimim 

Ujiiiuiirir IS very ellg^lUly boIuHi? hi boiling; tilctihGU and dystaUt8€8 
out caTXiirlctcly nn cooluig. 


Narootinio Acid. 

AVonLEE, Aita. PJiai-m* SO, 25- 

Firat obsflTTwl tj Couorbp {Am. CUtm. TAyM. 59, 167). 

Prodiicp'] bj lierttiiig HArt4itirie with concentrated potasti-Iejr, s^ 
par^^Titly with &sRimilatJOD of water. 

When jiarcotiije le heated to boiling for A long time wilh twt 
Htrong pota^h-Jey, the niiiture being frecjueiitly ehahcii pp, there fall 
tn tkie Lotlom oily drops of narcotiuate of polaali, wliich r<rTanin IJi.|uli] 
aftL^r cooling-j and n?»;enible turpentine in ccilniu- and caTiaistt»nce. xh"* 
reaclion ia not accoiiipaniod by evolution of ammonia. — After tlie tpj 
huB been poAirod oti, tLc ojl-di'opa nm cnsiljy eolubto in wafer. Tha 
yellow bitter Bolution bt^comce turlwd on healing, ani dcj^ieits crystJ' 
line needles of uiiullcred narcotine, inLo wliicU the naro'>t]T]ic ui'iil 1^ 
ttlmoftt completely rectinvertod by long briiling of the greatly iIiIuIinI 
eointiou, wlulo free polaab and n yellow colouring matter, probably an 
accidiintat product cif decom position, remain diaeolv^ed. 

When uarcotinate of potaflh, sopu-ntlcd from the motber-Uqnor, v 
U'fl io i(selt\ it becomes opaque after a few dayti, owiiigto the aepuft* 
tioH of iiarcotine, and m then only jKirlially Roliiblo in water, 

Nftrcritionto of potash dlKAolves x'ery eiaily, end with yellow colour, 
iu alcoh^tl, remains lUiiUtcn^ fi>r montlid in thiu solution, and citu be 
obtainf^d by i^vapomtion aa u soft ntuciqihotie musB, completely skIoIJ'' 
1u wuler. Mixed wllh wutorf tlie ale^ihulit.' t^olnlioii gi'uiEually do(>virTB 
cryatalft of narcolinc, and by bojitiug they J"e ppivluced inH»it'diftT'lv. 
Alcoholic narootiunte of potiah U alao obtained by dissolving nai^^luj^ 
in alcoholic potaah. 

^ Hydroclilovio acid throwa dowii chloride of potaeaiam fuim tlw 
uli-ohulJe solution, while Lydrochlorute of narcolijik' r^z-maini^ diaaolTsdi 
erjd ]H precliutable by ninmonia after dilution with wyter. — If exf**> 
of acetic acid ia added to the alcoholic erfluiion, the adifitiuu r»f nnm 
causCB at first no prccipilalc, hut niter a time crv'stala oi nitrooii:.i ..i 
ptrdt'Ltnled i they altio fuma separate from a eirilutii'h wliicli luba boa 
mixed with mi ijiMiflicieut ipuLulity of inHle udd, and iii, thervfotT^ 
Ktill ftltalino. — Un |iaHRing a current nf carbonic iicid into the al<iebofc 
fcolutioiif o j<?llyi together wilh a largo quantity of cryBtuJlinc pruODA. 
Is ^aJuftlly formedT and when filtcrod off arid washed wilb ftlciihol u* 
naflvcd by vFuter into bicarbimatc of potat^b iud norcotiuc. Fnim tlir 
fdtrate, which utill conlain.i a large ijuaniily nf nan^Jtinatc of j.-tiJi- 
there j^rnduiilly riopmie, logelhor with h latR^o quantity ot rT>>lAJi 
of narci.»lirio, IJuo wlute wiirty erystnls^ wlneh trc more difficuldf 
eoluble iu oilier than narcotine, but arc converted into uanxittiteafi 
ftttrTiipliji;^ to inwbilo them. 

Tin- inpieourt puihitioii <jf tijiit^jtinntc of potash dw« not priviT**"**'* 
barj'ia- i»r linn'-wulifl. With tiul-amm-miae it cvolvea animdii .< 
difj^-jdilrt nurotino- Wilh aiigar of Ivad, it ppjd«cefl a pale y-iil -.-1- 
prcoi|jitnlo (probatily colourless when pure), wbicb» in ihe tiudr »ra<i^> 
Cf](i(iiiiid 37-1* p. 0. niide of lead, and after waahinj,' yiehln fjiilfiliair ti 
narcjliTii* to dduLe ^ul^jhuric ncld. It dit^sidveA in alivihrd, t!] etLTpf i 
liltle carbonate of lead ; if tlii> lead m precipitated from thfa ttalut>uci bf 



Ljdrosulphuric acid, tlic yellow filtrait^ yjrldw, on eveporaliun* crrsUlB 
of niLrcrtliQG ani Biosillor warty cpyatals, wlnoli aro tiniverted into 
narcitlioc by alkalift oi- m-i'h. 

NorcotiiititQ of potJiah ^vc^ wiih nitrate of R}]vcr, o. pjilt yellow 
pred(>itate,whjdiiseiV8ily eolvible b water iind cliM.'fl iiotuppifitf itnlrluto 
soliiticfnH, IlM aqueous HiiIuLiuu wnim hn:ijrri€s i-hirk-LtjlmiTE?!! jiud after- 
ward-^ block, nud on heating iniHiodiittcly coatB tlie gloee witli & 
blaLikJuh or cop per- coloured metallic mirror, at the same time de- 
i;igfiitii]£ ciyataU of natxxjtiuo, 

C*^'H"SO" or 0'*Na''SO". 

tiArRKVT 8l GKRHATtriT- ^T. J. Pftarm- 14, 303 ; iV, Arm. Chim. Phyg. 
24, 114; Chm. 45, 371; abstr. Ccmpt. r&id. 27, BO; --Inn. 

FiTvtobtUETVAfl bv Ttufifn {Schuf^m, 217.) — NoTcotine mediate aed with water 
wdves wlien neated witli a Hmall excesn of milphunc acid; wIibh 
tro fitri:>rigly lieatod, it bcccm^s dark graen and tbiokT without otoLu- 
tion (jf gaa. Od diluting with, water ixad boiling, the resulting eolutiija 
d&posite 6aJphoriari;i.>tidc on cooling; ue a dark-gi-ccii pijwder. which 
RkUflt be washed vitb cold watcr- 

a. h, & G'BT'lmrdt. 

M C ^.™ 204 ... 69-45 46 276 ^... 0OE6 .„, 531 

N 14 ..« S'Ifi N .., 1* .,.H 806 

fan,-., M ™. 4i>& a4H,,„.H £4 .... 5'21 .«. 53 

15 O „ 12» .... S8'S3 10 O 12H ..., a7'U5 

8 .„ — 16 .„ ana s m , . 3-49 .„. S'G 

t>-Nn°SO«„,. 4W .,., lOO'OO CNH^aO'* ,„. 4fi8 »„ lOOOO 

lAUjviit ^ O^rLnrdt dcniblt the fi>nauld i(. '^ SulpboDucotide a Bulplutc of u&r- 
mluiir DunuB £ at. vatcn 

When A«i(siJ on platinum foil, it leaves a larfjfo quantity of difficultly 
combustible cWcoal. — By drif (ijC/tfnitpn it yieldfl water and a dis- 
agreeably smelliuj^ oiL — EbullitioN with uitiic acid cuoverta it iuti> 
BQlphuric add and a yellow HiibBtani^ Roliiblc ii^ ammonia. — Ammonui 
does not alter iL — It dUuoivGS m potash-tft/ with brown colour, and i» 
prcoipitftblo by acids in yolJow ilocka. 

Soluble In idco/tcl, but net deposited by itin cryatala. 


Bltth, -Ann, Pharm. 54^ 44; ^fem. Chcm, Soc^ 2, 168- 

SpmctiTiira obt&incil as chloroplatinatc, togelbtr wilti cotarnJnCj in 
the prup^ation of ihia baaej eBpecialiy when the cmailcst poeaibLo 


eiccBB of biclil'»ricle of iiUtlimm has been used. — Oftiuiot ho iNiUt 
iuasmach aa it brciiks up iuln narcotiiie and cotariiiue when coptLTtl 
frmn tlie pliitixium salt. IJlrtli, wLc uaigno to norwgciunD iho Ig 

Bmrion of proloohltiride of plftliniim [Bljth't fnrniula - »(t^SH''o"l ■ 
t'»\H'aO» (mUFD[Qa, v-mpVmg lo Rl,vth) + 0*NH»a« ■» CO^ j wluift* 
<iv; Am. Ckim. Pk^t. 19. 37Q> OQil Dtbon nig&rd oUoniplaCinalo of 
duuLle nil cDufAmmg uuruoCuiQ ULd cutamiiw. 

Chioroplaiinate it/ N^arcitfjetimt. — Long', bright orango -yellow n«d1( 
Uocomufl li^litei- t^/buroti on addition of ammimiii and. on heating, aplH 
up completely iiito narcolinc, which scpttralea out, Juid ci^taniijje wluc 
together vvuv proltH-hliMEdi; of iil^Ltiniiin, miiiaini^ in sululioii, Tl 
mother- liquov whoji aCrJingly coul^d di^powitu a A\r\y wJiite precifiilat 

ErohabJj Mtignuri'e salt (vi. 304 J. — ElJulhtion with % gr^iit cxoea 
ichloridc of pUtinum converlfj it, with I'vulutiun of earlKiuic acid, into 
cctarntue, while upiruiic or ticiaiplnic acid Kmabia in dolntion. 

68 C 

H ir.. ..„. ^ 

fl Pt ....-..— ™ ,..,««« 

cu...-, _ 





H8 c, „„ aiG 

. N .., „ 14 

» H .„ BO 

w _, m 

.... 4(}-a3 

..„ £02 
.... B'7S 
.... Ufi£ 
.,». 1940 




... 4fy^ 

.... 4-U 
.^t 1816 

8 01 „-■■ ,. 106-g ... IfrM - 

C"Kn"0",HaPtCl- 535B ..., lOOOO 

Bljih givn iho lbmiu]& b. For Warthoim's formula^ ■» Atm. Pkarm. f\ TL 

Af^^iSix ttf Cotarriiite and Narcoiii^ 

Humopic Acid. 
WoBLKB. Ann. i%n<m. 50, 21. 

Nurcntinc \a buatvd in a rlutinun; captiule placi'd lit an i^il-UA 
utitli, at 220\ it fi-trUidun vjijfuuUj, evolvt-M aniuiLrnia. and bitlidilketD 
a poronn nia»n. TMh |frr.>diR"tyn'l(lHtoh_v»lji'chlifik'in;id h ph>(.-uU*r bwr 
(Ph 139), vWi\o hiunopjc acid rcmaina ttL>bLuiJ. Tho latrrr i^ diaiu^K'^ 
in p*>tftiih-ley, iiruripiUtf^d wilh livdrnohl'tnu iwirl, wntlicd, iltird. tr-l 
by Holutiiin i» jiIoiJj<J frnELij^ ttrmdl'tuiintiiy uf a blni:k-bmwti auL»UAC( 
Willi whk'b it 1» duxlhI, and hisfly pri<ripir>irrd Uy wutiT. 

Tlmk hmw ii»Brru>qtb*niH [iiiuift, irsi'inLKii^ U-rrU- 1. '' v^ - ■'- "' 

i»rL''?i|>it[iruib Drit'tl at I2i^^, Jl iNJiitainji on an i< 
a-ili-iana^fO'CGO, Wthlw givoa tbo fonnulo C> n-w, it ^.^uV 


Melts when fteai^ and boma with a Inmiaoue flame, giving off 
the smell of opium, — When long boiled with u^ier it becomes iiisolublo 
in ammonia, and then diBHolvts with difficulty oven in potaah-ley and 
alcohol, leaving- behind a, black-brown subetance, probably humin, 

InaoJuble m vjoI^ and dilute iwds. ^-^ DibsoIvch in alkalis with deep 
Baffron-yellow colour ; the Bolutions give tiarfc-brown gelatinous pre- 
cipitatea with baryta- and lead'saltHt -^ Soluble in alcoM, whence lb is 
precipitated by water. 

Capsulffiscic Acid, 

BoCHL£i>EB. Wien. Akad. Ber. 40, 37. 

Occun Id (ho capBUleB of tbe ripe fruit of ^tculm Sippoetutanum. 

Crystals which sublime without decomposition. Isomeric with 
toracetogaiJIc acid ; hehavee like this add witu forrJc ealta and reddenij 
eohition of caustic potash in the same way- 

Oil txam Oil of Cajepnt. 

M. SoHUDL. Trana. Boy. Soc, EdM, 22, 6, 860; ZtiUchr. Ckem. 
Pharm. 4, 403. 

When the vapour of that portion of oil of cajeput (siv. 510) which 
boils at 175° is passed over red-hot soda-lime> a yellow oil is obtained, 
having a different emeU. The compoBitJon of that portion of tliiw oil 
which boils between 180° and 185" is irepresented by the formula 


£4 H 

2 O 

166 ... 

u .... 

IG .... 

,.». 70-59 ... 

12-2* .„, 

S17 .... 


..... 7S'&0 




19G ... 

100«0 ... 


CoDvolTnlinolic Acid. 

C»H^' = C"II"0',0*. 

W, Mater. Ann. Pharm, 83, 132 ; further 95, 1G4 ; annouucement of 
the results 92, 125. 

152 primaut nucleus c*h*; oxygen-nucleus t»u*^. 

1ili?EituA3 wilh HKodeatrwiiaolii' in-iil no fur u it««idu uet In-ulivl c^in Mkjflr'* fini 
mumoiPj bur Ma^dt'i &» rhodMroliiwiIk n^id t_Jmi. /'Atkw, 84. I33> i» tlu 
the wnTDlrulinol of liis Ifitor mrmoin- 

burytft ifl pit-pared by disaolidng ciinvolvuliTiol in haT7r4i-n'al 
(amnirKim or solution of potaeh) and thia fifllt w doeompoaed wiUi 
hydrochloric acii. 

Ftf^iviuvi. A erjBtalliTLO miwa i-eHembling: convolvolinol, Mcll 
iK-tweou 4J' and 42*'5» nolidifiea at 36'' ; reacts Blroiit'ly a*^- 

S6 O 166 6fr4fi ., Oa-53 

2i H M 10-M -.,™ ICrTU 

flo „ M.... « .»— . 21-05 so-n 

tTnP'O* 288 ia>00 100<» 

A'fVntf flcii/ attacks it ^-ioiiMiHv, and coavtrtH tl i]*to ipomoeic \jj 
4:>4) and oju»!ic a^-ids. C"U"0*V C(HO*,HO) ^^ C^It'W + 2CH0* 
IDHO + 2C0= + CNO*, 

ComJ/inatuiiif, Gon\^lviiliiioliy Field cy»Tnbinea with flfwr/ fomiitij 
Bults, wLich can also be obtained by the action nf caii£tLc or carb'^iiMi 
alkalis or alkflJiue earths on cotivolvnhnol. They contain C'li^Mtl^l] 
Mjijpot'b oortior runuula wa« C"Q>=^Ol^ The Sidt6 of the alkalis arc Cis^ 
noliihlo in wulcr aud uJcoliul, those of the &1haline partha aiorv 

ConvolvttlUoiale of Hfoyfttt. — Hot alciiholiG convolvolinol (or alofi- 
hnlic cunvulvuhnolic acid] ia inrured inio an cj^Cf^AS nf wium bary1«- 
wftler ; tlip miitni^ ib hoilcd for a few mlnntes, and filtered builiug 
]i<»t; Eirid tho Dcodlca winch aoparato on cooling are recryfttallis^ frtur 
ivjut'oue lUcohol. — Fine, colourlcBB needles^ grouped in fllare, 
nii'ltiiifr to an oil without Wing water, — ■Moreeaaily »olab!eia 
than jalnfipinolatc of baryta. 

fli 100'. Uijcr. 

2B O .166 .... ai-33 .... 61-15 

H H,..„-..«»..,„-,». £4 .« 7-88 .« 8'IG 

aO„.._ «..., 46 .„. 1B77 .... iS'-tt 

BbO 7sg ■■„ 25ia .... as-is 

fTH'BHO' + HO , 3Wfi ,.. 100<JQ ... IfKKJO 

Mn^TT foruvrly suuniiiod & b&r^pta-e&lt contALDing Irtv fontelTulinoLie aeld 

Conpotfuiiatt/atf fl/' i>af/. — ObtaiQ&d 36 a wbii<* prfH.'ipitftt**» whidi 
drh'rt up over nil i'{ vitriol lo a yellowish ma^a roecMiblin^; Jiuiicy, " 
pn^cijiitutiiijjf (Miivolviilinolato of ammoma with Bii>jnr of lead, — Vi 
ehghlly soluble in natct, rather more cttuily bolubh: in alciihoK 


C?TI*0* Elft ,„ fl6'l« 

PliO ,.,.._ lis _ 33-94 .... Bass 

C?^»?bO»„. Ml ^ lOO'OO 




iivftltniimriate of C<tppcr. — The aquoouH aTiimoma-fl&It is prodp- 
kI iTitli ai^!4ity uf copper, to whicL a small quantity of agelk; acid 
liii^ lieen ad'h-rl, aitd llie piofinitiitt' is diiod ftt 100^. — Bliuvgrceu i 
fiietLle al llU' lo a clear licjuid, whicli stklidifiow to a highly histroas, 
eplcu did dark givoi), amorphous uiiieB. — IoeQlublo in water, ecarcely 
egluble ID alcohol. 

at 100*. Mftrvr. 

^^ £6 c ». ISO »._ se-ai ..»., gsso 

^H S4 E.. ^-..... S4 .„.^ B-» ,„..H B&8 

^H 6 48 JT-OS ...... 1B'£3 

^^P CuO - SB'S 14-90 14&3 

^^ C^H'M^iO' + nO .... 387-6 ...... 10000 100-00 

Mtjtr firrrioiiklj eiuained a rait prci^EjiLlatiMl vithout additicD of acetic adil» 
and Dontoiiuii^ murr oxitlv ur cupfKr. 

Cojit*iihiiliiioIiJte of i.W'dr, — -Oljtaincd in white Qockti, wliicli hlucheii 
caeilj in the light, by precipitating the ammonia- h alt with nitrate of 
bilver. — InBoluble in wator; difficultly aohiblo in alcohol. 

G. A, KAYfiCn. Afta, Pharm, 51, y?. 

W. Mat^jl. Ann, Pharm^ 83, 13^ j further 05, 164 i lumoiinc^nienl 
of the resultfl, 92, 125. 

JUiBtfrfirfirmti, If^oflf^trrfinv/ir acid. Funiii-r!y Mnycr diil pol dtatiuguioll 
tiptvr>L^n the ncutriJ conTolTuIiuul aud tlio coarolruliQoIiu uud prodiicofl trom it. 

Jbmififivrj. CoavolvTilin and coavoh^]lic acid break up by prD- 
lo(»gM contact with hydrochloric f^r dilute sulphuric acid at a nigh 
temperature, into Biigar and convolvitlinol (KajbCr). Convolvulic 
Acid (indcrp'fa thu Hmoe dcconipieiliou in contact with cmuHu be- 
tween 35' and 40\ C»lin)" -h SIIO = C^H-O^ + dC^'H^H)'' 

Pi-eparatitiii, A moderately concentrated aqueoas solution of con- 
volvniic add I4 mixed witii half its bulk nf fuming hydrochloric aeid, 
ftud left to ilsdf f^r 6 or 8 flays, or until '\t anlidifiea lo a ma^^a of 
cryBtals; this ie placed oq a filtor, and purified by washing with cold 
^rater> fusion under hot water, and reciyfltalliaatioD from alcohol or 
other (Mayor). It is obtuinciJ in a elato i»f less purity by panning 
liyrlrochloric add iulo utcnhnljc ccnT4»]vTilin (Kaysrr), rkr by hoibng 
oouvulvnlie acid with dilate fiulphuric acid (Mayer): by the fonnor 
|)roC4;3a it is obtained Ufi nii oiL 

Proptrfiea. Dazzling white, very long, thin and pliablo ncedlefl, 
•which melt at aS'S" or 30°. and mni^lifj- to a crTat.T.l!ine mass at 3G°. 
ll Uiu< a t^li^ht add re^'tiuu. Hue i\o Hniell ; tantiiH bitter and irri- 
talint'. AVhen melted with water it givea off the emell of St, John's 
1lf«ad (Mayer), 


26 C ,.„, 15« , 65'fl» 6«-39 ., H'9$* 

as IT U 10C6 low lO-7» 

7 0„.. „ &d .,- £3(13 ai'f)5 .„...* B«'S» 

o*H»o' aa? , 10000 , 1(10^00 ^,_ locrm 

EiLrTioT fLimxLJii-: P^^^O* (^Jiu)> C^'^TP^O^" (Miifiir]. K^nr eumivJ' 

Dvcoirtpt^iiiorts. 1. Tolatilisca when htat^ on plat jrinm-f oil, anp^- 
rently witUout doccmpoaitiau, giving ofT an imlatiiig- erME?1t wlildj 
excilee cougliuig, itrul lenTiug a rrnidue of clmrooiil — 2. £*^rrM wiiL a 
brifi'ht flame. — 3. Oil of vitriol colours it yollowiah »t lireU tlif n :iru*- 
rantb-red (Majer)j colJ oil of vitriol Joob not Qk<>r it (KjiyaL-r}.— 
4. In <;oulact vrith aqueous nl^'jli^t ov aiLMte earths, it l*Jtrt.'a 1 itf. 
wiiter, and is w^niertL-d mlo c*>uvulviiIiiioi]i: aoiiJ (Mjiytr). (?"IW 
+ = C*H»BaO* + SHO. A^ordm^ lo £■/«.* it « nol *]tcndlff 

bfliiin^ poiii-b-Ur- — 5, .VifiTi; rtarf coQverta it into ipomuwo (xiv, iJi) «d1 
oxaiio ooids (Mo^ycr)- 

Cofiihir\^ti<fnA. DiBaolvca with difficulty In pure tLMf^r, egineuhat 
more iiwil^ iii acididutud A^^ttur. uml (.jybLallirii^a by blcjw i^ooLn^' rif 
VL-ry dilald floliitiorid. — Vi'iy KoUiid*.* hx alcohol, leaa so in fthtr^ wid 
ciyBtalJifiea by slow cva]>orauoD (Ma/orJ. 

C\ji\juffated Comptruitds nf CiynwlvuUttoUa Acid ar of CoTujoimdiitnL 

o«n«o* = c-ipo-,30"rpw. 

KatSEE (1844). Ann. FhiT-m. 51^ ttl. 

W. ALavfu. Ann, Pfiarrn. V>% TJl i abdtr> /< jir. CA<ni> 57^ 4£4i >1 

J»ft» Cftim. Phtis. 3a 4;»5 i Chan. 0<u. lfi,'>3, 21, — Jub. i^onn. 

V2ii i iu detail Jmn. Plmrtu. d^y 1I>1 ; abelr. */. jtr. Chtm- fS7» !i6T, 

JV- Ann. C/iim. Ph.j9. 45, 434, 

Oinip. TT, 34$. ShD^foivtin. — Th& (tluof (ftod in atlirrr i&MhMfc) 
Cf tlu ?M]ii (if till? tiihfro*!' JHlii[i'ni>ul uf /jBMi«n Pvf^i (iftfadAmI tuL 

an-i, la, BSD, NiuiTi'llu ^X J. Pi**™, It Z2^). ^juU-inm (jV, J. iUarm 

Orj tliQ adUlnniLiuii of Jidup-iwii, im IlLuicLr (Ann. i*A"r¥i*. lOi GT), JoliD f Ji* 

ph^f-m. as, lu), Oi,hyy^ {x. j. pau™. a, -Hti), y« a Poui^n? f.v, j. ih*** 

U>, 111f){ on rlui TiindM of distia^uhuie it frdin tlifi trvia vf Inrrh-AsiA^ m 
Tnmimnilitrfl' (A^, TV, 25. I, -JO^K from Ibfl nuin of j&]i^Hit#Bii^ lllob fJ'f'^ 
4rt, MJJJ, Oft iu solub.lilv m a[«ibi»t, sw Fldckiirpp ( /***"■ rii*rt*Jr. U. «l)- *• 
furUii^r <fn jitup-riKiii : (ml^L du (.hu^k-ourt (/fiT^i-/, 41, £1; J, fjkifVL a, M, 

4 UnnjiunU f^M./^tdrpi. lU, 1^2^ Kui><it [lit. A'cK.]"'' 



ihi e(W (htia-fetm), not |iro«ipitahlc bj eiigar of lead, la o^7c<rt<>il bj- nJltolio 
InEoIiu (Saiidrock't) ipomicic ncid ([|^^■oipltlvbll^ by hnaia nLM.>1atc of iiiod from tha 

ilid IJojidb'toit) i§. BOT^rilEii^ m Sjin^inijck^ » miiiriipe <tf filphji- anci hfU-ivaEiLii, hiiiI 
Bwjmur Jt UctUv^"''') jitijiinjia is kleuiii*! i* illi buxtt-rtsiii, Mjivit aUjwinin uuLliu 
mutnt^.tbatduuJrucVttrto nauis jkiuljujild lio uot ilLlTLTtit^iiatialTj froui vib;li uUu!r| 
Bml w tlaf eouiD lU DuavolvuliiJ iLail couToImlii' Oi^id. 

P/«Mii-a^;i. J^ikp-rouL ia o^hausted with bculmg wiitoj', then driad 
Dol pulveiidt'd ; aiid U^e jwwdor ib cilracted l]if<?o tJaiea witli twice 
ilA veifilii of alciiliol of 90 p-o. Wattr it* juMuil I o llu: wiiciL^ qiiyjitlty t>F 
liDcimoKO obtaiJiod uutil tnrtildit.y bt-u^iuw; witltUu li'iniclmbuilod twiijo 
ffitii briiic-clwirt^oiil, tUoiJ filt^loJ Odd o^mhyratud, wljL'L'tiljy ft yt'Uow, 
Iriulereaia idtjbfftuacd. TJii^j id yiilvciritcd^ o5.ti'jKitijLl Com' ijr iivc^ tiijica 

abJ^qimDiky r>/ ubhttliilo !i1(^i>]iijL, mni jjit'ci^ilI^LiMl by i:tber (^fnyor), 
l*nrr oprntTa iluuliirty, !n*L Ln^te^il of boiiing out. lh>> ivkM with ffolcr, lie hniLfl Ilia 
rnjiubtuivcl by meuifi \?f alt^oLul vt 30 p.c.f itiiil njiabDa villj vtbur. ls n^U oa pre- 
ilc# tEit' ilL-L>]kolic ftulu-liuu bv ctticr, le» rruL|in^ul!y^ — In urJi'r t<j pu'fjjirc llieir 
pin, Bik.'!uiivd CiniKTrgcrdibauKi^jalup-ctDin m oljijliijl. precipitate hiEIi iurrji(o 
frl, and mil the BUnru witb luimiunm and wikti^r- Tbij pLeo rciIiMolYU thd [ut 
Hijl4it ka olcvliol, di^L-Al ^itli n-ry fiiliilr nJpbEirio Ddiil, tv-iiLDva tho 011J- 
^Dnr b^iil b; meoJLB of h^dpfttc of leoti, enkpomtA, uid eiliuut ih^ retulue with. 

Properiifi^ GokkurCcHa ira8H, ImDfipiLrerif in tliJQ ]ayf?re! brittio at 
lt"J% aad yiflda a %viiiie puwdoiv If it ccjnlaine jl ainalL quantity of 
Alitor, it bocomce eot't c^'gq IjcIow 100'^ and can bo dra^ru out to 
Ihreada liaving a inQtlier-(f''i.>eavl lu«tro (Mayer). Bccoincs soft at 
Ul\ lurltfi Jit IAO~ u'llLoiit luuijig water lu a. dt^ai^ ycllowjtili lifjiiid 
(Kjiy*tfr, Nfaycr), Willinnt laste or HinolL Reacts slfgtitly acid In (a 
*koooiki aolutiau* Has a purgntivo action. 


GO U, 

BO „ 

.... S4-37 ... 
.... 731^ .., 
,.. 8778 . 



EB'M .„ 
7-fll ... 

3G-13 . 

7 96 

aa 0. 

. ... 25G ... 

... Br^s 

0*H*O" ..„, 

678 ,., 

-.. lOUOO .. 

.... 100 00 .,. 

.... loaoo 

C**FPO* nw^rtling to liuiyjur, <7TI«0" MAjer'a raiTlier fomiulft. Diflk-a fPcra. 
i^Fpin lij nmtJkijLtnt; SC'E" leiw, ^On lIu^ formula? of roiiTolTulin luid its 

JfaratiTeB, boo v^ Liiuruiit ftVmpi. rtf**/. 33, 579). 

Ik^amptidtiQii.^. \. Be^nR to dfifiompnso when hentM abovo 155"; 
lnni» browii wlien 0101*0 etrontly heated on platirium-toil ; butfts wdli a 
bn^hl BUi'^ky tiamcr j?iviaR^ oS an cmpyreuniatic hiqcLI and a pnicli oF 
Utfmioclf and leaves ft sliiiiicg cbarconl. — 3. Wheii covered with oil tff 
^knul, it dtrt.^ilv^w after ajfoul tcti mitiuttti with (int' 'jarrriin<i.rRi! cfilonr 
(Hojpsor), AiuniMiilh-red^ Mayer), andaflur afewhoarH deposiUabroi^n 
iwa. Wjil^r IbrowH down a brown oU from thurcd S'Mution, wliilo atiffar 
riutuunsdiH&flvud(Mayer}» — 3. Whonfty[/roffA£oricoci<iiflpaaH(d intoits 
utojlkilic mjlutioci, uunvoU'uiLn bn.^akH up, on leuvin^^ the sohLtiori to 
Li«vU. iiJlo (vmv'dvuluiol iind t)ii<{ai', iho formj_T of whidi is prRn'piiiHed 
asftnoilon adilifion i*f water to the dark r^d-vebow ei.lntjon C^il^U" + 
11H0 = U'II*^.»' + 3C"1I«0" (Xrjiyoi'). - 1. UiflfinlveH without alteration 
lEL cuM coQCiJiitrated muic acid i^iid is prucJpitiibod by aminouia i it dia-> 


solvpH in warm dilutcr iiitnc add v>'tth decomposition (Kuyner). Ormt 
Irattsd nitric odVf en uses violent evoliilion of iiitricojiirte gus nnd c<JH"ilr 
it m^>0Kabc aoid and jpomffiJc;acid(>Jv, J94) (Mitycr)< — 6, Cocivnlvnlui 
dissolves in ttque<nie alk<iiis and ttlkaiine fta-ths (l^tkiiit;^ ujj 3 si. i«&U:r 
aod fonoEng^ a conviilTulinate : Kat/ser, JUaTfirr) mid ciiLuut then Iip n' 
pri'djjfcalpd hy adds (Cad(?t do (laaflici>iirt, TrommfldurfTj. SirnBp 
aqueoiifi ammorua producer the sanio effect after digoaling for wiiui 
tiijLc (Kiypor). Aoucoas alkaline carbonates diESoLve corjvolvcltii but 
eLghtly in the cola, more camljon boiling, likcwiee producing c>n- 
TolTulic acid (Kayaer); its formalioo takes place slowly, Lowuvrr. sn 
tbat water still caiinea a pro<:ipil.alri of convolvulin after half-an-lionr'i 
Ivoiling (Mayer), Even after loug^ boiling ol' a fictutiou of eoQvolTaili 
in pottiHh'lejT tho addition of &ctds or of water eomctimevt tlirovi 
down unaltered convolvnlin (Sandrock), 

Coiivolvnliu diBeulvcH voiy sliglitly In tcaier (Mayer). It dinoini 
easily in ntvtic add (Buchner & fiert'erger^ and otters)^ in aU phMX** 
tionfi in afcoliQly but not in ether. Tiw }Tortion of j(d»p rcain wlutli » buoltUi 
in tthrr docs rot diBBtrlvr* m volaSilt CT/at oih (Cudtd. do Ow^siix^uri) ; it iliBtVTn 
mulj m <r^/r> ^jA^r Bt -in" — SO"; it diiAolTr^oilh tolerabloeUDinfR/ itf f^ryntJt^ vi 
u rriHiipiriihlp hy nnt^p (MAniuB). Tt dooe not dluolTO in oil of tvrpaiCiiv aI €D* 
(Johu, Ann. rAana. ZH, 9&). 

CoDvoIvulic Acid, 

G> A. K&TSCB. Ann, Pharm, 51, 65. 

W, Matee. Am*. Pharm. SB, 113 ; fiiHhor 92, 125, and 31, 1G1. 

aUAonxmU (S, £r. Jrc\. 61, ISO], bod uader Cou»a]Tuliji (p. IBij, 

Fortiintton. ConvolvTilin treated with aqiieoos ammonia, potaah <* 
Bfxlii, or witli bnry1*i-wfttur, laki-s h]j wattr and is c(iiiri-rtfl*d into 
volvulic acid (Kuysor), C*n*W + 3H0 = C"H'%P (Mnytr> 

Prepamiion. 100 grammes of couvolviitin ore h<^4tcd tc boillDg 
lib. of baryta- water, ibc li*juid btiup kept stirred i the barjU ia romi 
fr-iiij the deal cooled solution by means of a Blj^t cxoess uf sulfi 
iicid; the Imbid miiitua* \^ shaken \\\\ wllli li{v[^nilL-d f-arhonftlo of IftJ 
and filler^; the dissolved I^ad ia removed by hyiJr>iUlphtirio acid; n^thv 
coloiiricflB filtrate Jaovftporatcd on tho ■wator-hnlli (Mayer), — Kajff^ 
digetits conrolvnlin with strong* aqneous ammoMia nuljl it in dlavutrt 
evnTHjrates Lliu (.'Xccm of anmjotn^ ^rei~I[^Ial<.'?i Llie aiiiict^iEn tvihiiic 
with ImsJc acelnti; of lead, decr>nij>iFtr.'is the waeheil lead-aaU uni 
water by liydrosulphuric acid, and ovajxirates the liltmto- 

JVfj/Mr/iM, AmoTfihnuB, white* very hygrtiscopic mua, wfcs* 
becomes H'lfl above 100'', melta between ICK) and ISO* acd rrart* 
alruiigly, IJy ItaelF, it hoa no hdicII { when diasnlvcd iu wmtvril W* 
faint anicll of i|iuu[X'a (Maycr)> Hjin a ]iun«ly bitter ta«tv (Kayivr). 



at 100-— l^O*. 

es C 373 .... BS'^O 

fi3 H „,„„ ^ 53 .... 7ea 

35 O ^« EflO .... 0978 





... bl-m 
~. 7'9B 

- ao-48 

C*H"0* 705 .„ 100-ClO .„- 10000 _.. 100-00 

"KiiTser DtunlDAd n liFonriiBh cnloured, iEnptrfeobly purs aiu<L Ho furmDrly gar# 
IhjiOirmulii C«H"t>", and Mavsr C-H"U«. 

|^Bttf?cm;»^u/ij. 1h Dscompoaoi^ at 120°^ a&d ^u^ij wheu heated on 
MAtinnni-foLl with n briji^lit Biuoky Uaine anil ^vca (.10 a fimoll of canimcl. 
C— 2, By I'biiUilioii wiLh Jiluto sulphnric ai:}d^ o\r wheu its a(fUcoLis aolu-- 
\tion IB iiiixiii wilh cuurt^nUattcl /mhiirhhriu nckl and It^ft Lt> stanii, it 
ibteake up into coDvolviiImoI (p. 153) and aagar ^Maycr}— iJ. With ttJlof 
trioi, it bcbavce like convolvulin. — 1, jWitrio add of »p. g\r. 1'3 attackH 
victluutly lit tho coniDJuii tomijcratiiro af tor being* Jn coutoct fr>r Homo 
jm£, L'vulvL's red fumt^K, aad L-oiivi;ii» It iuto u^iblio aikI ipama^ic (xiv. 
I91J acids. Nitri:: acfdof l"ia fomin, aftt-r 12 hours, Biignr and 
(caiivitlvulmol. — II U dyouinpoeod by fmiitsia at common lempuratuivs 
IQ sajjio way as by diluto aciJi^ (Jdayor). 

jmttfPofijTtf. Convolvulic acid diH3f>lvcB in rjn/o- in all propnrtiona. 
i— Witbifl^c" it foriQflthe crmvolvuhnateB. These flaltsaTeamorpluiUH, 
Ij&ilnblebi water and alcohol ; thoy muell iifipiJiiiyja whtn dissolved 
iter, molt when heated, and tmm with ahimiimtin smobj tlarDe^ and 
. ./empyrtumatioflindlliko tlitit of cavamoL^Aquoouaon^'^LjlTiilic acid 
and couvulvniato ci ammuaia do not precipitate ncairalnket^UUL: rtaltB, 
' but prodace deiiay wbilif tlocka in l»asic a*;tlate of lead. Aqaeoiitt ^on- 
jvolviilic nt'id dif plai'ei^ rarbfmio a<:iii, eftjH'i' hilly on boilhig, fi'oin tho 
jcarbonatea of the s-lkolia and allGalJas tiarths and f rom carboiiatn of 

ChruKtli'ultiu ofPiitusiJi. — ■ Tho ai^iieonsj acid U iientralined with caiv 
ln>na1'> of prtnah, tlie aijlutifm i^ eviifM>rated to dn'ao«a, and the reeidae 
cxiiaueU-d Willi altN^hob^Amorplioufl, pale yo (low ninaBp Difiaolved 
in w*ter it ainelk of qainccp, luis a hitter tusto, and aiclts between 
lOTi" aijd 110^ — ^Disftolves oasily in Wttter, witli difficalty in alcuho! 


... 37a .... 5005 

.... GO' IS 

ea K «,„ _™,. 

u o 

EO „. 

, - na .... ti-ys 
... £72 .... aaea 
-.. 47-a -.., e 35 

.„- 7-56 
. .. 36'3l 

.,- 74**2 .„ IWOO 

™ 100-00 

Conv*»liitl'it'^ of Fi'imh v^ith Coitvoleuii/i f — Onnvolviiliii disRolvca 
with yollr>w colour in boiling aqHooii^ earlhjiiatG of mtJish. On Dva- 
parftti&g to dryiieBH* taking op the reaiduo with abeolutv aleohfil, and 
■^ftin evafxiratia^t a yellowish white salt ia obtained, wKicTi is 
uinjtral« melta ^it I0o°, aud dlsficlvea easily in water artd alcohol 
(Kayst-i). Even after half-au-lioLir'H boiling iif thw wolnlifin of eonvoU 

ttlm in tarbonate of p-Haftb, wat?r thrnwfl down convohulin from it '. 
kCt* thw eulistaiU'*^ rymaiim mixed or combined with the eoiivolvulttlo 
potaflb flo prepari:d fMayer)> 


Calculitiioa aceordioff to Hajev. Kajwr. 

€a C 192 36fll 3G'81 

60 H„„ 60 4it2 533 

83 O 256 25 23 2516 

8 PbO 836 3331 3271 

C^H"PtfO".... 83i 100M» lOOflO 

Conmlmlate of Silver, — When the ftqiicoiis haryta-ealt is precipi- 
tated with sulphate of nilvor, the UltriLtc containing Bilvcr decompoaca 
by flvaporfttion on the watev-bath (Kaynov), 

ConvolTulic acid dissolvea in alcohol in all proportions ; it does not 
difiBolvein ethtr. 

Appendix to Convolmlin. 

Poriion of the rem of ttilerose jahp-root ichkh is sohhh in ether. 
S«odrock'a Gamma-j-esSn. — The ethereal eolutions obtained in tlie pro- 
pantioD of convolvulin (p, 155) are evaporated ; tho residue is twice 
diflsolved in alcohol, and precipitated with water (Kayeer). flandrock 
Tqunlfe oqIt the ethernd eolation. See also BoulHer (J. Chtm. mtfd, 14, 


Accordirc to Kaysor, it is a brownish oil which makea greasy st^ns 
on paper, and, if left to itself » remains anftand sticky for aeveral montha, 
bot in contact with water^ solidifies partially to cryatallinc needles. — 
AoonUng to Siuiilrocli, a touirh, sirft, ^tUow min, irbicli doea not hatden bj 
wponi™ to air, or at 100'. Has an irritating taste, smella hlte jalap-root, 
Terr strongly and disagreeably (Kayacr). Reddens litmus strong-ly. 
— Volatiliaea when Iiea/ed on platinuin-foi^ and fnti-ns when act on fire 
irith a bright flame, and a sharp unpleasant smell (Kayser). — With oil 
ofviirial it forma a aolution which ia red at firaC^ and afterwarda purple 
pandrock). — Does not dissolve in h^drochloriCf nitric, or <tc€tic acid^ 
even on heating (Kayaer), According to Sandrock it diuolres in emetic add. 
'-Diseolfes easily in aqueous attvilts, and is precipitated by acids un- 
lliered (Kayaer) ; in Jloc^ after long boiling, and by surphnHfl acid m a j«]lj. 
(Sndrock). In fdcobolic solution it gives a yellow precipitate with al- 
coholic 6vgar of lead (Kayaer)^ a white precipitate (Sandrock). — 
Kaeolves completely in am^lic atdeltyde (xi. 17) (Trautwein). 

The acid produced hy boUinff ike Tfsin mth aoda-Ify dU&oWea but slightly in nnro 
ynUr, fanlj in water containing ammonia. It forms & yelloTish po1adb-B^t» wfaidi 
oyitoUiBefl from aloohol in gruiutn, and prccipil&tee a vliito powder when ita k>1u- 
^m \t mixed with nugor of lead. On decomposing this lead-salt bj bjdrOBulphurio 
■fid, the acid remaius behind witi tbo BxJpnidfl of lead, and can then he extracted 
by tauDonia or oloobol (SondrockJ- 

Oxygen-nuclem C*TI^"0', 

KsoiuTEa. ifi Br, jlrcA. 109, 23. — Eptetcka-y Ctmmumcatioti* 

_~r-::icri ?. 2 ' :- .r_-:_r g — ^j-? Trd 5^33^ l itd iT j d> lonc l aJi 

>7 i-:».^L:j i if "^so^ ^"f_"-:i=:c ^.■.:^ r^tfse »:3i:N' cm cctfiliiif to 

jrt: ijj- :- T ir i^.j ^'^ -y-kr.Tiig ^ T^ir^itf irroTtaoo of water, wtti 
h t^-:* -c fc: 1 * - 5-:TVi-:i 17.' fciii li*!"" h ueltB t4> A bnrvB 

« L'-C- 


if V 

. .3I? — r 

^ - - 

--_ fl« 

_? — — « - 

..._ 1* 



,- , _.. 

rt' ....„ 


_ »« 

*.TE>:'» _ s^ :x"-» lio^ny 

£i-%* tV':^ i-^-a:^'! tlVT-' ia rffC-^ii^r i^^at — Wlih «7 ofntnd 
■jL"ti .\* ij-Vi:' iL: *TT_i^::_r. 4 z^-: i^rk Uoe. beaming riokt 

C T^-^'-'T^. '-J^ — ^".'i "^"i."-, — ,Lr-ir>l fTTinc¥imi loe«« 7-05 fk^ 
wi:-- i: : - =_ :L-,- l.:1jlc r."^' i: Ilo' tCA^-oUt^on 2 at, = $11 

K*:i:iL:- -*^Ti;.-;ri:.'. z. : *: :.-:4 >^ l-- vaicr « 100*- 

It dis?.'!-*---* w::i _T-11 ■c-,fho.l -^ i^ i^Ti-X'SS anm^iiuii and ^tt^ 
a;:i is i:\:v:]c:^>.'i V." A.^i* ::_ 1:^: r -ft-o.^L-ared flock*- — It b p*" 
cii'i^jt'.'i *^ i iirrv w:.;>. v"t :v i.\ ii.rL\ic ^^mion of luncwrHft 

Iv wiV.r, a:.i f-.n-iii.^ j^ - 1 ^.■: ^i-_:ii:::^z-c».'U'aii?iJ powder wbeD tbe 


Eboiuyeil JV" Br. J/vA, Iv'f. ^<.*. — ^jibA'^iinv CoHmuflfrafKMi. 

Krnjaiijd in tin* mo<hrr-li lui'r i-lilainod iu the iireparatwn ■ 
f<yriii}>JZi, as i1t'r^TiU.-il mi tho foHowirijr |xi^\ and ifl 8C|jarittcd tb^v' 
froiij \.\- iiifuiis rtf ATkinial oliaaval The charcoal is then wMbcd 
%%itJi uann wutrr and l*oikil wiih alo>lnJL which diMolve^ uni tltf 
hjri(i;r'-jiHTiN. ;i]i<l U-.ivi-s it on rvi»|>iraiion in the fnrm of a l*ofJ 
h>TiiT>- It iK jiiltjIKi] ],y siilniiori in ukMhul and d^voloratlon wil' 
'uulI clijiri'*':!?. T(k' ftjilutioii iji ttirn evaporated and llw reAdv 




tr^Ated with eihfrr, which takes np a eiibatanco fiavmp an irritating: 
toatf, nxid leaves fiyring-npiciin uridiflw>lvfd. 

Faiiitlj jellow tiuit^pfirciit maas, wlucL niay he rul)lfe<l In a wliilo 
powder penottiieiit iu the .tii. Mi'l!» helnw 100", and ualulilies to a 
liritUe mass on cooUng. HfiB a strong W\iter tastu, ami yli^^-'lit udd 
reaclion. — CoutaJiie 411-08 p. c. C, 7'C7 LI, and 43'260., offret-'in^ vilh 
tho formula (J"11"U" {calc 49-370., 759 H, and 13 <M O.), aiuhs, thtivfme, 
procJuwd from ejrinf^niu by assuaiptkni uf fi nU HO. and 1 iit. 0, 

IftiTTM itimtif c^m\th:U-\y when stnin^ly bi^iitod, — Disaolvoe in oiY aj 
W/TTTj/ with gTeeuinh colour pa.asing' into brown. — When boik-d with 
diiuu siiljfhunt; ocidy it gives uff a ptTulinr f>dciir> and thun roJncca an 
aJkalici^ solutbii of cuprio oiide» — Unaltered flynngupicm boilt:d with 
All alkaline holulion of uupric oxide colon m it green withont Hepamling 
cu|m>ur^ oxide. — From an amnvotfiacal siivef aatntijn at the boiling hoat, 
it redueea iho metal, 

DieeuIrL^a eneily in water, — It ia not altered or pnjcipitattd l>y 
aqiieona alkalis, jcrrk chhiide or baste acetalt! o/ Uml, 


C"H*HJ* ^ U^ll^O^^O^n^'O'". 

BsRVArs (IS41). Ilepfi-f. 74, 34J^ : J. pr. Chtta. 25, 121. 

Meillxt. jV, J. Phai^n, 1, 25 ; J- pr. Chfvn. 26, 316; Ann. Phmtn. 

Kro«ateis, N. Br, Arcfi. 108, 7 \ 109, 18 i Chem, Cent,-. 18G2, 103. — 

KpUti*lur*f Coi'n/itiMC'ifiuiiw 

DitoOTirrd b; Bvmaj'A, inTtALigaLed (itiicAj bj Xronicij'or. Bmooanot (An*. 
CiitM. 7iK S83) Jm-nbrd b ■^rin^L-bittcr, prccipLbhMi.' bj bnaio 2i.'rl4lc of ttod, ^rhjt'h 
bmrwrr had norbinf; in Ftnamoo will] nvruL^iti. Moill?) di'^Tibi-d^ uii<U'r lite aanio 
vt l.tlatria, ■ rF^sIiJiisftblc hi'tcr prim^plo at' BjriTiga, wbicJL hty uhlsiDi'd bv boilina 
t^iB gFT'H-n wtl-rhpiiilf^p, procrpirming the di'f i>l'T ion vitit iiciilr-Ll ii{-i?l4ili? rtt li'Ad, 
rnponxiu^ (lie Ultralo, with addjlion of oiIfiTii^d mAgnifliu, tr^jLling the TP9ii^\ns viOi 
Hbtcr io rrmovp ocrlnt? of ma^PDiA mid mEiiiiiilp, uiiil tlit^a boUiug it with uloulioL 
The rcUtXiuiit of thia IlIaclu tii (ijriii^wi» frum whifb. il diiTtu-t by itd junv biLlor l4tU) 
■ad vnaolubility m waL^r^ bava not bi-(u riactl^^ [li:!L«Trni[ii.-d. Erdinaiiu (J- pr. CAtnt. 
£G, 317J did iiut «*Jccp*«l, by following tLtli*'r BcruivH' or MoiU^t'e diro^ticnf, in 
CpbC&ming ihv hoAiei ideatn'tiea by Ihiinii pnrbapB bcaiLisF hv Follircrvd Ehe m&li^rinl in 
April- Ludwig {y. Hr ^rck. JI^ S?*U) n»givrrlfl l^i'mnvB' ^riii^iii ns a iidiluEV of 
lilM^n witli iiLBniiiEc (iT. 3&7j ; but evea if il did ouiicqjq moanile, it Dxbib^Lod, witJl. 
Bolcif TUriol, ibe ajne rencliDa lu (Sromavi^B) Ajriu^iu. 

Occvrreni^t, In tlic litirk (iF iho lilac, mmv^ ahnniLu;tlj^ iji March 
than in April, nut in tho leaveH or in tho half-ripe fmit, and only in 
tnic«ti in tho ipaf-bujij. It ilisappoaro in tbo couir^e uf vegttjUion, 
Ita place beinjC apparently Piipphed by syring»|Hcriii (Kromajcr)- — 
Tlir hark af privut (Liffu^tium I'utijiirti) t^ntlninfl a Mnbulaiicc prrliaps 
JOoDtical with ByriDgin (Reinach, J'thrh. pr. P/iarm. Ifi, 3J3J. :^in.* xf, 
Zb7j (tnd below, 

PrqKiTtidGii, The bark is ojthauetcd with liniliii^' water; the ex- 
tract prccipitaLed with baatc acetate of I<:ad ; the Ultiatc Lri>atrcd ^itU 

VOL. ITT, « 

li>3 cc:*j'L:'-"-vTiD com?oc5ds of stuxgenih. 

hy :. '-i-.M'.-.r-^; \. :/.. ..:: i:":-:.- r-.:::.'vj.| r-f Uie floli^de rf Wi 
- \'i ^ r'Tv'V ; .» w^ iy—i . Tl:_i:ii *. iiliik* hi ihe coarse of » dij toi 
t'rv*:.i'//..' *; ;:L. l'_^- ■:„*^^ i^ liirif'-i by SEiniQ^ it op with cnld 
iv.i:^i\ :;vcu ■ r ^; ._:. ii.-; ---^-"j"--'^ r it injm boiling wftter, with 
aU ■ f a:i:L^^l .l:^.-^- aL T^-e ^Triz^-'ji did^lved in the wmah^waten 
y 1 K':,il::cd ly ^'v^^i.r^:;::^- ilio ^i>;'^i. :uid a^tatin^ the residue with 

F^-^j^rr^*. Vs.: '^j-iri:*:': or*>:Al; ,K*"::*k>»> giTe off tfadrmtfr 
aTivl 1\>.vl::v^ /lit: w H Il> - ,x:^i thi^ uihjdroiiA syriiigia meltl 
;«: m^^ :o ^ ^ / ^''.-f^ 1: ,^:i:'L wiliL-h e^jlitlifiea on cocJinff to a 
a::-. :;h- 'IS. :rj_„->;iir-- — IiatL irUti^ iiij«- — Xastoless. ifeatitL 

IT ll]'. Cnmtyer. 

iS ^* „ *:s 5*^1 MU 

;'4 :^ - *i -^Ts _ 6-35 

S" vi . .. :^^ ., . 3s« js-s-* 

*.*':i"=\-* Vl? La>t» lOCKO 

T'- ;•<::■ '.J- I. >y7""^^^ Vl:^=. ^-fti^td deci.^mpoeed below ill 
'".\- ,"■'■■.:, _~v'-".r '^ t"- ■■: "^rof o^Piinol and burning »w«t.— 
:?. 1" .■ *i ::->:< '^ iX" -. ^-.■ ^ '"::■ i: ''t svriapn a4.\iuires a fine dui 
1 1:; .-^ " ..r -v'.." r-ii ■". ^v::>. in ^^^'liJ T<"'I".:rLi^ i>f oii oj vitriol: wilhi 
\.v:z-.' v\.v..'.:y i . ': \-\r.\ iz^ ccbur chanp?ea to a bowrlihl 
v:'!.r. :! '.: ;- \ ■-, 4-.u-.l-.jr '2o:'>«:tjj blut^. und on Kdditkdk of 

\<-.v. r* ^-t-y-'.::-; i- ox>* "''..v, .i ';f>.. iv-? w:ih cbcrrr-red colour i^ 
LI*.* ! x:.\ '•:. Ar-.:'''",U, — ;*. Wh-.:: C3urit?af It heated with fnmsif 
hylT^vK,'"-.' ,1 -i-L : -:;**•'>-:■*; \Ti:r.i: t^ lorati'^n, but on bculinff, thfl 
s \-','.[ ^■. .:ss :,:: ^ i " _' : x' \:>7*:"i ■.'i l-'iiir aud *lcposiifl blue flocn.— 
k \" .i ::,' . -4 */.:.■'" c ^^-r .7^ :'::r'.''U^ which cMiorin^ gaanjmm^ 
,■.' '\\ s * r. >*. - ^v "-'.ta:': ? a irhilo bco:>mca fluite colcHiifc* 

A: :. ; ^.v : -.:—.■ ,v. .;c: I -s f r.^.-L tavi:;^ a MlU'r, irritating tute. 
av. 1 .>s :':.: ^ a lirV-': /: .' ' ".- '"^-.:i [uL\i:iI with fiesquichloridc '^ 
:r:., -r. r^yv'-,:" .V.^ ivts j'^kly in strong wVnc tk:fti, f ormiDg * 
d;o;> I '. ■ ■;-i>.^l * i;:;: -. 

»*, VViio:i A ^'U' f-.s syrboT/J 'i- bvi^oJwith dilate AvrfrarUorK tf4 
tl:,' <'i"I;riH':' ;^^> "/, < v.^^y ^n.- :.;- *i:s adhtrnng lumpdof Byringca^ 

1 1^ lii-u "\^^.'.: -K ■. fir :\; ^ *...i^U -'L 77 p *. *ir-aiT nrtnfimiia 4ad W'^^ 
VI % ] i^> •-•v- th-- j:«-:^' flL ^^CA. t^^^v H^.-^^. <±±i^ ptA. biilimie at tyringr^ ■* 

aiid i- '. : A-:^ " 1 ly -; \j. ,Kr :::.,\i:^. 

*^ :: ;-. .._ — i|-;.' 11",:- --.^_('^.v,',';;^W iyiHjw*. Lon^i C'J'IIJ' 
Ic<s. tr.-."^ i:v\: ' il ", w:;:,!i ^Wr ca 15 p. c. water at H-'^- 

Ktf .. 

5f :^ 

.... r« 

K^n>.>^\iXi „. 

kU -„ 


.... 10i>«l 




Syrln^Tii liiwflolves eparing^ly in cold, easily m Lot walffr. Tt does 
not ffl-Ey*ipitJiip mpiallic «a(u, — Ii Is soluble ill fitcoliiif, not iii ftfief 
(Kj-uinuyei", Xieruaya). 

Appendix to Si/nn^in. 


Toi-ex. K. iJr. Arch. 17, 75, 

EuoKAYiMt. if. Br. Arch. 105, 9. -^ Bis BiUerBtoJfti Erlang^^ir, 

_ Not known in the perfectly pure Btote. — Occurs in tlio bark of 
privet (Lij^isfrtitn miigtirc) fPolea). The bark collected in epriug Goa- 
tmus L^mfjiii and a btLl>bl;mce reseutbling ayriti^ci|jiomi (p. llSO); 
the leaven contain only tJio lattor, Inge tJier with umnnito (Kroiaajtv), 

The dry comminiited biivk is boiled witU alcohol j tbo exliucta 
lalxcJ stith water, ftud the ahxihol complctdy distilled '>ff ; the residue 
is set aside fui' :24 Itours to ilepoait i-eain and vJiliiroph>I! ; the liquid \s 
Btnujied, Bel lo ferrjuiit wjUi yeast, digcwifd witli milk of limo after 
tbe fermentation is ended, to prociptate miign^Bia-ftaltSr — llion 
Gltorcd, exLictly neutralised \Ath dilute Bul|.itiurio add* and concontra- 
ted ; and the gypaum whieh seporatea after a Few days is reniovud. 
The remainder uf Lhu linn; le precipitated by uxalic iicid ; (lie littered 
eolation predf»itat<j*l witli Iwwiic at't'tatt; of lead; IIjo lii^uid again 
filtered; hydi-ofitilphoric acid passed into the filtrate; ftnd the liqiiid, 
aft4?r I'cmoval of the sulphide oF lead, is evaporated over tho water- 
batb, the water beiug i-enewed from time to time, as it evaporateB, in 
order t<i drive ufF the aci?tic acid. The resulting eitract diasulved in 
the smalleet itossitile qnajitily nf boiling alc^thul yields, on evaporalii in, 
crystals of manuitef while fig^iBtria remiiiiiB distiolved, and muHt be 
Bcparated aa completely as poseiblo from admised sugar by repeated 
treatEneiit with st^(:^n4,'■ alcohol. 

In (liis in^iJiiiLT a hygriieoopic lioney-yelifjw extract is obtained 
haviog ft bitter tstst^, l>iit Htifl cnntHining sugar, acetic acid, and 
Bcetalca, This oxtriwt disholveB readily in water and in weak «(;int, 
not ill abtinlutc alcohol or etlu^ri it is not precipitated by alkalis or 
mr'ijdlic aaltg, not even by banic acetate of lead unlil it ie oxidiaeil. 
lie su|ner«ns aolution^ if not tixi concentrati^di acqinreB^ when mixed wJtli 
oil of vitriol, a fine blue ctiloUTT like that of the corn-flower- When boiled 
with dilute anlplkuric aciij, it yields a resin insolulile in water, avd 
llku^-i^c turning bEuo when \ii ulcoholi;; solution i^ mi^cd with oil oF 

If, according to Kromayer, the bark be eKhaueted with hotwat^r, 
dcc^li'm precipitated by battic Lkeotate of lead, the lead re- 
iVt-'^l t'n^im the liltiate by hydroistilpbiiiie ucid* and tho hquid avapo- 
Atod, n bilter syrup is ubuijoed which gives up liffUPtitjpicrin to 
cj:aa'jmlr and ligasU'one to etlit^r, wtiiie lig^ur^trui rcuiaiJiti in solution. 
— The e^Tup conlainiiig ligustrin bns a sweet lasto, ami eithibils the 
blue c<drtnrin;;f with oii of vitriol. When boiled with dilnte giilphiiriu 
acid« JI depi-ieita brown tasteless lumps, which are nciitrali disntilva 
with cbeny-red coloui' In aloi>hul, aud gcpruatc therefrom iu red tinua- 
Ima'ot t^Tfiiiules; th<'y give off <i-4 jj. c. water at 100", ftfid in uther 
fe«i|iectti rotiurublQ ayiingeulu (p. 160^ 

Iv^-^rv^vi i*ii'' i:i>i 1S''> ^miTmx i^ -?iloarof nodOot, ud Bolidifjii 
:::<* .'r«^r;L[iiie 5'm 'a r^iiaj, — X^amL fits a wumniff bhter 
rri.<,-.-. '__ ; iiurs -ii "f ^m ; T»eili^w^»h_ — Reduces amiDOiiiMal iilTG^ 
<>.\-.. .:\. — ioiuT *iVt.*K; :ii "wKifr- j^<ca>:L ftud ether. 


THmUTT yvJiV C"H". 


'-\^\<t A Iav^tnt. Jl-l^ S'tuiL. f^«& o-X IdT i ^KJV. Plarai, 5, 10; 
t I- tv'v, i- . .'>;., "V:^ ■'■-. ;i"; ?o* 149; further 72, 415; Jm- 

r^A. .!x, n:-,-^',\ Ft^ :-. lJ->; ^. pr.Chem. 73, 283; abrtr, 
l.t. ;V-'-t. : ^^ifr?; -"nr/i, '.V«*-. I>>-i, 177, 

I, » > . "-N^-s- >* X 'i»r^wK:rxfl. i?ii«i!s*d at ti*w by FriUKbri *§■ 

;\--. '.-,■., V tI^-^v-.: vii^-< .'T(T ::; tbo dry i^MilUtioD of coil 
V*i' V;::w,v'.".^* *'^i\\ kAi^'-'ivj :j L-fc::rt*:ii; of wood, according to 
Kv.oV.i'v,*.\*--l'\ jt--..\ » ■.-■2::.i r. z:.-: tir. I: i* i»Qtained only ia ll* 
Um li<a*\ i ,1 *:.'*.;--■,;;•■>■-■ r.* vf lit" I'^xil-tmr, ai first together iritli 
ii;*(^!ii::j:. ■_ -^".AVy n-:>. A-y*"v P^ir,;*.- i Laon^tX A comTserciit 
V^**W' '*t' :',;s Kn-i-i, ■,»;■■■ i* i l-i^-TA'a: >r t\«r machinery, ii ytOo*. 
>of(, s<v>^t'fti:*' ' ^,* x\^"-.- \ avA? i> :i;4iaik bendea anthraoeiM^ i 
^■njjlljv. i:;:.'^ h : '^^-^ ',: .\\..\A-..i^ r.v-js.'^ W«« vv)atDeem[:Qrmiiiwticfl3- 

r ..V, -::,-.. Or-.i.i' .- :v/:\ r.ri! i-:;hr^v:tO b dl«li]led from iB IW 
T>'^*n. Aud ihi" Tvlo:irl, Si i^r^^-s «-b)A pass crer at the beniniHfi 
aiv pu's.4is| ti> r\^in-'\o tht^ ^:l a:iJ Luh&'d by n*pfaii*d riyitamwt^ 



over ftt a later si&ge of the dlstUlatJon, are oblametl culourlcBs b^ 
repeated rectiScntion, then purified in tho soma luaiiner (Andeiaod), 

Fvom tbo lost liijuiJ Lijuduuls uF the dlaliil alien, afilltrac^ua is 
obtained in gjaiiia by ctiobng; from the following e*^mi-fliiid poniona, 
only after Ibej" Lave been dUflolvod in tbo smallo*<t pot?aibl« t^umitity 
of oil of t^jrpcutliio, and tbo eolutioii cooled to — ^ 10 , Tlie ^ranulea 
Are woehcd with olcoiioli and diatitled two vx thiee times (DumOid ^ 

Fritz-^che immedlfttely dlssolvea ftnthracen&, obtained by pTesBure 
ajid recryfitalliaatioQ, in boibng benaol, togelbet with cxcobs of picrio 
ocid^ whereby ciystals of the picrate are obtained on cixiUnp. From 
thi^ the antlintceue jjiity bti r^pumted by amujoniar and pniified Liy 
rreryKLallifiiLtiou fr<.>ju a[<;oUo]. 

Pntpfi-tie^. Small coburleaa lamlnro, which exhibit a &ilky lustra 
when imincraed io alcijbol, but become dull when dry. The Iflminflff-] 
which 8t'}mrnlL' friMu Hulutton tii benzol, an: Iohtj ItiuminH und some- < 
whut granular (Anderson), Mellfl at ai3^ {at IM0% fcuxioixling to 
Dumiu* ^ Laurent ; at abi>ut 210", aceording to I'riUeche) to a colour- 
leaa U[{uidi v^Lich eoliditiua to a folia ted- ctyiitallino maaa on cooling. 
Il Bublitues elowly at the heat of [he water-bath, cjuie quit'klj in ihlu 
latuiiueT at a Kirtmgor h^'Jir. and ilii^tils, withont df:com[)OEition, at a 
atiii higher tomperatuiY^ (Anrloraea), above 31)0' aceording to DumaB 
Sc Laurent. Lnodorone if fr«o from empyreamatic oiL TaeteleBH. 
Sp. gr, 1-147 (Reichenboch). — Yapour-dcoailj = G'74 at 4dC° (Dumos 
& Xiaurent). 

DumBB Fi-IliHcho. Amlvma, 

d Luurt'tiL BUtin. 

2S C IBS B4'3S 9^32 ._ 9416 S-flS 

10 H 10 fi'«3 eo& ^ 6-7-* 0-aa 

C=»n" 178 lOO-DO 98'37 !«'90 lOO'Oa 

Tol. Tapour-denftiTy, 

o^TDpouF ..,. ss nsis I 

H'gu ,...- 10 „„ 0-6QI I 

Autliraccnc-tapeur ..., £ ..,. lS-3-tL 

1 6t70 

DumH 4 Lnun-nt ^htc ti«] rormiili O^IP, rJlcrmwdo t^il*. — SuoniftWrin 

I}ecompofatioju. I. AjJihracene disscilvcH in oil o/Hfriul. with green 
C'>lourj and formB a conjugated acid (Dutaas & Laureut, Anderson^. — 
2, Ju oonlacl with iiromiite, cither Uquid or gaseous, it is slowly con- 
verted into bcxbroiuanthiacene (Andeison). 

8> Anthracene exposed to a slow current of chl^rine-^ia for aot too 
long u tiinoT ie converted into hydrocblorato of chloranthracene, a 
small nuantity of bydrochloric aeid gna being evnlved at tlie same 
time. Exp-^sed for a short tiaie to a mpid eunviit of ehtorino, it be- 
comes heatL'd, and f^nna hydrochloric aeid and ehlnranthi-aeene, — 
When heated iu chlorine gaSi it ahBorba a much litr^jer quantity, gives 
off larger quautitieB of hydrochlurii^ auidf and exhihJta nu incrcuein^. 
Bzaoont of eblunne, till after eight dayu, h seinJ-Holid product iq 
obtamedf which, by eolntiou in ether and evaporatirn, is maoUed- l^\ft 

cotfaiD -IT'S p. cv 0, 

faV ciU ^^ 0(bU,- bnt 
6c woiti t^^gr, 1-2 it ia 

■ad ponatm in the 
AtkVtw'< Mibmv «n^ obtuned 
vuer, uid fonitt 


Tilfc hKiIc KJd* obtAuwd four 

MR VtW for ft fpw Fccnn^ 
br p mA* . TV add U nrmOTRl. 

fa «tbet, tau 4111 
lias bent ciiin[itH^lj 

arwndn bj cDolhK wh tpwaHwaPiP nsponiffMi, in sjuull ekuIo 
inM-Q qiu^lr bA^Ird n & W0I lalfiL — Piiaolrpg fai oil <>F ritriol. and ls 
7W p.1*. C, 3-Kn^5<9 K-u»d mO^wbcnoCrftccoirditiE^to Luar<.<ul 

II H c"U\>s sw or tnro", ncf. 

i>e, \v 

B. Ldrntrnt's ihW ft^ ^oiiArvaMM. — I Ve cip i|ftt^ from eolutinn 
brtUnir rtbcf, bv noKar uid i^ablutMHM cTftiimtfnn. m n TfUij<4 

ami wiiiililirfl on nwGft^ to fl «oM nam tamie n|% 
W]it>u hont^ in a t««t-tab^ il |iv<M «ff imMi«, wttid < 

i-t'lloATudi 6odis.. Wben qiuckl}^ bMl«<{, it 4O0ft^ml4^ 

vitTi'il, wiib 1)ni»-n usl'ifj-. jhUil ill h>ilbif akoboltc p 

Bifn* vivliillt* in •■• > mcMS^t\Ma A. — < 

S'il II .[>'AON.. . ^,sgf««[rtg wilbttM : 

i\ HiWfnV< Ajiriha^VimfArwiM0^~O*WtfQ-rcd T^n, very /t»d' , 
ftnd rv7 ■oluble i^ otiwr, iletoutDf wb«ii wiiwnlj beM^ m 7W- 


ing by Blow ovapotation, acid vapours, a cryatallioe Bublimatc, and a 
residue of cbarcoal. — Contains 51'1 p. c. C, 3-6 H., and consists of 
(^"H'O'^SNO' (Laorent). 

D- Nitrite hydrate iTanthracenoM. — If the mixture obtained in the 
purificalJou of the preceding products is boiled with nitric acid for 
several hours or till it is completolj dlsaotvedf the liquid on cooling 
deposits, in the course of 21 hours, needles having a faint yellowiah 
colour, and water added to the mother-liquors throws down an addi- 
tional quantity. These crystals arc washed with water and alcohoK 
■^-'The compound is fusible and solidifies in a mass of needle-shaped 
cryetals; gives off a flocculent crystalltDe substance when kept for 
Bomo time in a state of fusion, and leaves charcoah When quickly 
heated it detcnatea, and emits UgbL Sparingly solitble in alcohol 
ftnd ether. Contains 66-6 p. c. C, 3'6 H,, 5-8 JJ., and 24-1 0., there- 
fore perhaps 0"ilH)*,NO»,H0. (Laurent.) 

Anthraceno is insoluble in wofffr. — It is not altered hy atkaHs^ — 
It disBoives easily in boiling aicohol^ more abundantly in ethfr, benzol, 
And volatile triU (Anderson); espedally in oil of iwpentfrw (Damas h 

CWipouwf with Picric AM, — When anthracene is dissolved, together 
with excess of picric acid, in boiling benzol, the liquid on eo<jlrrFg 
deposits deep ruby-coloured erj'stals, about two lines long (Frilzschej. 
' — Right-angled, probably quadratic prisms, with perpendicular end- 
faces (Kokscharoff). Melts at about 170°. Decomposed wholly 
or partiaUy^ by water, alcohol and ether, picric acid then dissolving. 
When decomposed by ammonia, it yields ou the average 56'27 p.c. 
picric acid, and 44*00 p,C. anthracene (tale. 56-26 picricacid, aDd43-74p.c^ 

CP^ff*) (Frttsche). 

FritzBohe. Andenon. 

40 « B40 68-97 « 58-W 5B-71 

9S «.,..,^ 42 10-33 

13 H. IS 3-19 3-14 3'B4 

14 O ^.,. 113 27-62 

tP^'XK)».(FH» 407 lOOOO 


Ajn>EBSOK. Attn. Pharm. 122, 306, 

ProdDced by the action of a rapid stream of chlorine on anthracene 
continued for a short time only, or by the action of alcoholic potash 
on hydroclilorate of chlorantbracene, 

ijmatl bard, crystallme scales, solnble in aicohol, ether, and hemoL 

Scalst. AndfTBon, 

28 leS'O 79-06 78'74 

a 35-5 16-70 

9 H 9^ 4-24 4'46 

(mJ12> „., 312-6 100-00 




122. jac 



ffM i»fttflacd in s dov streun orer 
VkUiMieQe, wid dteioHllBf HAittttaTctilEBed bj volution in bcnvl 
mud cogKikg, Tiiiqrt ntralnett po l fCTM B J aotiinceDe inio a bottiv 
fflVd witii ihlnwL fiMoh^ ou ^m antlvsocne which remuu 
im&ltcred After 4S k>«n> wilb » rntaH qtMntttv of boiling etb«r. ^nA 
crvstdDiBoe tbe — idiiBottirf portioa from « l>fg« qiuutity ol U^i^' 

lUdoic oradba oAh) -nfrj L«^ (AjodeiKKi); jdloitieli, Bluuuf 
tuni^ foftUe ud voktfle (lAvaM> 

JO n — «»« »« 

loH- - - 111 _^ ♦« 9m 4fm 




ISa^ aobbb in «Jb«>M to ivUch nbo it gived t^> n nnnn 
of lirdradilorio nod. — JbaUe^rtaA canvcrl^ il into iMw 

Bromide of Bromaatbntcene. 

When m alcoholic solalioii of (joUwh ia ponrwl njioit tbu crpOlt 
of 1io^V>rf^ninntliraootK, Ibey Msumo a sulphtir-ji^lbw cobiu, i^^t? 
nir^itiKlv, fUiU •!* tmWm iitto broimdowf j-^Uaft«an ^6 tbttoos- 
j^oHinl" riio muirfcnimtit-D h compluU?d l>y api-lii^tioo of Wl* »w 
tlu' pii»Juol is collecWHi waalied aatl dii(?<L lUid o^-etiJliiiod fw J 

Ujiitf yi;lluw noodles, b^vluff ft fine fiilky lueltie, which nwlu ^^^^M 
puHtul Jiroini-vmliv'ii, at 23^. mv arc :»''»riy ia^>1u1<lv in Cold bow 
atcili huiUnp bf*Ti7^1 w it8 ho»t eolvcnU h"*t t^vi-n of ihia il ^"^B 
luoic ihiKi HHi Umi'ft ita w^jighl; U ia stJll U'sa volulik iu nkuM <" 
otlicr, ciUicr h^jt or odJ. 



» -.- 168 aB-87 » 

4 Br„ SSO 64-6a 

8 H 8 1-ei .- 




O^i'm -« 496 10000 



AiGEBeov. ^nn. i^Aorm. 122, 308. 

A thin layer of pulverised ftnthracene is placed, together with 
broaiine, under a bell-jar ; the mass which forms after a few days is 
pnlvertsed, and again exposed to the bromine- vapours i and this treat- 
Kjent is repeated as long- as the bromine continues to be absorbed. 
The brown mass is dissolved in beozol, and the solution, on cooHng, 
depoeita crystals, which are recrystallised from ether or from benzol. 

Small, white, hard, apparently rhombic crystals. 



28 C 168 EBB3 25-69 

e Br 480 7a'96 7a-33 

10 H 10 1'52 ..^ 163 

C»Br«0'" 668 100-00 - 09-66 

Aathracene turns brown at 176°, and melts at 162°, with evolution 
of bromine. When healed with oil of vitriolt it melts, and gives off 
bromine and hydrobromic acid. Tt is but slightly attacked by nitric 
aad. — With akoholic polaah it acquires a yellow colour, and forms 
bromide of potassium and bromide of brom anthracene 0"H*Br^. 

Sparingly soluble in alcakol^ etkert and betuoL 


UusDrr. Ann. Chm. Ph^. 86, 220; 72, 422. 
Arduukw. Aim, Phorm. 122, 301. 

Formation^ 1. By boiling anthracene with nitric acid (Laurent, 
ABderson). — 2. Sublimes when mtrite of anthracenose (D, p. 1G7) is 
Wtedj perhaps also in the decomposition by heat of the other nitro- 
ocmpoundB of anthracene (Laurent). 

Pr^Miration, Anthracene is boiled for some days with nitric add 
ofsp. gr. 1-2, whereupon red vapours are given off, and a resin is 
lonoed which solidifies in the granular state on cooling. This resin 


"-■; - -. .. .t-ll'-,*^'^ _ 

Ltv-'T-t '':C* Li-:i^i»:':-"T t-^ ^-rx fc:i- ■£! h » compleielT coo* 
Tiri-ri —•: 1---,-, -■ isT-.'^'cT--", ^-L-^-i-:',; z'ljz •:c-:*rx!Z U* diy distCla- 

*-j^. i:.-_i_"kL^.i^ ::at ij*it "t-e ■;.:il~»i i;. & :^i:rT will jutne mad till 
*1 "^ ujui ir T:.lfc:2a«^-i, :T:kr_---^>:-::if ichc Fzi'"-T>mg towards tbe 
^::t .' :i*r Tr-x»='*.». — l-li :"ijir Tr.-nm* ::'r=fed ai tZ^ nme time ue 

Li^TiiT , ■p-I'i,:-: :**:'■ .: ^— J— FrcL r- C'^i: :ci ^ akiobol tbe om- 
jir-.z^i. i* ^7:- T-:'e-i L;. ]::.^" :.-rei^et : ire. l^r-i- C is sJi^iTter Aud nure 
<?.::. j.r^^fi^i rv*:^-^- 7---.-'-r. ^ '...-l^. wtil -^ iko:4npL«hioii ; wb- 
ilB^t* z. l:cy l^»:izrzl i^e^iI-;=_ N^rtr^L- Fre* frtna utrogeu (Li>- 

ffC 1* _ S'^TT _ S>» _ 7v4r _ aE^» 

%H > - S-rt _ 3^ ._ 1-47 -, S-S? 

4 - - K ■■ i?3f „ i$v - is-oa _ i^aa 

c'i-v^ A* .„:>.-;":' i-y-v _ ia*t» „ looo) 

Lkt.-: lire -i* f — J C^HV-" i=£ ^.^^■>. 

<.»i'i'i^:.ra".ie:.\' '.r,? iii j.Iarl:-^::^-;:;! *^ib % »noW flame ind 
w:::. ',.<;; r^-Moe ' Lj';.-'.:ii >, — 1: L- l . i al:en.-i hy hoi A3H/n>cAJone acii 
|hv jf/fii-A-U^, '-r •jiirb-ti; t^ tLn^irc-.iiK nit iTt'n whon fioblimed over 
/jy;i;k-i:ir-': t A:A'.n^-fi t. — WKe;: ' ia:.:hru^.VLO i* boaicd id a tcst-tibe 
with o ■rjc«titr7itcd hyiritxiic acnL wLiie K'aJod rv^mblinff etilbCDB 
Cfindffii*^: ID ibe ni|"<?r ^AH of iho mbe 1? C"IIV + 8111 = C"B' 
+ *4l + 4!IOj fAnd-.-rf'^V 

hii^AM^ Id wM*fT, IHj^snlves in t^M (if7 if HWo/, fonniDg la 
ortM^r^-'-cfili^rired F-Muts-in, iiod id ho; ..U ■! vitrii,-!, fonoing' a deop nd 
MjJaiKiii, nrid i^^ firei::f>iiatr.-d in Lt^ on^riaal ftate W water. — Dissanf 
in tr'iiliijg tjilric acid -.'l fp. fT- 1*4, aud orystalltsoe cm cooling (Aitder- 

S^iariD^fly R'llublt- iu ak'.M ( Aiidcr^m), nearly ioBolable in boSof 
«/W. and iu li"t c-ifil-tfir oU ^LajiiVDl^ Somewhat moro BoluUe ift 
Acn^^'Mhun in ulcobal (Andci^uu). 


Wlion antlimccnc in tK.>ilod with oi trie acid, and portiou </ ifat 
filming' ncid arv ^diknl from time to timo, red fuiaes arc contimMaJr 
t'vii1vi'd« luid thi' nnlhrac^Pie in coDverti^n] into ft njainooa miztvooF 
oxMiilbriinni! ;iui| hihitivixaiitbiaceiio. Fivm (hia mixture the binitioi- 
aiilhnwv'Tjr mny l*c Fejiarated ly heating ^ith a small quantity <rf 
(iUr*-h(>l und onoling, au a rod jxiwdcr haviiif^ vcty HtUo of the cijw 
LiJLu cliaroctcn 



J If ..- 

e H ^...- ..« 

lao ™,.- 

168 ,- 

.... 60-37 
,.,. 9Ui 
.... 2-02 

.... saai 




ras ... 

,.., 100-00 

CbryBoptiaDiG Acid. 

Hi»CHLii>KB Si Heldt (184a), Ann. Phar-m. 48, 13. 
SanUtteaEKGF.It & DoPt-ikis, A-nn^ Pinuiii. oO, 1^13. 
trffOMTSOK. Phil Mtut J. 2h. J&^ ; X. EdiHh,PhilJ,Z1, 187* ./. i^r, 

Ri"HLEi»Eif. flYci?. At>tii. Brr. 17, Hi9 ; Jpr. CTwtt. 66, 948. 
^VAmtiOK Pe I-* RrE i H. Muixbk- C'A<m. Soc. Qu. J. 1(J, 300 j J, pr. 
CJ"f^ 73,413. 
*T,TiLi_\s, iri>7,. J^W, Bo-- 81, 261 Anu,rhann, 107, S24i abalr. 
' J. pr. Cflrm. ".'v lAl- 
<). He-ME. ,4nn. TA^F^vn. 117, 3J3. 

RoaiifiDER & PiLZ, H'rtfi). Akad. Ber. 44, 4!I3 t J. pr. 0am* 8I» 436 t 
t*m. CV-i^-. afl62, 6. 

aifntf <j™/. Parif£ic acid. Paristi m. — DlBCOVCVCd by Scbradcr (iJoW. 
i'tri/'i, ltll9) who uamtd it resinous j/eiiou! of imU Hc^en [htti-^igcji Wand- 
fa^Utnsf^h)-, Ji'St.-ril>ed Lj iIt'rl>fr|irt.T (h^ttrL 47, 2021 a9 Parvtelia- 
tdiam; pri'i>flw*l pure and tnvfJiligmed by Rc»chlLHlor tkllddt. Sthlosa- 
Wrgcr iL liopping afterwards found oLrjfioplmtiic iMad ixi rlmbai-b- 

The collier jiltemptu lo eoparatc Ibfi active c^Jfietitueiit of rhubarb- 
rmt, W Ui llie iiropRmtimj of rnistuios €ffj]ta[[»iiig reniiiH, pxinulivt? 
oiAlU'ra mi'l ehryaophaiiic acid. To tlu*pe belong the £Ii<ibnf-^cTsto^ of 
Trv>iai]iaUorJ (A. 2V. S, 1^ lOLl); t]je rJ'ularb-hiUei- oi Sclirador (iJcr^- 
/a^ft. ia<*7, 23J, and rfalf (5vft^ 3, 2i3, and G, 308), the rfif^tuiitt of 
iluruL'iUftiin (ifo'/. JiJirb^ 16^^, 252), the rhubtirbrriu of Bucbtier & Iler- 
Urg^r (ft*pfrt^ 38, flfi8). Or tho ptjiprirnente led to th^ pn^puriitiou 
of rwinfl, Conw. Eo/iiy (Bull. J'hann. 6, 101), Peraiti {J^ Pfiarnt. 
11, UGJ.— Kidob (Aw*. *?^fl^, fi, 611 i £cMe. 32, 400), Ntuii *-tfi^/. mnv. 
SB, :^3"^», ftod Carpenter (i'i/^ Am. ^T, 0, 91 i A'aj^i. JreA» A, £y4i Mag, 
l^ann. IT?, lJ4j ondravoiinid to profDire a baso friiin rbub:irb> Tln'^ 
i^pivrrbed impure substnTicPB, wbicti, according to Cavontou (J. gi'n. 
6 Putt. Ill, 157) nnd H3hii-EecliGr(A>AiofLt, /irH, Kct'A. iy2H, 165) were 
pMtJy r»f jriotganic nalUTo, and, according t'> Carpenter {StU. Am. J. 
U, J13), did not tveo contain the active coiiatitueiit of ihubnrb. — The 
rhHtiarh-t/rfUff nnd rhubarltii' fi'id if R. Bnimles (Ann. Phfrrtit- i>, 8.^; 
A', ilr, }l rr V !>, !.>), Ibo ifi'ihfirberi/i tif Gfti^r (Ann, Pfiarm, !t. 1*1 slid 
3(^4), Iho rhiih(i''b-yeiJ'»D nf Jonn^ (A^. i?j'. Art*. 9, :J4fl), the fA'-rpi of 
ll!ilk {N. Br. Ar<^i. 17, n) and 0. Honry [J, Pharm. 92, 33ft) may be 
Riguded afl cbryflophaoic add oontalDUig: moreorlefia ream. — Tlie 

lb k^ of QftiJo «ad, wbioh vie 

t, «H> Md QaroC (.V. J, f in. 

Wixip to chfjAopLuilc 

favB Hie not of Sk^^ M^o«- 

{H^^frirL 0* S27) of ohi^ 

ifaovn l^ V. Th&na. uf tk 

iiyfrviC^aljIttn by Rocborr 

pnpmd by Gt^lger [Am. 

4^ 7S) in A MmU ot 

W rittb^Hwriu bftvingpn- 

— bueiQolsof the vanuuBftptfOBiiJ 

laCS, 107}. — GpTtDut rt](ib4rixmi>l 

or pldTCTflCd rfjuharl^'irvrt 

U» nMot pttyid : «MtoMe add fUmd tbiongh th« liijuid » m^\ 
TwnhiaiF iirec^f liBjiii i> »loobtd of &i^ p. c, Vi w^ij>h 
souitl qiUatitT of kjdMe o( poteBshun hu been wliW^I; lUo liijijij; 
llirm Qtcml Uni pw dpl al r d «iftfa wvdc Mid. Tht^ nnvitjknif wfi 
nt«d by flHimtioa b iBjIbJ^ utJa bJng tkdbtH, &\\*\ ilir K<ai]ii^kni> ' 
toiT<l W uid wfttcr »dled. wbweliy cMywjfiwnu'- scul is s^fn«r«t(*}. 
yclt^w Ikx-kim, vdkk-^ in*T be pvifird by nMvyvteUlBftljaxL fn-ni 
(KixiLli-iK-tV — *- iVvrLi jnfyfiiiit a di^caled with n uiUtuiv (Jf 
aU'ohol mill Ammaabfcv better, ooMicpotei^ and liu' Mlu-rtsl fit 
iti ii<tiilrih1tfln1 with MVtSe arM. Tbe y«]loir BodrB which e^pknt^ 
wuahcd by iltvwatjit><>u with walw, ac long- ■■ Ihe woti^t rtintiiiuo* 
tako Mj> luiytbiu^ frun tbroii tbcy ai^ tfaen dimolvud in spirit <<i 
liuiiiri^*^ [i^rtjtflk, ukd tli» aololioQ b |>c«dpit*te4 with ncolic Arkl. 
lihvipil^ktr^ WRfthnlwHliwmtrrAiiilaried at 100", in Wuivd v-Lih ■ 
qttAiiliiy <^i Bb8t4al« aL>:ihd, aud Ili» filtered »i>lt]1irm m lefi lo ^ 
aliiwly.' TU- in^caicr part <:^ th» chiyoopbaiuc b<:u1 tiu^u ^''pu«t«t It 
iri>ldv]i*yi>lk'W cn'#t*lfti which may be obtMned quite pore by t^potlitf 

5. Tic iilcolK^Jkr c^trart <*l rhabatb id wuhed with vralrr, a«lcw 
1^ tliif wuUt I*kc^ luivlbiiijT from it; the naolabtc rcdidur JBdiM 
liver the wnLrr-tmlh. diid ih^^oKinL in Lhe Kmalleel ^HiesEblc quautil)' f^ 
u1(x>TliiI r^f Ml p. o. ; and ihiit »h~<LiilLnr h nkijii'il wiili j^iliert awch 
thrnWK down a miKtiu^o of upon'tiri. r^jjpowiin. aial n^ein, Tb* "hy 
diiVFLrtjihivmi- n4'M obtaint-ii from Ifir iiltmt*^ hj iiiMiWiUf^ nff thi' rlh« 
anri rva]M>rat!ri^i its piiriliol by rrdWitvin>r it it) tl^ eiuitll**! ^iiiv4i>l' 
■[iiLiJiliiy nf alL^ifiirl, iiiixtJi? thr boluti^ii villi rlhor, ai^jL^ij rvajiUTsluif 

fkltruUi, nrid r«4-ry«iu]li«iug th<^ n^aiduu from ether. Tbv crpuk 



thos obtained fire i;rftalied wltli cold ether, whiob, after the n?Bm haa 
beeo removed, dispolvof hut Uttlc nf the cinyaophanic noid (yililosB- 
bcr^r& Dcjppiug). — 4, Pu] venae J rhubarb- root raacerottid with ivjiter 
mid drj-^d ^gaiut m eJ.bau^L«d m a percrrlatoi with tx)nimor<:]ul bcii^'^ul for 
light rr^il-tar oil) jmd the greater part of the henzol iadifililleil Dff, 'trie 
residue llieo solidifjiDf^OQ oualhig to a cryfllalline puJp. Thmia preaRod 
botwoun btbuhms paper, afid 'purified by solution in hot IkjdiioI, fmni a 
e|3ariiigly eoluhle red<hsh-jellrrw body, which partly roniaiiis Ix'hhid, 
partly svparatew fmiu ihc hli^litlj cooled liquid- Tlie Bolulii>ri ii< left to 
crj&lallisp, and the rctJulting eryfltalH a™ purifirjd by Heveial re<;ryfltal- 
lisflti'^na, flrat from benzol, and fiunlly from glaeial aoctic add, imyUc 
alcohul, or common alcohol. By thifl process^ chryftophanic Eicid may 
he cbtaiDod from the residue of the preparation of alcoholic rhabarb- 
tin4;ture (wbich yields 2'G p, a of it), and from the de[JORit w1jii;h formti 
in tbia tinetnre (De la Rue & Muller). — 5, Thfl coarn^^ly poundod 
roots of JiuvuN: obtiisi/otiim are exhuuated in a percolator with imhy- 
drouft ether i the p*tftter part of the etlicr ia distilled off i tho brown 
nka«s which aeparates Okftcr cooliu^,', Is collected on a fiUer, washed 
with a small qiiiinUty nf ether, ant] diswilved after dryiut^ In spirit of 
90 p, c : the dJrtj' green granular maBB whieli aeparatt's on ciii))Tng, 
ie purified by repeatiKl solution in alcohol and pr^^cipitation by u-ater; 
ttixa the puribcotion i& completed by repeated application of fnc Ireot- 
meut described at page 172, 2 (Rie^el. v. TLiiin). 

OhifT meffintlf. The etherail extract nf rlinbarb-rnot IR freed by 
difltillalion from the gi-enter pait of the ether, and the crystals which 
separate irom the remaining: liquid are puriticd by repeated cryBtiilliBa- 
tieiQ from aluohol of 75 p. c. { Brandce), — Alcoholic tincture of rhubarb 
is euspt'udf J in a larg'e quaiitily of cidd water ; the undiHe<:!lved por- 
Uon in disftolved in boilinj^ wati-r; tho impure chrynophjiTiiu seid» 
vhlcb Beparales aflercnoliuf^ is freed from foreign matters byropoaleil 
ccilution in boihu^ water miJ di.^pOEfition by cooling, tbeu dissolved 
m anhvdroim alcohol ; the alcolioi la distilled off; the residue dissolved 
ID <rlhfr free from waler arid nh'oliol ; aitd the greater |3nrL of tht' 
ether i* distilled off at n gentle hestt (Oeiger), — The turbid aquenuB 
solutioii i.if rliiLt>Lkrb -extract is mixed with excces of cauetie urumoma \ 
volution of ahmi is added ae lon^ aa a red precipitate IB thereby pro- 
duci.'d i thia lirccipitalo is decomposed by dilute Bulpiiuric acid; mid 
Ihe sqiaratt^d chrywiphiknie ^cM \^ punfied by rucrytsMllisulion frum 
ftlcidiol. Jind then from ether (Gejger). — Tho alcoriolic extract of tlio 
nwit f>t /fwwffT ptiti'enfia h Kosyjerided in a large i^uaiitity uf c*fld waters 
iho portion which rctuains nndisflolved is. washed with cold water and 
covered while still moistj with ellier; the ethereal sobitIi>n is left to 
evaporate, uud ihe ret^idue In iv^k.^lied with alcohol and then with ether 
(Oe»ger). Riegel dietila the greater part of the ether from the ethereal 
oilract of the root of Ruma obtuf^ijhtuis, and puritiea tlio crystals, 
which separate oa cooling-, by repeated ciyatdlliBLhtion fruin alcohol of 
75 p. c* 

F'irijhathm acctyrdittsf to Hi^cMrdiT J- Pilz. The ftlc'iholic solution \r 
mixed with neutral acetate of leiul, and tilteredj t.lie fiUnite is fix^ed 
from lead by aulphuiic acid; ^ndtbe cryBophonic acid is proeipitQled by 
water aod repeatedly crystalHscd from alcohol, whereupOEi the rpsiu 
diA^uLvf^s <;biet]y at fii-et. the purest chryaopliacic acid appearing to 
be tlie luBi^t t<cbible, 

■ttciWed iieedlo, bftrinr * 
■tt^lio aMholf or glaj-ul 

lik^«f tWliH won iWtfKwl 

liOD^O _ MMO — UNKR] -. lOlKlO 

pndrtvB of 

f^wwli 1 MB—K thai aalT tApfn* eTn^KirihiuiiD »Ck4 ihlhMt 
ivcr 4hi i^ iBd « It lh» pwM « afl- — 11» aua#a iiartilii «id 

4^Sud6M^cv«hsn^Htp«|v. H^ lauded hCU*0i*hi1 VW^yW 
iLfj <rcTi» ndh »«diju M unynn <4tjB»lM ii tf v^d- — T\t^ rtolKrW «•' 

ftonwliti^ h* HiHB It ii psbaps C^"0* and iiwfcirti nirh mlwjttiulr oi 

wimXjmu uii niirlt ]I«M«^ opiHiDft VM funuDil udotthllUi (Kr*), 

i><«Oii^HUpVMU. 1. When dtr^-soph;inic add !b eti^tigly hl/vj 
pArt of it clccoinpnTCe hUd MkoUi«T porti<^n euMiiTir^ t;n'lrcoiii] 
2. lii^ymi/tc fend MJonW ■|^3e«t' to act l"it slightly .>ij it, jutil 
uJli^i lljr pillow iMlnur: l^iit a miilaiv of rhknitt of' J 

fl. nitiitt' r>itn: in:i\i iWit imt ocl t'U iiu,vai>^'I;>iuJk; «kjU vitu a1 ^ 
Wliiif^ Ijrnt; Uit strung iiildo lidil converts It itiU> n rvU HuUliMA 



which forme a splendid violct-rrd eolufi'in with nqucoiia nmmonia, U 
Xtf't ftllcrt-d by ftcctic add, Imt avJu-u ln-llfJ avIHi poUjili tilven <rff 
HiTimoiiitt, mid iU'ikviIih jl viulrl fiiliKlaDuts iii>4)]iible in tvjW^i (Rih:1l- 
IotIlt & n£>ldt}. — J. 1 1 In iiiif, altoiy.'d hy boiling or evapurnluin wiih 
polaeb-loy, but decomiweee wliwo fuaed foi- notiio tiriio willi hirnvn of 
pot%tk, ^'uiittiitg an odour of cupi^ylio alcohol (Dc U Hue & Mtillor) ; 
with cTolntion of h_vdri»g^3ji ami f<jfiiiatiou uf BCJ'k aiDelliiig like 
valE?rittiiic nr oupniit ndil (Tlpfisc'). — 5, Obiy»oplianic acid dissolved 
in £*»7 ^ tfim'n! is docomposod by addition of pentztdt of mnjiffajtcge 
[De Is. Itae & Mulk'i). — 6. With cJiionde of acet'jl it forms acetyl- 
chryso|*hftiiic acid : , 

(Rochlcder & Pih), — 7. "Wiion a solution of chryaophttoic acid in 
cKcviHg of potatth-lej, from wliiuh, after ataodu»^ for some tiuie. piui 
of thi.' I^ili-rtalt hafl Ikhti d^'i^^HiLed In vii.ilet-rud floclis, is dJg^'»ltd 
ft>r eonic rainr^lea jq ^ doaed flask with ffjvtpe-^r/^ar, the liqurd, wliicli 
line at Hnet n vi'>l*?t-rod colour, changoa to brown-ydlow and disflolvca 
the Bocks, If eipoat^d to the ;\'\v iti t^ shallow vtsflsel, it again doposita 
Hockiit luid acqujri.^a a led ci;loar (Da lu Rue ^ Miillei). 

ComAjwjfio/jjj. CLi^fiopbonic acid is ucarly tusoluble ia cold vfoter. 
Boiacwhat uiorc Bi>luhle mhiiliiiff water, to whiob it iinjhartd ft dcop red 
colojr (SchloBsberg^er Jt Doppiiig^j, — It iljifsjlvta in wi7 iff ntiht M-ii\i 
Bph'iidid n-il c^l"nr, and is [iTvrij«ljitf^l by water, imalt»rud &ud in 
y^'llnw flocksi (Sclilos8herg*'.*r & Dopping-), 

It dia^nlvcB eaeilj and with tino rod colour in [iqiioDiia atmnonui and 
the Jlrrtt ati:atvt, the aniiQfmLacal eolutioa ^vei4 off all its ammoaia oij 
pi\<l"itj^(.'d builia^T &nd ii^viug tht; acid in its original ataltr (Rochludt'i' 
& Hchh). 

Chfpfoph/mate of Ftdofh, — Tht: jHoUitiori nf chryfiophaaic aoid in 
«xc('«« of moderately dilate |>otafib-ley, depoaita^ <^ii nUadiii^' or cou- 
Centrntion, vi'dot-rod Gochd of tUe notarLh-tifiUi which <liriiLulvo ill 
vnkiriv ttud ill akxihol (IWhIcdtr & Il^ldt, Dc la Rjc & Mailer J. 

C/in/^tijihaittitr uf Ti'tnffn, — Wh^u diryi^uplmnic and la billed with 
barytn-wati.'r» rv*\ fl^.-cltB arc obtajii(?dj which tiini ytiUow ua eiixisunj 
tt tliL' air, arid ari- o'^ri verted into a mtstnro oJ carbonate of baryta 
oud chrya^^phunic acid (Kochlcder Jc Urldt)* 

FroiD M\tinfu>n ^•/nlmn. nuiriiuqiBcal ckfjiophauii; tkM ihravia Iowa b prm^pilDla 
v€m fijii' fvtc-rml wiuur (*- TIiiLJLqJ, 

Cftrysuphanfili uf LttnL — A\\ amnjoiLiftcal solHtbn of chrynnphnnic 
nc-id f^rmn u liW jm^cipiuj-te with nt'Utml ^CL^tate of load (v, Tluinti), 
Vn>u\ tio^it^ ucutLLli; of Jirad it throwt^ do\s^ it dciiKO while yf^llowivh 
priK;i|nl*iU\ whkL chari>i;cfl tn n canoinc-ci^lourcd jolly 'ka addi^iua i>f 
wau-r. and lK.'c<i«ii7rt ciiiaabLiT'rcd when dry. — If cipoa^'d t* ihe air in 
thr* mfiixt HtatC) it ac^ain'H a yi^lluw colour from jtiirlial dtToiit(»oHiliaii < 
Iwtici*. ih*' qmutity of lead-r-xide o"ritiiin/?d ia it iuia bet*" found to 
Tftry frcjm ljU-US to fjy-3M p. c. (Rochledei). 

Cl»r>**jphaaic acid dienolveB at 30^ ia 1125 p(a. oF /ihaturi of 
Hfi p. c^ and iij 'J2A pie. of boiling ukt.rhol. ll dir^H'jhes in tffim-, fflucial 
flic a^o/i^^^^mih peculiar facility inJ|^^^^^|^^ 


ptiMAiT sfTcun CFV*: dxren-xccLErs cs^o*. 


I ■nrteau* tad oottfw tDor^ftnt^ villi durn 

AppcB^x to Cbr&c^faAiiu: Aod. 

M Ar wctaiAlnaof dinreofJiAtuc ftdd fn«n 

Ebafattb(fb Itty tW Tvm^mbt wUe^ it but mria^ljr boIuUc m cuM 


«W^L UJiBWlJ, hiWe poBB^ MnngTig bo the uL1J<|Uc iineiiuitic 
(BuwWc)^BMs.«fleatwoiKbBilm£. Doca not moft belu w gSf, 
W » ^mD pTtibn rf it Tohtgjai ■ tajArw Taimniv. ci>riileQ^H 
»■ oa wUcb aolidttB n ihft ttrnaSBac stAte. It onT;tAliiR,l^B 
ftTMlCth CKS p-«- <MK:e» 4-10 i^rdw ^ Ptt, ud S5'jE7 oxv;:Tt]. AIWVf^ 
Inr te tt« fc«M^C«fl*0>- («ile.C^&^ p. c^O, ud 4 16 IL) Lib 
d ujwu^ii a aod. It fcio lr ci m «q«eoav m iwj< m^ foniuiai; li rUM- 
tvdliqi^ vIm^ «Wa«f«fnnle4 MTf*«iv»daelPBeftv)tn uniwnsL 
Witli tte MMM* aolqlMs «r ^ktjM oUaltf, it befaavM like dirj^ 
|.ln.iiiu nM. lil liiilliMOTinl iiwgj Ihaii i!»i mil in akohat^ fiadti 


ld> ud 

I. Aftntm^ — Wbc« tbc HiKtan of UKUVtin [dveorvtiD »nd 
wKip4tai«d hj «tbrr uitbe p CTfrari on of dnrjB»pliajiic bcid by 
St is tnftUJ vttli iJcoM, ^otni rMMin* bmnd, and mav hi> 
1^ AnJtttkw HI potiA w wipiulin o vrilk dihit^ sulnbuncr »ca' 

Ibnwin ftknboBc iMMti^tiMIO^ iftcr lonr "Uodiof m wiuduad witi 
iJeohol. diiftilTiMl m yrtaiA lpy. prtdplftlcd Vj byilrcichtnnr u-ifL inii 
iFMted wil&wMcrwl ilH-hol «Mn»if«ljr (Dc 1& fine & MtilltrV- 
nUk, ^Iniic. ra7 MiU» »n. «ail«mng &8-^ p.e. ouboa. 111 
tij ilivi|rBi^ KM Sfi-T^ 0171^ <SdbiloMbenr«r & I»|^g^ 

lIoiLU^ airiF m^ cnavcrta it into nudie tuiti And a j^ell'tv niljv- 
ouin]H)uit«i |v^i^|i«U; dbxyvammk add (liv, I) (Pr b Rue ft lluU«r>. 
Aiv^tvtib n iMohiUo m iMMr, b«l difisotvt^s wiih Uv>wa coIokt 
ai|iw4(ua ^MiiMWi* MMl^atepL ^ It i» iiMrty ii»c4iiLlu in ahoM, 

8. /PVAnwrft'ii, Dow not oocdt in ihc n»t ff Qcmnftn ittt^a*! 

fl^uii I' ' ' ^«>)1llVkio acid hJU cryalAlfisod (prrpanrion X ji i7rn, V'i 

1» nliiniMiHi *iy »'\«|(onUiBg Iho mothrr-liijuor, v^k a m^rljr Ui»t«iMk 
rliiilHuli-i<ll"W pwdflt.— It cuolainBv 0:1 tlio iiv'i?rup, BS-OI ^t 
HHilxiik. hV.VI lij iboffou *Dd 51-40 DxjKVOt contsp- ^tiding lo iIm* f**- 
I1111U r^ll^V^* ^.itlr. S»«fl 11.0- Ch4-W H^ bid aiiJGOt — h tottna 9 
i.HillMu' wati»r, n^'lt* vekwh A«tf«t g^voe off _vH^*w fumf^K, gud 6M?ei 
dintmml.v (^fln^u-tH*J^* cinwr*!. — li i» very Uitli* *-OiiW*» ia V4«tf-TNI 
Im^HkitAtti it « f*i"t vvH*>w roKmrj di«j»c4vcfi in n/ rv^ nFrn/ witli bD«i 



aUboiin Olid in amrnontat with fine ]>urplo-red colour, ftiid ifl pretipitJitod 
hy iKiila in ydlow coherent tifTcks. 

From RolulifHi riF nni!riii ncefaJB 0/ Itfiil, ammooincftl crjtliroretin 
tliniwn ili.twii a violt'l-i'eil |»riTijjrtJitOT wlijdi uUi-rs qitirkly 111 iiir i?[;n- 
tainiiiff tarboiiic acid, Uoiitman on ihy averaft"e H>"b [\c. t-arboiiT i"36 
hj'dn^goo, ld'54 oxy^u, and eil'27 oxide of lead, but is obtained of 
different c<mip*>aitioij by different modej5 i>f i^rtporatJODp 

Eiythrorelm disriolvtrt ciLHily in utrnftof, lesH in crha\ mu\ in aceth 
iicid (ScbfoRsborg^r & Doppiog). 

4. Phtsotttin. From tlie mixture oj uporttia a»d pbaiorctin pi'eci- 
piliik^d by rtber in tbti pi-<'|ianit.[c>r] nf i-bryMijibunlu Jidd liy uu^lboJ 
3 (p. 172), tbt; pb*or('tiii luivy lie dia^iolvod up by iikoliijl, and reprp- 
cipUiited by ether. — YdIIuw-Uy^wu pi^wden Imvin;^ a faint odour of 
rhaljftrb wlien lujutcfJ.^It contaio-s 0*1 tbc iiverat''c, &9'60 p.c. curboti, 
51.^ hyjruf^n, uiid -Ij'Oj nxv^i^n, (^urrespoutliug' witb tljo formula 
(?»n^"0^* (''^^lt\ ^^t^■27^.!., 49f> IJ.. niid 3^4ri 0.)— /fMif/i on [ilatimim 
foil, it luetts nud givew otfyollow v&pom's. — Colours tvnUF faintly 
yellow, aud disKolvcB In it with diflicuJty. — Diaaolrea in oil oftitrioly 
and la precipitated in ycilow fli>cka by water- — Diasolves easily with 
dark r(.'J-biowu ei^liiur in aqiicoiiK alknlis, juid iw pii^c^ipllaii'd Lherefroni 
by acidn. — From its ammoniacil eobition nfiitm£ iicrfiif€ nfhini throws 
down a violet-red precipitate, which easily altera wlicn waatied with 
waler nnd alcohol, and contains nn the average 20-3& p. c, U.* 1'60 H,, 
13-48 U,. and C4 50 PbO. — Phitni-etiu dififeolves readily iu aicottol^ and 
witb yellow colour in aceUc acid (Schloaaherger &, Diippiiig). 


Cor{jugated Ooritpoand of Ctn-ys&pJtmdc Acid. 
Acetyl-chrysophanic Acid. 

^ocm^vsty-n Si Pn,7. Wien. Akotl. Brr. 44. 4M|^ Chrm. gi, 439; 
CVi«n, Cfittr. 1S62, fi, 

Fannfttion rmd Pfepnr^rion. When elnyHophanic arid in gently 
heiited oil tbo wattT-balli with chloride of acetyl, the eoudensed varloiirs 
bciu^ alh^wod to liow hucli again, it diHflolveB io a brown yelU^w liquid 
vrilij copLona evoinlion of |iydr<.iL'li!oric acid gua. From tbia li<]iiid, the 
aa of chloride of acetyl iseipf.'llixl by afetream of dry carboEiic tteid 
_ at 40^ ; the reaidual masn it* coinplcTely eoveied wilh pmatl nuaii- 
j*«of cth^T, whjcli tiikew up lh(.irefiin ; aud the light yellow i-eeidue ia 
dieeolved in a large i"]noTitity of e(her. The ethereal eolutioa* Altered 
aud cvft|xJnitpd, yields cryatala of aectyl-chr>'aopbaniG add, while a 
biiiwii rusin remahis iu the ruothi^r-liijnor. 

Small crysitals, of a lighter yellow colour than chrysophauk! 

WC , ,,-335 „,.., 06-9S 

22 H... .,.. 28 4-39 

le O 141 „ S8-fiD 


<^EK» flOa 10000 

...... loo-oo 


1 ^rr: '"-^ : ^.. -T "-:- ^ ::;=i3L. i^ier vam^mg Mat wmm tinw. 

?^7iE3r _i - 1. .-V/r-.. '-^ : •■ , k^sr- =fcfl-«. 0*=r_ 1M7. H9; S. 

S^:r'£rf'K I Tzi: ;- T>:rf-: r »<i a Tr»;«d for eet^^ml dm 
»h' -v;- T4:^:, :^ rrs ^v ri-- r7*:i:Tr ;*rt 'the f<RLdiii-bhterr tie 
rfsri-^ ■» Trvstft-'L T-iA:»f-L k^i; ;i2.i=HCi:*i wiih ftroug- alcohol ; the 
z^^i^rr^^: ziia joci^-^'i * fT-ir'^^t^i : ' *?7T^ i^iT-^rU added; tndtht 
*^r(tTi::->fTi s i-:ii — tit-t uv «'7;tnt--i."rTtri?'A:r:iv"rwitlieovpr»lfiwh 
p;:^.CT .TTi::- fr-i: :J': r^"iLi>jii^ Tt_'r-c. o-.crab^j^niianicaddiht, 
T^i^i::- iT-'i ^'>rz:::^-:i:--cr. Tu ^ :7wti :"r:E tai 1-5 eiber, and purified 

i iin' t» ■^>->,"i rv: 3? -j_i^::i-:5'i T.ti t:iK^- liie (tfaerdiBtQIedfniii 
:hv -.itr' :■:> ii-: :^"i -r^-^'i'^. :--::■; -ir-:! i^-.i ■ -i ^0 p, c. The tinp- 
X-^Ty\iK\\\:-^-A "> T,- >:ts^:^ .wii'i *:;;*:■.:'■,'; v. d^rUJ^tion in a wator-bath, 
Li'jv^-Ti i :7\i.'^\\.\ . r.-^di-:, ^vl :> ^i-i^-i rx-tvaiedly iriih smiU 
quiz::::t'i? :-.ti.:- i:, i ji^rfr-i ":_t ■TA>il:.^- w::b a lililo coldatobol 
pT>L^*#i7.-, ir." r^-.-rrs-ilS. .J ': v ':■ !_:, - ^»!^ ':, 1 (H, TrooimsdATf)- 

ihf ;iir. V:.,-^-: ,-\i' '■. :.: J; I... Mv-i I >h-^ lU lu&tre and tnntf 
brown u; ^■"' !v».:..,7-, v: .;* ■-' Lnv '^io\. SabUmeB w^u cio- 
tioiis^ly 1:..;:<d ^Tr z:.\\.<i.T^^ .<: ;^ **-^''J»'- iBaumert^ in yelloT ti- 
P'lire, ivhLh i\ :.-ii:.*^: ;:. :L'. f rr.. : f-r.^' veU"'W iie<?dlee, Acoffdin^ 
to Ia^vuU' iir,*l Riur.>'7:> tV. ■ j:TVj:rr (^n i* ihctvby ca]bozul^.'d; atf- 
ci^nliHg- to T^^ r^-u'.sii' r:T* r:^uJ;:t u maiiis, — Tasieloee, neutriL^ 
Without rtoiio:i vii thtf ■^rirjv.>"; i^i J?ksc-i wToralgramnicti (Lecooii-Ji 

t^v'j'f, niAU. 

ii» ][ 1. ;***: 116 



Thfnvipmtitin^ 1 , Ry htnt (p. 178). — 2. ChUit-jn/j paaaed into an si- 
coholicfloiiilionfif f^^ntiauJoQcidf Beparntoa pale yolbwtliUiOfl cod laiaing 
chWinc^a. AV-Tc iiciiioi Rp. gr. I'W oiiverts it uitv^ mtro-^fntianii: 
ftdil. Frctm a Jsolutimi lu weakur ij|ti Jc actd, geutlaaic ociil Ih ^jivci|iit!LLotI 
hy wukr mjthaiigod ; it in nnt iLllcn'd liy very diluto nitrio !*cid. On 
fiS*iitii5Ji of ^utiauic fldJ to fuming nitTk flcid, n TitJout reuction 
occurs, iiicrcaein^ to ipiition if the uustiirc bo beated, iu wLidi cabOj 
pQrt of tiie acid ia carbojiiacd. From the carefully prepared euluLiijij, 
water pnicipitatos ii yellow jjowder (Kt* 7Vrti*7ra-y*fl/p*T*i^ oi?»rf). Gea* 
tianic acid evaporated wirh nitriri add leaves a. slight reeiduo, free 
from oiaiie acid, — -I. Melted with cau^ic pntoslij it is coloured, first 
brown, then lifi:hter. without developiiient of g^a. On nentriilifiing the 
liqatd wiih diLiitc t^ulpiburlc add. mid evapninLir]^. a block mibss t'e- 
fU3Uit«, frnm whieh ak'nTi<d laki's up yellnw iii;edk'H nF a jiotnflli-saltj 
differing from oxalate of potasL. — 5. Ou distillation witU bichtmitaU o/" 
potash aiid Riilplmrio acid, tiarbomc &nd formic acids are produced. — 
6- Ueutianic dcid reduces Bilo-cr-sfilis (liuumert). 

Cvmhijtathiis. — With Wffttr. — fn'iittaiiic add diBSolvca in 6,000 
jartscold, aud b S^^O [inriti boiling- wuti^r (Lr^ajiitc), In 3,li30 parLa 
ivaleT at 16"* ( Biinniert). 

It is Dot altered In^ naueoua auiphiirous, h\fd'-och{QriCy or acatic odd, 
and not more fretdy diHrtulvf^d tiuifi by watin- (BamncrtT Lftif iritis), Tl 
rcEuatiie imdianfi-cd rafter b-iilfu;^ fiir days wilh <liluic eu/phurk inid 
(Baumerl |. 

J ritwrati^d vi\i\i dnhifdi-imt BUtpharic acid, if ro I mating t^kefl place^ 
it forme an olivc-^eeu liqnid; rtil vf vitriai poured upon it pi'oduoeB % 
ye)\ovf »i)bitiijri. It is scpar^Lted fr'jcn tbeee combi nations by caiboimtfi 
of baryta, or by v^-ater, iu its <jn<;iiju1 sMt (Duimiert). 

With ifajct. — GentJaiuc acrid disB'jlrcs ri^ftdily in aqueous alkali^ 
■with fine golden-yellow colour; it exi>oI& cnibonic flcid froro olkaliod 
cnrbr)tiHl^r<, Hhd furm^ tryHtjiMisablf.- compouiuls (Ti'oinm^doi'ff). Tt 
cnmbinefi with Imaea in vnriouft prnp4*rIione, mthout plimiiifl.iion of 

Wfllor, Tliin tiplmpioiir rcquirtfl Further uKitniinal ion fKr,). The lUoiBt flaltfl 

«r gtnlianic acid are padially duaoiipofled by flie carbonic «dd ef the 
aIt (Uuumort)^ &tn< also a&ntiainiU qf ntda. 

Genliaiuilf uf Potnflh. — a. Mono-acid. — Wlion cuii^tle pdtflpli aud 
ti6iuc acid are boitcd with alcohol of liO p> <i. until all the aoid is 
ved, aud the llipiid la filtered fmoi tiic luiditioolvcd |jOtaab, 
n-yellnw ueedles of b separate on cooling, :ind frnm the njotlier- 
wjiior ciystalfl of a are f^^rmcd. Those last lose 13"25 p. c. water at 
100' ^g m. ^ laaCp. c,no^ (fctaumert). 


10 H_ 

ID 0„. 

... JfiB 

u> «^„ aw 

SO 20Be 




c«H*ow,KO ,._ , _,._. aofi-a loo-oa 


t. Fht-Jb^trtfis 9 -^ Prrparrrtion, bpq abotr, — Oildcn -ydlow. Bllky 
^"^'^'fli-B, inrrifietl by washing wiih alcdhol. — They givo off lfi'^7 p-d 
100' (sS(i( = in-aop-r-Ho.KBaumoii.] 


a<100*. Bmuuert. 

4 KO.. IfiS-a .^ 1277 .-^ lS-11 

^^K & C>'H»0',4K0 ,... L47a-B .... lOO-OO 

c. Bi-aeid. — An nlcoholJc Holulion nf gpnliiinic ;id*l ift miit^i^ wilh ^i 
aqiioous sMiiTioD 4~if carbona:^ or potash in encli proportion thai no icid i> 
&4'piirated t the mixture in ovaporatcd ^ and the i^eiduc 15 cxhausled vrAh 
aloobol ">f 90 p, c-> from whicli, after long: atandiDg, goldeno^rllow 
needles ci jetalliae in radiated groups. Tbey lose 4-67 p- c water al 
100° (Sol. =. 4'5i>.c-HO,) (Buninert). 

ai 100*. Bnuncrt. 

L a C™IP>0" 61B-0 „„ SIM 

■ KO „..^ 47^ ,... a-M .„, 8-4 

■ 2 C'^**0">,KO &6S-a ^. 100-00 

fJi.Hii<fnftli ti/ S'idi, — The 8oda-PiiI Is <if ^(.■iitianicaciJ conlain 1, 1|. 
J, niid S ill. acid f<* 1 at, »n1a. — Thi*y iTyfllifcllJTWJ readily^ in pttdeo- 
yellow ruwdl(>B having an nlkalino reacUon ; those contftimn^ watcrof 
eiyetnlLt^ulion deliquecco in the air. Thoy uro easily soluble in inter 
and in alcohol* but art- resolved by m\ich water, or by rcpeAtH 
ci'ystHlliflBtLon from Alcirhul, into genlbnitr acid &nd Hoda. Th(*j arr 
completely dpcomposed by carbonic acid. 

EL MoTi'j-'idfi, — The alcoholic eolutton uF l> la cviipor;i(od t*- •^^• 
nffls vilih carbonate of poda. and the residue exhautilcd with ib^.^u,!. 
flIeohoL The crynLaK purified by n^ei-ystalliRatinnj aregr)ldon-y<r)J<v 
and deliqueece in the ftir ; they lose 20"14 p^ c. w»ter at I 
Vd at. = 19"fl3 p. c. HO)* and (uni brown, — Obtained nlao by [li»soNuf 
Rentianic acid \uii Milulionof cautiti^^ rt(xU,trapnating, aud^xliai 
the reMidJuG with aboolute aitx'bol (Banmert). See nlu c. 

28 C Ifia .... 66-08 „,. &9'0i 

^^^ 10 H ^.»...,. » to .... a iS .H.. 3-ffl 

^^K 10 O „._ BO .... SJ^ ^,, a7'M 

^^^ S»0... 31 .,., 10-ftl .,.. 10G4 

f C^'HBO-^nO ,.,. »80 .... lOOHXJ ,„. 10(H)0 

b. ^«*fVM3^ — Gffriticuiic acid ia b':^il(>d with alcoh<il anil 
of Bodflbi BO \*>iifc aa otivlhiuK ifl dissolved, niid the ucedlca wi; 
on cooliHE' are recryfltallifioa from absolute uloo]n>l. Contwtia Domtd 
i)f ct7i(tulli8Alii>ii (Baumert). 

84 .. 604 .... toSG .... aO«» 

aoH - ao .... SOT .- I'M 

»0. ..,., wo .,., aS'fll ... «»2B 

aX^O..^ -.. ga .... 7-47 ..^ ri!7 

■ BC»TI"0*aXB(> ,., MB ... lOftOO ..,, lOOiXt 

^L^^A|||l*/bur'rA;i f — Wliefi a Fioiulioit of ^'iitiuiiic uoid in cttikflif 
fiBnirVTnp<>niti.'0 alniont li> dr^zifH^, and the rjvHlultint^ rrstJur * 
Sn*iolved in aleftlml of 30', Innji" ^il'i'^'^'.vellifW undle** are obOirtfJ 
on eo-Aini^i vthioh, at KM>%uittumoa reudish colour, audlMcSSp-c^i*' 



Iheir woigliL They dwwK-o in J5"7 parts rjf cold, aud iu 10-7 parts 
of boiling: alcohol cf 30*; thi? *nIiitii"»Q depneits gentianio acid on cool* 
log. Thfy are defromrjosed nlr^o ^y water and by carbonic ocid i the 
gentianic acid prcri^iitalod by the latter is white, but Hims yellow 
wben dried (Lcconie). 

AtKording ttt Bttumvrt Letvrate. 

7 C^H»0» IBOG ™ 93-BH .... 

4 rf»o — iM .^, flia .-- 6-81 

7 C"Hi°0'*,lNaO .,. lUflO .... lOOtJO 

<L Tm-'aciiL — -Aniiiturc of rtlcohiili'; geiiliaiilc acid with aa nuica 
aqueous s^ilntiuEL of earbonato of enJa as ollq t)o adJiHl ^yithmit tbrow- 
lug down tLi; acid, la evaporated to drytieaB and eilittimtcU with alcobul, 
— Crystals, gmag off 10-1:3 p.c. water at 100° [lo ut. i=^ lo-oa p. c, no.j 



..... T74 

.- 9615 


3C3"H»tl«JiM:» -, 

.„. »6 , 

,- lOCHKJ 

Gmtiaitatfi 0/ Bar^t'i, — Basic. — An aq^ieous eolutii^ti of chloride of 
baiiam or acetate of bmytu precipitates uothiiig, orotily the acid, f'cina 
alcoholic g^cntiaDic acid. A aolutiori of tltc acid in alcohol ia precipi- 
tated with liaryta-W]it<'r, atid the; orang^t-enlourcd tlaki^H aiX' washed 
and dried in a vacimm over BHlphurie (icid iind qmck-lirae. The salt 
abfiorba carbonic rapidly' from the air (BaumerCj. 

C^HiPO" 259 .... 62-76 

SBbO , iGa „., H7-21 . . 37-80 

C^TPKJ'SSBbO *11 ... 10000 

Oarhimlt {TraiU. 3, 7S^V) anil WffUtien {Verlynd. 601) iiippoM thin compound 
lc L^ontain 2 Hi, voXff. 

Gcntianatc of Lend. — Boiic. — Ammoaiactil neutrnl acetate and baeic 
wi^Le t'f lead preuinitato alcohoUt gcrttianic acid id oraoge-colourod 
flakes. — If lo Jtn aleoliolic tinhitiDiL of the add, jkinmoaia, aud ttiuQ 
fteatral acetate of l^ad, bo added, i^o that a pitrt of tlie acid remoiua in 
solution, the ealt « ia obtained. Somciimc* telle contftining n sniEilU'r pnTOor- 
Hoa of ojudii of IwmI ikre |>ivcij]iLitCpd- When a part oiily of the acid ie 
ikrown driwii fii:im tbf: au^rhoU^ solutiou ivitli basic acetate of lead, 
the precipitate haa the compn^itLon Ji (Banmert). 

10 It 

1 PbO 




fl- It. 
,.., 23-86 ,-,. 23'QO .... 25-30 
.... 1-48 1-37 ..- 1 4fl 

..„ ii'3U ,.,. irBs .... Ja'0<» 

t^H'^",4FliO „. 

,. 10000 .... 100-00 ... iQo-ro 

CH^Tii-:.: i*!"'^ z^T' 1^^^ ^ T-'* til:^" ^ti** .tfrA;/c* 30", and in SO 

f»r* -r<^_' iL? t'-'l "':-: ^ii^rw *T^^_r±- TTKaEmp on cooling; 
zz. iV. -tt^^ :-■ i. k--'i -"i-T ^a.— _i ":-:^-Lrj ^4<:tee aSnilHil (I^conte^ 

Hi u If 1 1*^ tiMig Ao^ 

(fre<? fnm :i:::':i? *:--i'- aC'i th-r ±".^ jt¥o sffhilioa tb«rpby fcnmedis 
prnipiut^j bv cart^il &^m'.i -^ i 'v^'.-ct. with irvi^taiit fitimng-, 

Greeu p:*«l--7. •k}^^. af'er tIttIhj is ■ Tacmm, lows 3"97 p-c. 
wat-er St !"0- <:* at. :^ 4-?3 r-- c- HO*/ 

M C . 1« .._ 15-90 _ 4S« 

2 >' _ 2* _ 7« _ rw 

l»> H . 1'} . *T5 _ l^l 

»o .- -.-, i<^.^ ,_ *»rt -^ -M-oi 

C'X^XH-**! see __ loHxi _ ioimo 

U'hoD bt nit rr-^M: ante aHd i^ boiled with ^QtkiD t4 catt^tie potatk, 

tuEifhuriiT a^id L'reoij^iijitvs fr>[u tLo &.~>luiLon r^dUh-vellow flakes, in- 
soIdUo ill al'^w'l- 

Iij ctuta'Tt with ani»rr>nt'] i~<r nfl''iJifi^ it is immediatelj cotonml 
cherrp^-re<l, audlhenbcouiCsOS-'^ily^Mlubleiu water, fi^min^ ade^ptrd 
Holutujii. Od paediD^ gafcuua amniotda over itf 16'8 p. c is taken u. 

Tenutrogentiauic A<i± 

JUl MKKT. Ami. I'h'li-nx, C^, lij. 

Si-: I 'i;,'^: 17^. Wlii-n ^f Miiatiio acid \a addetJ in small quantflieB si 
b 1]JN<: \'t fnniijij,^ iiilric add (tho viuEenco of the rvactiou bem^ allowrd 
(o Hulwid*' Ixrtirre '-vt^ry froKh arldition\ a red solution is fonoed, from 
whidi waU-r j»m.'i]iiIuU'!4 a pulo-jcllow powd(?r, consistiDg of micxtt- 
r*:'i\iic prihmH, wliich (jiaj- be frcfd from admixod amorpfaoDB portiooa 


bj WOSbing with hot water (Baumert). Thix aeam to be t«rmtrog«iitiHite 
Mcid (Kr.). 

at 100^ EaumoTt, 

28 168 „„ 4S'74 .... 43-7S .... *1'46 

3 N „.., 12 „,. 1(^69 

7 H ».. 7 .... 1-78 ..,, 2'8S ,... ISA 

a> 176 -.., 44-79 

a^X^^O"* 393 .... 100-00 

Bftumert giyes, « probable formulsB, C'^N^^O'" and C"fPH*0". 

Primary NucU^ C^K"" i Oj^fftfn-nucftfw C"H^*0*. 

Terebenzic Acid. 
7 C?»H«0' = C*H^*0',0'. 

Cailuqt. K. Ann, Chhit. Phys, 31, 31 ; J. pr. Chan. 42, 233 ; Pharm. 

Cmrr- 1847, 20L 

Obtained \fY distilUng oil of turpcntiiie with & large excesa of mtric 
add* 08 described at pa^e 425, vol. zi, aod exhaueting the miiture of 
oxalic, tfrebic, terephtalic, and terebenzic acids, with boiling water; 
the terebcDzic acid cryatalliBes on cooling {See tUn xiii, 13). 

Shinine'i white needles, |7eT«r crj^talliKA ia kminn lika bmioio Hid. 
Sublimes in open vessels below 100°, mettB at 169°, and bolle at a 
maob higher temperature. 


2B C 168 68-29 67-66 

14 H 14 fi-68 6-68 

8 O .'.... .^ 64 26-03 8677 

CW3"0* 248 10000 100-00 

The BboTB ifl Writiien^a formula {Verhind. BnuTucliirp p. 5S7)t Callllot'i ia oite- 
hilfof tt. 

IKsBolvefl in boiling waUi^, and distils over eaeily witJi water- 

ThoM/^ of terebenzic acid resemble the benzoatcri. — The silver-salt 
contra 49-5 p, a oxide of silver (C^'»Ag^= 60'4 p. c. AgO).— 
Terebenzate of ethyl smells liko aawj and boils at 130°. 

Terebenzic acid dissolves freely in akohol and ether. 

Ellagic Acid, 

BucOKNOT. jinn. Chim, Phifs. 9, 187 ; iV, Tr. 3, 2, 400, 
Pelodzk. Ann, Chim. Phyt, 54, 356; Arm. Phar^n 10, 163- 
GciBOUBT. Seu, tcimt. 13, 3d; abstr. Ann. Phar-a. 48t 360. — Beu. 
adent, 14, 17. — JV. J, Phamt. 10, 87. 


RllUn SVCUDB O^H"; 1»YCSH-KtfCUU3 C"U"0*. 

AawG^MO. J». nv«L 8S* S80L 

OoDirft DBBdj^ formed in Liut^Ils (GuiUiun). 
^■adoDOiu&nliathem (xi, 46i)on tlnir 
(ft-ftcofiDOl); bA' detximpoeittoi] viti 
In XT. 4ia, UD (RodiMer & SdiWrt^K porhftps abo 
fif t^mtmm (zr. 4$1) (Esop). On vxprHgn^ media 
■csd ift lb» air; frteaon obluuMl <JUgic a<:ii^ witlmut i 
ttM«f pAr Mad (lic^ ^Amu i>li0«. IS. JG5>. A d<;c^K:6oti d 
•■Mdi wiidh ^ai fc««a pcositoted vitb ciUondo of cniciuto, BliatA 
mmm^ aMt Ifc atrtal a wM g k as Cfca bak, threw duwa, liM % 

m iMenae odU, akiikiije BCaltw uf a luab- 

of m dooble Itne*6aJt of hyy^mcMw 

X^. Clfla.7, 331 1. 5«(aUu»4Viini 

fciMl (infvnbkt, ^iJ i^uly 
Md (Uirrklcia Jt V^lor^. 

foucid in cmIotcia' 

C7, Ml), ^^p^ *^ tagvtlH^ u-ilh on m- 

mt^ It* i i wt — d noB glraomiokiiAto uf putjali 

i:v, IIV TKVstil Rwt enrtuns dlt« a64 

A» Wbm^ «• ft^^Ht ^^ ff^iA. 1^ in. Ft. OAd 
(X *x ^frviih ML uft> — 'Bi^ «r ftwbr add is 



> IcnwiM KMi b cfan mMd 
M with wmici,ai>il affUM^ 

' n It, i> fill«nd ' 

•ttl^ble awd snlF^Mto of 
■ad the wJ*ti(*i » 0trj 
mkk TTfctrr BOile* of ft . 
wUh «mt«Kuid dcoc«T^ 



ttH*ed wtth hM ^oihol. wb«<**r 
ta cvU dSitt oMtk pMMki tfdti 

ELLAGIC AC1D> ^^^^^ 186 

XV, 4ft5 (Rochlcdoi' &, Scliwart^), When 300 jn"- of powdere^i nutgalla 
are pljiccd in a percolator itnd exJiHustud fimi limes with Ji mhturc uf 
30l> (Miris flhei', JJ» |airtMsili:o]in|nf 9f» p. c,, ami 5 parts wat^r^ and th(>n 
iwice witb pure ether, tliree layera of liquid an>fonji?d, m tbo lowfrmoat 
tympy ono of wlu(;lj Rmiill cryfltal« of elJaglc aciil aro depowitod, 
lopv-toer witli liitcoptllic ftcid, AVIi^^a ^llti iirc estmcled, first -vritli 
titter Dtid jiftenvard^ with Jilculml, ;i,ud the alcohullt: i^;Lct ih Rliakeii 
with 1 |>arl ether and 2 parts ivater, clTagic acid in Ihrown down 
ffom the syrupy eolutitwi of tannic add, in the fonn cf a white powder 

TDif inteii^ffUit bid of Guibourt hf-rc mf-utioiit^J (u'hicli, Hi^conhnfi lo )iiiri, oiLitH 
UtgHlier w\X\\ i^llhgiD ii4>id in galla and Ih-coim) i-i^muinp diia/ilfed, nhiM E-lla^nhit of 
pntuh ia jircfipiliiLfd when !k mlutum of ihit t.wu Acidn iii i'&ij»TJt> polanh b rt[iuflpd 
t£r aIt contftiniu]; mrboiiic B(.'id, It uj IhrDwii duvru &oiti thi- Duhilion b,v h^ilroclik-riu 
and, u tux iuanrphDu». durk-TcUow irnx-ipilat^T whiuL c^kt'o togulher ou the CiCrr Iq 
■ rnoDOUfl innsp, iiiejUiliLi iu water, lUrali^J, oud elhcr ^Guibouit]. 

Pr&m Bcsf/afs. Bczoars, freed froiD foroi^u subetuiGcfi and fiaoly 
tritiTrated, ^re placed in n vi^sel capable of being cloaed air-ti^ht, 
whiL-li \^ then quiti: Li]h?d ivilJi w modern-LLely HLn>Tig hciliitiou of laiiatii: 
|inia»h] the qaaiititteR bi^in^ eo n?^iilated that tlin ellaj^ato of potaph 
whicit ttj formed may not bo dcposiled, while, at thtj eume time, too 
grtivt un c3<:('St< of free potash ia avt>idcd. The vetiaci ia now ugitaLed 
Icj proiQijte eolutii^iii ; the cleai Hqwicl (after standing) decanted ; and a, 
raifiii fttrrinii I'f wawhed eaibnnic acid imme.dialel.v paused thiiin^^'-h it, 
wbcreliy ellagfate of potasti in thrown dnwn, nt first fl« a wlittj', and 
nitonrardt; as a green-^ci't'y precipitate. This ia eollectod on afiltvr, 
Wttfl)ied several timts ivitb ol<l water» \r5tbout efirring* und presBed 
Lc I ween Li bull nia paper. From thpnllijilirn* Tdtml-^ hvilrwiaorin arid iJiniw* 
dovti inkpun itUjigu- ncid- The jiotadh'Salt is purifieu by cry 8t all i nation, 
lo t'ffecl whidi it is disB'dved in nlinofll boiling water, which has beeu 
prtivionsly freed from air by boding; Iho solution iu fiitercdj tho 
auliydruiis fsometiniea psile-green, Homctiraf^s yellow) s&lt left l»ehiiid 
is ilJ^Mdvrd by further addithin of hot water; and the sulntioii is 
set flfiidc for some days^ when bidky mapa^a of iielirAte crystals are 
ftTTm^, These are oollooted on a filter^ wnehed with cold water, 
prcfacd, and decompoaed liy diflBolvin^ tbcm in hot water and ijourinp; 
llie solution into a moderate esa;«a of dibits bydrocblGric acid. Tho 
jnwifrttutcd ttcid is washed witli rold water nnd dried, Inasiiiiueli an 
idladiiii* m>lutionBof ellagic neid absorb uiygcu rsipidly from the air, 
and arc altered, o^on in chised v'eeeel«T "^ l^^pT htandiug or by 
wftmiini;, the epcratioUB should be conducted as qiiiekly as poseible, 
8[kd i.-ipiii*nre tii the air guarded aj^inbt (Merkleiu & Wobler). 

Be/oara yield, by digestion fn boiling rdcabol urid flubHeipient re- 
peated boiling, a f^daiitity oF rory pure ellagic acid, which cryatfJlJaes 
on ooc'liii;^ J bat much romaine undiasolved (Guiboiirt). 

Pmp^rlr'p^, CryMallised ellagic acid bcalrd to 200" — 215", is con- 
vinrtwl into the anhydrouw noidj which, at a higher teinperatiu-c, vnlati- 
Wti (rispeciiilly ill a ptrc^am of carl>onie acid) pailly uudecompoBed, 
wilhnat melting, and aublimee in delicate, enlplmr-^eUow needJca \ a. 
Urge |i'irtii>n, huw^ever. ia uithoniacd (Mevklciu k ^^ qIiIcc. Bracoanot. 
Al Gcibet). 



eta ^ *»tt _ ifif ,., use 

— I«»09 



a. wioi 

k — PdDM» #tf«B the te«Al» 

. L fi^hcai (pu 1SS>.— t. Ainw b Uie open An 


or n fa afol, um| the Ji^tiuJ 

u fomwd (Ad. 061«1).— 

A V^AIh-} ud wm ftOrv- ocw/ 1 BrahdODEioi) 

^^ iiaoJ itj d, vTtL atpvatK^n of n-d Iklutf : tf 

• nail qvAutilj oi a Uu^f BdbvUoa 

rtrfe KiA cf ^ ^ l-ia 10 1-tt » reulirrcd yellow by Wifcl<:r, and 
tMTw, «a «*«faiatMa, A ttArv, hygnj c w fie a^m. Nflrt<r Acid of i|l 
fT. 1^7 fa nK ra dfacic vmI with ivd-bto«n«olQar ; on niMfit^ vrat.^. 
A* MklM bvTvaA fc?t ird, tfan fennrnAh, •Md }a^i\y rellov ; cnv^H 
U mov far U orlt knn^ it iknm dinm aflnr Botii^ dnv*. l-n^rhi. 
•Mafagf riii nlibfe In w»te^ «itfa tnnektit red ool>tir (Vr fJ^bfk 
— S. Bye arid lA tort pef«*pdbtr Bctfd npoD by imi^r (Brut^nnol); 
aqi«e«v0 ■« «ritf »tt9C9 • oopw ^ «Vtil«liUi L<f carbui^ir iv>ul ihmw« 

4(iWNio£Hh tad fccas R|ifamit)r tlirflmr UDici«p1ii.iaA. t^■^ < '><, 

b<<Mr«Mid««MfbliHii4«o>dbT^pn>)oi^ied«ctionofairj ' 
WaU<t>.— C Oft wiA^^Mg^U vitb lM«eU»r^ uf i^u^L. . :». ^ 
tftoeciBgtoic >cid to prfiiwf(MfrtMa AWohler).— 7. ^afkiidd 
3«M(Jr«4 Jm rsicem J Modnmleljr dilute cnatit; poia^ aiieV t^x^^n^ 

vbkk bww ft ftcktpr t« Uie rbmfttiiiti »f bl*rk <-rrsulft nf £]ji«< < 
mtiftftAM of pOtftftK (&r. f3) ift IW Bdnid {Mi^Hdcin k \\^'\iVty IL ^ 
not kftoWB wbfti brcoMMoftbe <wtci« ibprabv bbrrmtr-tL — Wbi-o 
c^kfki xrhl li iE »iilf> J is ft hoi rm » tm »tn«g nnluiiou (or b 1d# 
UKI9 of ft dBMft aftlftlia*) of cttftstie P^ob, th« rmultini; £^»<^ 
Iftftkaftle <tf poCftftk to fwtbM eesraM mlo oftrbanftfa- ftnd oiftW of 
pot>ikftiidft«ah«rf ft wIMe acii wUeb fftficr iMntTftliiiiii^ tl« tfd^ 
tioa wiUi Mrtic ftcil ftftd nAOttii; dM ovftBc ftcid bjr meftM of ft bw- 
pftlO i«T>dnoM ft lifmni nndiritftlr wiifa iwnml ftoetftf^ nf l^d. B^ 
tn<«UJi^ lb« k<ft4-«ftlt *m lijteftnlt^iiHi? >Hd« iIm hTdml^MJ k»J w^ 
to dbtam^ Aft ftii ftcad 1fiqM<tiTtoL|c ftp toft browft^ ddi']iir4^.V'nt« aarr 

C' lift nuw (MnUdl«J& WWcr>. mca ^lUgftie of i^nijinh, hIdcIl 
bmxMUo htowft ftftd fttt o n jl mi ft from eipositra U% Wt^ air, loii 
thtriw dawn ftt tot t.iB|y «4to^ add, bat after standing uuibd dm 
bUok-brimn flftkvft ftiv fttoop«Mi|itfttftd (Ad. GObeL). Ou uAe vOMioft 
KnItH' A0i4 VTBA obtftined «ii deooapooflw ft ftolfttitm of cllfti^ tdi ^ 
iT«imllr |hiUm^]i Lijr ncftM of bydrocUonc ftciJ ird^iuxi*). A umibr 
rtftoUi'ii M-m nlH<>rT«d ftbo hj Pb. Bftduer (jtvt, /'Afjnu. h^^ \^). 

ttivHs. — Wiik ITrtf^, — Crr^MtgdaSt^ iKid. Pftlft^Dlb*^ 



light powder, consisting of trEUiR(mTent, sliiurng, Ttili^roBt^oplri prisma- 
lu an jiupuro stutc, ^t'piii ah -brown (Merklein k Wbhlorj. By ^rak-k 
precipitation of Iho atjaccrus p<>tueh-ea!(. viitli liydr<.>cUoric acid, pale 
jt'Uow, very ftmstll ^inems «re obtained ; bj slow drT^omposition of a 
Tcrj' dilute &oliit[it:i at 60^, bright -yellow i;urvi'd needles, liaviiij^ a Kiiky 
luBfre; bolh iippuaiifig transparent under tie micrtiscopu fAd- Gobel). 
— Spvi:ific gravity 1-GS7 at J8*, Taetek'fis. Has a weak acid re- 
actifjit (Merklom dtid Wohli^r). 

Lows, when healed, IIT v^ c. water (Pelrjuyt), on an avcrago 
lO'Sft p. c. (Mi^iltldii k Woldc'O (4 ut = 10-G4 [l o. HO)- A [tfirt of 
wivtiT IS givfii off jjt iriO°. :uLd l3 taken npagTiln from the fiir by 
ftoid diicd at ISO", bat not hy that cjoiplolely driwi at 200* 
rrklfin & WclJor). The acid dried at 120'* ie 0*H'0'* + 2nO 
(Ad. GobL'l), 

>a c ,... 

__«_., 8 , „ 

EX-B . 

B-fi - 

46-0 . 



I^H«0» + Sw 

iwyo . 

KlInj^Hc ftcid 19 but sli>rlifly nolablo m boiling luffffr. OHofvifrinl 
poured upon it colours it lemon-yellow, and when gently heated die- 
BnlTGs il, forniijii^ a yellow PuliLliori, fixici which tlie cTj'fitallised Rtidis 

Wbhier). Ereii aftor the flolnlmu in oil of vitrio] han been hefttod to 
HO", the ftr-jd IB thrown down by water, uijchon^d (Robiquct, J. pr. 

Elbgi*' add U hihfi^k. Us tiultiH (?*n'MW jtre; pafiily dcixjm- 
p>sibb> hi the ruoi><T h:T:tle. Thfj prccipffnips thrown down byaqneous 
tfHa^li^ of potflt^h frum ealta '^f thi- earths and hea^y metals are 
jellow or brow^ii, and di&tm;:^ji«hablo under the micrtecopo ob oiis- 
turi's ofainnrpboua gtoiiuIeB. tiakcs, crystals of the new cotxijif^m^d, 
md ncedlew of seiwiTitrd ellu^ir anid. On lioiitirg the inid with 
^^hfls- 'ir lime-wafer, or hydrate of uiJignenifLT and washing with 
^Ber (free from curl>orjic acid), ali:(»holT and ether, a leek-green 
b«iryt*i-6ult, a dirty darfe yellow linio-salt, or (i pnle-ycllow mrktr^'^'^ia- 
iwIL L)4 obtained^ Heeii, tiudiT the jmcroscrj|ie, tii con^itit of diliu^tle, 
peilTidd ^<!una and pripjnn, Insoluble iri cold »rid \^ boiling wat4>r 

Kttaffaie tif .Jwwwmr*. — Ellugk; add dipholves but ftli^hlly in 
nfliipixift Bohitfon of ammnnin, but alisfn'bs the ammoTdn thercfnun 
(ifrarnntiot, Merkfein & Wohler), — A snlutino of di-dlagatf^ of Eodn, 
in'ard V'ith snbaniuionine, yields the □inrnouLa-sult an u pale oUvc- 
^H'n pn-iiipitJite, wilhont 1[ berating five ammonia. CiyHtalKecd 
^Ua^U' add ahMirh^i gusuiiuFi umMiorda, ;irid ih converted^ w^lth In8s of 
wafer, but without any grerit Hftei-aFuin of u'eight^ hito thp amtuonia- 
•ftlt. t'ri>ui lUD jiurla of div aeid, HS'l parta of ffrGenish-yeiluw am- 
monia- Bait aiv obt ah] ed (C'*fro",2NIP = 111'2) a coiL^ derail Ic amount 
of Iwat being dt^tlojitd in the formation (Merkltin and 'Wiihier). 

Elia^af^ of Piflash, — Rllji^e 3eiJ dittftilves freely in caufltie potaplu 
with deep yellow colour. Cavboiiic add throws down from tboeolutloii 
»ba«c pritaflli-ealt (Merklchi A Wohlcr) which is decompo^^ \»5 Tt- 


faa« -wmkigf won itboMs •ofaUo waHe baae f oraicd. 
m wteA Ac pcpprtoB of f otiA ia ^hiArnl, wlule iha of ibr wid 

pnaed bj cvfaonie Md aad fa; tar (■» ahnv). 


L HV 3 ^ AmwI. WIkv cAwic m^ or dt^IUgftte of 
U mated witk >toofcoi e fc^cfc, & Seep kncK-ydlow poirdef 
tened, fWMMfing of mi^^aco^it^ J^^lov* tmM^utnt fidnpfl. After 
-mvMng vidi «m1kJ (viiJUvt cifmiirc to tbe av>i uming, ud dn- 
iBf HI ft TBOUB onr o3 cf TitiM. the sdi cnatft fa .*^ |il c- fntw, 
ftttd IM7 be RpreMBl«d bj tke fonaftk (^EnXP.Ka (8^ r^ 

S3<3p.&£0>. Ob encmffe to tbe ^ it iiimi » bbck-^neu 

cdJovt, ftod i» coQTcrtM aUi ft Mixtvn c^ <5-dhs>te uid cvUuaU. 
KfiBi^Teg reafflj in wftlcr, bat boC in ftkvbJ (Xtftiem ± IVOtdet). 

k W-dfaprtL — T^x — -- ^ UQ). Tbe Bfth, if wftebed witb vftkr 
ftlooe, rspidly ducu^^PiM gfc Jtyiftg; it Moftt, tbereforp, l>e wi^iol 
nilb watPT, alcofaci, aad rl^«^ m SQCceHWB, *&d dned ftt ft 1cvi[jr<rv 
lft» «f 30 — 10=, ftfin wbk^ tn^tocst, fittk or do ftltctatiaa UkcA 
Eilftcc (Ad. Gi4kI>. Vcrr Efbl* looftc, pftpcr-lUe edsm* oomdAtiii^ '^f 
lun^, mkraacoFiBC prisma^ gvntfftllj grtvunili-gTey or greeiiub-yt-llir* 
frjift aligbl ilMxiwyMtiua, sad hmiv nm^ ci ft pale-j«ll<^v o^Jnur 
Uydrmtcd, txu W ttdened ftftlijA^iM ft»d ycOow b^ b(nbti£ in iU utih 
ifttcd aolfttiDft. Glove wfacA btfated, viikoot £miig off odoioUB pro- 
dvcte- DJMwJi^aa. digbtK b coU, ibttDilulJT in bot v^tcr. sit^ 
Smfti^jnlhnrcnloMr^McrkMii* Wdbk*> S>ftirftt (Aiimb^lV 


Ad. Olbc] dveaibn ftuoUM^ Mkh, obtained in tbo ntDe oMnner ■« 
b, amtftuuBg^^ p, CL potftfih^ Bjr ncrjHtBUiftftlktt of b he ob&aftKil 
ft dftTt-gT«v«v dvdkfttfjx cnvtalEBcd e^ wfak^ ftl ?1d^ coDtunni 
49-48 p. 0.1% l-U n, S2-$S0^ ftDd 90WK0, oprTwpmdkQff to lb 
forwA aC-IlV\.^KO + HO (cak. 4fi-9e ^ t. c; M$ H, 91-SB ft 
ftul S1.48 CO). 

liUm^^S0d4. ft. 1I1M3A £*4ir— Tbe deq>-yH1owBotaliA 
ckf oIlftKK ftCM in boOftir OHMlic acdft* cocM ool oi oHtXtuct wLtb iirn 
Ibmws dinrii ft hittt^ pnci|iflt»te of fiikc letMMk-jreDow uudulaK, fovJih 
MihiMt? in Vp-ftlf^* ftnd bbdtem^ easily. — b. i>i-ftdaL Pm^fftUM 
fn^iii ibf' mn« 0tMutiali by cmmiuc and u ■ tvifrbl-jn^mr, cmul- 
liiii* ]^i«^Jrr, ri>atv&iD£ 17'3 j^ p- eod* ^('"H'N^'t)" = I?"!** |c C- 
NaU). M.m dtficuHly Bulvlik tUn tb« poUtfb-iftlt iHcikUft k 

EiUt!fiftf,^jffaryi^-^By digt«tK]a in b«r7ta-watfr, citaiTH^ ftodi* 
i^Kmn^ diV'p IriiMUi-jrvllow, witboftl bHi*g dj»i*olrrd. Tb* »** 
tlii^ri'Sy Cnnnnl ftbsuriw (vilntik; ftcid tnta iho ftir, aihI pMftno * 
riark pbtrndii^^ptfCii colour; it Qofttftiu, «C }%i»\ 4^'35 ^o.^mrji^ 



indicating the fonoulft C"H*0'S3BaO (calc. 44*6 p. c. BaO) (Merklein 

Eii'iiialf nf Lime h^hflvcB like the barytft-fialt- — Ellagic aci<! takea 
up the whole (it the Imu hmn lime-wuten 

With !*oliili(>n i»f frfHpii-cMtridf uf it/m, elhtgic aoid fnnns ji grooniHh 
liquid, chniipr^ Xo Uai.;k-J>liic, Like lut. without thrawiiig down a prod- 
pitate J aulphiivoUfl ucjii, adUoil to tlic mixturcj couvcTts it into a jellji 
-whidi afttrwartlfl lei^J^rnus fluid aud loses its ctjlour, while crystallioo 
ella^c auid 18 Be]»[ii"iiLed. Healed witli aU:ol]<.)lir; flE'flqiii-(dilorido nf 
fron, thi* ac\d nwolls up tn a bulky, deep-l»Tue maes, which, after 
illg, is btnck tind iupnlnblc in water, aud hy treatment with hydro- 
■^ t Bcid, yioldfl fcn-oao- ferric nxidc, with wopuration of cllaffic acid 
fein ^ Wiihler), 

Eiiaffate af Lend^^^On miiinp^ alcoholic cUa^c add with an alco- 
holic eoiution of neutral acetate of lead, n yelUw, amorphoiia precipitate 
ia produced, whioh i?> dark oIItc-^ocu ivhen dry, Oontiiiis G3 p, <;. 
oxide of lead C(:»R'Fh'0" = fil |>. c. ?bO) (Mcikh-ia i WLihler), 

Ellagicacjd la i^lighlly soluble in uhohoL iueolubJo in Hhtr (MerkleJD 
& Wbhfcr). 

/Viw^fry jviaVffv* C"rr' ; oj^fi^-nvc/fw* (wrw 


Akpcrsom. CA«f*. Gaz. 1848, 313 i w^n?*. Phann. 71, 323 ! ^i jtr. Chenu 
41, 437; A^, J. Pkarm. 1«, 240. 

Ohlaincd, by sublimation of morindin, in tbo Form of luiccoecopic;, 
loag, four-flidc^ needlea with oblique etid-faeeB, of an caeeedtngly 
li^ and beautiful red ojlourp The nccdlee are washed with water, 
vid dried at 100^. 

2S C 

10 H 


80 ... 

.... en- 13 

..^. 3-87 


,..., 8001 


£59 ,., 

.... lOO'OO 

™,„. lOOOO 

Thn formula ii doTibtful. Pi*hflps idpnficnl wi^h nliinrin (siv, 139) (Ene)JMler» 
*n#ii, ,ilarf. ifw. 7. BOB). IsomericvitligontinnLr fldd (p, 17SJ. 

InanhLblc in wattr, whether cold or hot. — Diasolres in nil of vifn'ol, 
witblliiL' violet colour, and 13 precipitated by water. —Soluble \n all-'ilia, 
with splendid vlnlet eoloui". The avinmoniaciil solutinTi prccipitatea 
laryta-teaUr cobalt-bluOj saliifuia vf nhnn red. 

l?i_"rtolvea readily in ak'Jtol and in fthtr^ crystallising on ovaporalinn- 
Mtfrindone dyca ehi(h prepared wilh til lira -mordant deep rose-rod; 
with iryu-balt*, violet and black; the colours arc not atable. 


An>£BSOW. Tr^^^R.-*. :>.^.EJ.%z. K-.435; Clm. fof- 1846, S13; 

The Tell.wi.v'.:^r:L^ iii::er <-f tb* rwt of liormda cQrifaUa 

J^-::^.r> -.- T:.':- r^i^ :; t1^ r>:: :> boiled with sLi tiiaefl Hi 
weifbi of aIo"i:l ir.i ;Le lii-ct-rv tliered boiUng hot; motiDdla, 
mixrdtri:h rtii^.v".^^^nia;:rr- if ihen farC'irii down od cooUdj^. Bj 
rtpea!^ i*>:'ir.^ >:" U.* Ifiii ::: alc-t ■!_ a fDrther quaatitj of poRf 
luorii^din U .I'tdi:-^'! I; b ctj^i^X^.-d ^/vt-nil timea from nJcobol of 
50 p- c- a:-ii ifttrm-ari* (t: rt-iii-vi' a little «sb with whidi it ■ 
coniAmu:ji:<>i ■ friia..^ h! o-'r.:j^i^a ^r^l qoADtit^ of hjdroclilak 

Fnyt^ff. ^^lyt.ZT-ji-'^^.'V'. cel:oa:*? ne^les, having- a silt^ IhkIr, 
A'lviraU'f i^rj *»>Kti^. ir>ai 3 s-. Inaon ia hiMliiig wateTr in the form of i 

*> C - - l*!i 55 4* ^--iS 

IS H . . _ 1* , . J'&5 fill 

:j o . ii> . 39^^ 39- »e 

^.^iiO"' . ... o,^l 1;*H*> HHWO 

/Mv »»»!/». wVr'c'''^, M'hen >.r»r- f ii meh« to a daik^browu liqtud,boilit 
uiLiI pvo« eiT i»raii£v-t\-U^urv-d v;ii<>urs in luorlndone. which condeDH 

ti» W'X luvoU'^i, whii>T i.virU t; \s lofi UhinJ, Piiwolvea in «/ o/ nfriit 
fi^mim^ rt [tuTyJo [i<"];i:: :i. :ri::i wliiih WitUT ]'ri-oi|.>i!ateri, after jtt&DdiDfC 
^^\\w liim\ yt'ltiAv iiakos of a sii^^t^^iuv s>-hil>lL^ in ainmoiua with riolet 
O'l^ur. i^ri'baMy nior;i:il*iu\ — Aifni- (jon/ '*i sp, pr. l'3d di»«olvf« il 
widi lUvp l'n>>vii-r<^J o-lour: ihi' sn^lmion l-*^-?; its colour when hfatoi 
pviii^ ^>tT r<\l wijx'urs, aiiil ^i-X'S not c^'iiiaiii any oxalic acid evpo 
iifUT lH>iliiip. 

OiniftxNii/i^Bjf, ?li^tly soluble in cold, easily in boiUng waftr^ fenn- 
ing li yelliiw tohitioii i^ivuboii). Diw'^bo:= ii^ aqueinw oOu/u villi 
i*runtr»''-ivd oi>bmr — Prtvij^iati-s Kolutii^ii* of ftar^n-, ttrontia-^ toJ 
iimt-MiiU red; nolniiiMj <'f .j/t ■ ; I'f a r-nidish o»loiir. H^ttqaickloniU ^ 
ii-xiH in iiJonrt'il hy ilu' jiKv'hulio e-'liitii^n of morindin deep-lTowB 
without pixvipilaii'^n; wiih the amm<'iiiaca] solution il pttilDOW » 
hmwiL lflki\ — Sobiii.UiS of nioriiuiin ^ir\ri|ntate neutraX aedait i/ W 
in sravirt ttukoH which give up co]*»uriny matt<'r to water, 

Sli^'htlv HiiluMi' ill i>»li1 ;(bjiohui", abuihl.-inlly in boilinfr ^"°^ 
alo-hi^t. lnti*<\Mv in ttha-. — Ihv:! cl-^ih m'>i\lan(cd for Tnrroy-i^' 
lii-niaucul ri'iblmiHu. 


Primary Nncl^iJ^H^; (hy ff en-nucleus G*WKV*, 


Lewt. C<ntq>t. rend, 18, 242; N. Ann. Chhn. Phyt. 10, 874; abetr. 
Am^Pharm, 52, 404. 

The reein which exudes from mcislona made in the trunk of 
CholaphyUtim cahba or Ch. longifolium^ a tree growing principally in the 
American province Maynaa. CrystalliBpn from boiliug alcohol. 

Proptrtke. Fine yellow prisms belonging to the oblique prismatic 
system. Combinations of the rhombic prism u with the perpendicular 
tnmcation-facea m and '(Fig. 97), the four octahedral faces A, aod the 
oblique end-face f and clinodome a belonging thereto (Fig. 99)- 
«: f»= 119"; w : 3 = 98'' 45' (nearly); i ; /= 139° 35'; I i u = 
IW aC (De la Provoeta;7e> Sp- gr. 1-12. Melts at 105'' lo a trans- 
parent glass which solidifies ngain at about 90°. 


28 O ,,.168 67'20 ...... 67^47 

18 H la 7-20 7-80 

SO 6i 26-60 , 26-23 

<FH»0* 2B0 100-00 lOO'OO 

Yields, by dry dtttilUtttortj an empyreumatic oil. snd leaves charcoal. 
-^Slowly attacked by bromias and c^lotine. Warm nitric acid of sp, 
gr. l'B3 decompOHca it, with copious evolution of red vapours and for- 
■nation of butyric and oxalic acids, and crystals of a substance which 
m flolnblc in water and does not precipitate IJme-sattfi, Fuming nitric 
sdd diaaolves it, with violent reaction ; water throws down from the 
Bolntion a yellowf amorphoos acid soluble in alcohol and in ether. — 
Heated with sulphuric acid and bichromate of pota^i^ it evolves cart>onic 
ud formic acids. 

Insoluble in icaier, — Dissolves in oil of vitriol with fine red colour ; 
water precipitates it unchanged. — I£eadi1y soluble iu uininonit/f and in 

3jeoufl o/jto^. — Nitrate of silver precipitates from the ammoniacal 
ntion (freed from excess of ammonia) a silvcr-sait of variable 

Dissolves easily in akohotf ether^ acetic add, and in oilsy both JLced and 

OTjigen-nucleus C-H^O". 


hMiioms k Chatjtahd, N. J. Phanti, 21, 24; N. Htpat. 1, 216; 
/.jr. Chem.b5, 3S3, 

*t ~ 

,. -- :# 

'» ^ 


..^ ii' 

F^^'Z—r • ,:■ .-:-"i r -J;- jufci: -T^ ^xbftiul^ with coM 
TfcT-:?. .iC'i:-- z^-^~. : j= ^:;i-£:-.i :' '■ Tri.zi±i"f?*wiihcWopofurm,mt!ie 
7r:ct-cta:c E i" ^-l^.:sr-^ ;^\ re OL ^; & i;r?- ■:■€ ibe lioidd. Afte 

*iifciT£i T— Ji -111 t- 1 m :^ i2t£ iiLzi-: 'r 7i rare The cfalcrofbnn v 

«t.L~'=f iL *'*-*-"g-^ -rrh. *-TTnj^ ^'liU'?:!!^ &oi ^TrcevL The pb^viliD 11 

Zj^^ 'ri.--. c sL^r-7 7-—Ii.T itrTirr- 'rieo^-nung electric Thff 
r-;>:if'i: z- r :r f'w:'-«- ir^itr -i; iL>rr:t^'r^, Itete* M first eligfat, 

_ f-.* — **i 

_. XJi: «K!tt 

.'^X^ ■■ J^^ IX-X' KXKV 

^'^ij';* ■*- :: i: In \ z a -j-*-:- .- ■-^<'.iz^>t a; 190*, an4 at % 
l:^!i^f :c'c*yi:c-ir:r^, > ,■■ n z^.'i. zz- :zr^ -;. 4._i bcrT». vithoDt loann^ 

>.*!?• iv-* T^r-'^ <:-r^;l7 ti -* OL i- : n:l-tr r^^.-ce fi^l^ in hot iniftr. 
— \^-zy ..zzW **-i;':tf; " il^^ t-:'-!^ t:-,^ »h3,T\ it d-w* cot oinilnne. 

At. ilo 'i L .-■ *■ ^'~z\- ■ I ;.i:vsikl^ ti':-:*; :-, ii^a'^jcil BoiftW imft* 

ibiixi ir. J vw-'i:'— _- i.:i_-i ''-4-.-i -. ,\ :t»i: s. f i^a*!. aim] u« pntbiUj 

N,; :r^vi;i:A:T"i :r r . .> ^y^vi-^.; T-«;:i s by anuiiomaca] 

Ih^jfl* L*^* ::\t"y ■'.- -V--" v ■'. ". .'-»" *"' r"**, flljjfeily in rtio". 


hoa:- \i it; th»^ w^:, r>.. j::. : t j. ^-^^zz-. z ■ ■:' jr. hour iriih dihtt^ hydiV" 

liir.w^ d^^wii '.\,K- i:^;;:^. ^,-:,.:; iv. y^I^-wish-Ux^irn tuke^ An t^ 
i: -cu: ^vjiiiity iiljv ix* 'Uuii-.-t "ry S I'.'v:,^ d?wji tbt- iHniiie, cxtncliBf 

fil-itjtiiij with viUT. — Wirt'ii .^M.' »\-l !:vr is U-iiitl fiir m lobf 

GENTUM-QITTETE. ^■■^r 193 

tiirie whh dilur« acide, only a smull quantity nf ^ntiogeuin Is ob- 
t^uetl, probably boiiausc the gi'cutcr portion ia converted into ft 
HubstuiK^ soluble in watur. 

Amorphous, yelbwish-Jimwii juiwJfT, havmg u bitlcrtariie. Per- 
maUEut in tlio air. NeutraJ. 

ai lOD*. Xromof er. 

28 c .H, -,.„ 16S ^ ea-fti ea-io 

la n .,. ™ 10 6-06 633 

10 ,-,. 60 3030 3997 

0"ff"0"' 264 IIJUOO lOtWlO 

Heai^ on platinum -foil, it melts aud borafl. — It reduces boiliug 

atcmoitiacal nit''titt of nleej', 

QeTitiogeniu wliicb haa been Uriod in tUe air, losea 7"02 p. c, 
water at 100° {3 at. = 033 p. Ch> It diBSulves tiliglitly iu cold water, 
aod cakes togt-thhrr tu a roHJiiUus itijlhh iti bijiliiig waii?r. 

Soluble ill Hti'ong mi'tei^i adtl^ and in aqueoua nJktfliij forming 
brown Holutiooa. — Nut tlcconipoeod hy sesfuicfiloi-itk fif ironj nor pre- 
ci|4tatud by lead-safia. 

Easily Holuble iu likuhoi,- intHlerately soluble in tther-akofntL 




Diff BitUrmfp. Krlojigea 1861, 105,—^. £r. Arch. 

0*%H^mii. Uruiiopifria. ^- The bltttir prlnt^ipld of tlie I'ont of Grnti*tfia 
ba*a (iliinritfutJt, viii, I'h'ffitchem, tf^), formorly confounded witb ^uliatiio 
odd (p. 178 J, Ubtaiiji^ iuipuro and in the form of extract by Brftcoii 
not (J^ rh\/s. H-1, M7), Dulk {N. Br. Arch. IT*, 22rj ; Btrz. Jii/inrsber, 
19, 552>, Lrf-O-iliIu (7. Phtirtn. 23, 4»i7>, Mout^hon {Phanti. Vkrttlj. B, 
1:J3K and LGibmwlgut (JV, Bt\ Arch. 107, li*2), and in the pure stat& 
by Kronuiyer. 

Pr'^lfwation, Fnnji (hfl/l-ffjA rootoi the dried rooU do not jield tbfl cnjsEiJlijjo 
bittrr. The root*, washed "With cold wntcr and cut into small pieces* 
are eibiiuBted twice with wiinu alcLJliut of 70° ; n liiitlure Eh thus 
obtained, from whieli the gn'ater pai-t of the alcohn! \s rein<ived by 
distillatif-n, and the residiiLMn reduced to ,',lh of thu root cmployi?d. 
This is tbtt* mixed with 3 volmuea of wqIct, and trc^ated l^'ice with 
f^^DkUulated nniinal cburcoali which coUl^cIs and rcttULfl nearly tliu whole 
of the ^t^ntUn -bitter. Tlio dmrcoal (nfti^r beiup; washed wiLh cold 
■■mter till the water its no Inngor colonrtid) \a dripd at a gvntlo beat 
and boiled with alcohol of S*}" i the nliMjJiolic ostract is agiiin freed from 
doholby distilhitioQi and the R-eiJue is diluted with watur, and filtered 
to reniuve the renb thereby thrown down. The tiltrale \e now beatcd for 
nomebonrs in awab!r-l>]ith wilb k'vig^LT'-doiidenf IhuI ; Ihept-odnct is 
diluted witb walor and filti^red hot^ the It-ud is reun)veJ by pi-wipi- 
tatini^ with hydrutiidphuricaeidnndlilteruigtheetill hot liquid; and th^ 

TOL. XV] . O 

.H^ ••♦-^^ NVt'hW'»l.''IP'J 0XTG8N-NUCrECS <?iH"H3"- 

..^^ £*i«^ '-^-iT^htrfttcd to a nymp and ehaken op «i&( 

.^ '_'-.. '^ i-^-JI iiT » daji tbe mixtnTf? aoUdifies toftCiyBl 

^ \ . .--^«<L irt'l r(''i^r7?(tAl1idf'rl frnm a amall qouiti^i 

,1 ^ .i*L <t :i<! cliait^aL — A partof the ofeDtaa- 

/.ii.>.'<. itWii Ihf: Arjai'oiin extract is heated with • 

"'»- ^i.'MTrit, tl(irhf)lntioniHpr<^cipitatcd with baac acet 

* -.^ .,,. *Ki >*l*TOlo fr/!*;'l frfim U^ad by hydrosnlphuric add 

^ ,, > , 4.r4in^ TIki nyrup in difiHolvcd h> alcohol, after 

." ' ...\ ,^wy \nliidi Ki'paratoB tbc Mugitr), and the ether-ak 

^ .-.*^^.-ntrat(^d U* fk Kynip. Tfna m then ahaken npwitJb 

^ /. ^jkp<^ivr i^ryntnllino muHH imrifled as aboTe. — Su poiD 

' -< .-i-*-^'M 4 ^mtniurrH of KCi'tiaii-bittor> 

-^,-jv^ riydrntpd rrvHlnlliHtd prontian-bitter (tHMov)! 
-..; .-.\x^=pniR byb^'iitin^'to M}". Mdta at 120— l25"to»l 

.\ 4AH^Vinjiff ixi ciii>]m^« lit nri nmoqthoiis, brown iimai, 
^^^* whitfi ^xiwilrr wbiMi Irilurntcd. Taste, intense and 

Wr 2U) BI-95 6*<» 

1H> U :W* .. ., avt _ G-ir 

HO lt*2 4l'M 41-50 

I'-'ll^HV' -in^ ., U«-0;» lCOi» 

^),i^mp>^>'~»'v- !■ "'■■'f'>' '*n pIntinum-foiL it tnms lvct«^ . 

■*.iW»"Ws i4.''!mi'^vi ii; f-Xv.^'. -^ >'. ,).--J iuttis 1*tvwii whet bftcd 

^. o^alh* s*H<l U ^^^ln<>*'l. — 3, o;: , ■" K-^ *; dif^^vr^ n him 
foftnw? * i^'J^virlo^-i sft^hiT^-in, vhk'^i. ^^ jTOTnle healing- ^mm 

^ff^ ^Ah Sf^w'*it- »■ ■■*:' >>^i. «- tUkos ,-f iTOT.n '^LrvniiL mad noM 
^ac. ^^» ■ ■■ ' *' '■ '■'"■ '"^'V' "* i^^c :r ■=: ^ ^.iMax. rf ■ 

r ,, H, , ' .- .- ; V .-.■. ^ 

LlCtlHNIC ACID, 9^^p 19b 

addition of ai'ida. — Solutions of cauatic jjflM*ft and sodn dissolve it 
with yellow colour. 

Soluble jn ct>ld alcohol coDtaining^ water ; as ah&Gluto olcoliol oulj 
when heated. TitBolublo in pMcr. 

Ltchenic Acid. 

ScHMEDERMAN & Knop, ^flr*. Pharn\. 55, 149—150 % J'.pr. Chfm. 36, 
U7 i Pharvi. Centr. 1845, 858- 

SatArceM. Ill Ce/raria t\Iarii1icn {Haittlh. viii., Phtftitcheni. 96) (S<.'hne- 
dermnn A Knop), Ad ucifl agreeiug in propprtiee with lirlienie acid ia 
totmd in toadeti.iole (Agormts m^i^ctrrius, Haitdh. \m.^ I'hi/fochcrn. 98); 

it w prcoipit^ted from au olcohiolic eolation of the extract by water 
(DoUej, Ann. Phar^u 86, 50), 

Prfpat'iiffOiK TcelaTid mr^sa la boiled For a quiU'ter of an hour in 
iJcnhnI coDtainiQg' CQTbonat© oi polMh. To the filmined dccoctiou an 

eexfcsA of hydrochloric acid i^ added, and the whole is diluted witli 
4 or 5 volumen of water. The precipitate thereby fonued is washed 
with water, and afti?rwards hoil^d three or Four times with alcohol oF 
4S to 45 p. c. Ou cooling the alcoholic solutiou, a mixtiu^ of lichenio 
ftfid cetrarie adds, with a third eubetance, \a eeporalcd, from which 
ttw licheuic iicid is taken up by boiling cocfc-oUT fliid ugain deposited oa 
COoUii^i or more eompletel^ oji partial difltillatioEi. Purification la 
Reeled by recryetalliaing frcm alcohol with the help of animal 
' eharronl. 

^- i^/wrrirj. Loose, white maRa, conaiBting of delicate eryatallme 
IfcRlinns hftTing a pearly lusti-e. PMm a BcJalion in vdtj diluta dcobo] it a 
i/bt^oitd ill sn^ rhombiL' lahlca i on conoentratii^g tbo eolutiou, pArllj in oily 

fepa. — Inodoitmg- Has a raoddT harflh taato, not bitt<?r, melta at 
ibout 120" without Iom of weight, and solidifies to a co'fltalline iiuvsa. 
volatile. Coiitriuiia iionitrogea> 


Scbncdmnvi A Enop. 


28 C 

.... Iflfl ,.. 

.,„ 70 W-« 

,M. £* .,. 

„.. 10 lO'OS 

« O 

„,. is .,- 

_ ao iflia 

C*E"0* .. 

.... 3^10 -, 

,„. 100 ....,,.. 10(HW 


' TTie ahavif ia fitrec-Jur's formula (-An*, i^an*. 67, M); SehneJoimBU & Enop 

perfectly inBoluble in vfater. 

The "tUs of liclicnic add are permauent in the air, and are decom- 
d by acids, with Beparation of lichenic acid. Their Bolutioiis froth 

1% PRIMAIIT KUCLBU3 C^fl*; 0XYCEN-NUCLEt]5 0^"0». 

Lichettaie of Ajimojiia. — The eafiiJy prepared BoEution of th© nd^^ 

in warm iLi|ueciLfl itmnjonin foi"nia, on ccujlmg^ a white, clftsUc jvU^H 
seon under th<; min^acope to cinLmii a i^uaulity of k'U^i L^xtn'mtfl^l 
delicate t-iyt^tulrt. The null, wUm t\ry, h whiu* ntnl Bilky> and on)/ 
partially Holubli? in wurm wator, with loss of iLuimoiiia. 

Zi'M^off o/Potaab. — A soliilion of th& add in aqiuwus carbciaatu 
of potaali throwe dowu, wtmn concciitiated by craportktioa, yoUo^ 
flakes, which are soluble in walcr, but insoluble in alkaline liquida- 
the solution be evaponttod to dryness, and ihtj reeidut; extn«Hcd 
IxjilJii};^ iibwoliit*! ahxihol, a part uf the HiUt Is obta-ifird, un i.-*;*>liug, 
an indifttinctly cryntftlline p-iwder; ^tnd tliu rcmaixidor, on coin 
Invting the Bolutiou, in the form of a fivrup. — Diflsolvca eosiijf 
water, foi'iiiiii^ an alkaline li^juid, wLicU tastee like aoafi, t^nd mi 
up on boiiiug. 

LicAcfiatc of Soda. ^^Ohlalae^ iu the same manner lU^ tbe potat 
salt. A concentrated aq^neoufl aohilion throws down white gmo* 
on atandiu^- 

LicliffnaU of Bojyta. — Obtuinedi ou precipittLtiu^ a<]ui?ouf> licbei 
of Hwla with a solublo biLrytiL-rjFilt, an a ^rcykBh->whlto procipital 
which cakca tog^tht^r iiL boiling w&tDi', 

l}ntd over ihe mai^r-hath. SuhaedflrsoBii it luwp. 

« 0.„^ « 18a Gi-63 ..„„», H-e5 

S» H ™ 23 7*8 ._.„ 7-63 

A O m 13-S4 ll-Tfi 

UaO „. ,„..„ 76'6 ..._ S4BB , SV7»i 

C*H=*BbO» 807"( .»..^ lOHKJ ^.„, lOOOO 

Licheaali: o/ Lead^ — NoutrnI ae^^tuto of lead prcci|iit:fctc» IJ 
aquanus rtoja-ftalt in wtute flukes, which, on boiling: ttc Uijuiil, nuill 
a yellow, flL*mi-(JuM ma,**. — RritLUi, anftPnEn^ btlweon th^ (luj^i 
and b(.vomhi^ ecnu-liuid. at KJO''- Appuara tu uiiik'Vgo d^ooiujHHulLt 
at 100 ^ 

SdiniidDniiui k'KniO^ 

SB , 

„ 16fl .... 

.... 4flm ....... 4«-»> 

M H ^ 23 .. 

.... e-7l 697 

S O .„. 

UC7 U-64 

iia .... 

£^H»PbO' -.. 

Ma ... 

Lkhfoate of Siivcr. — Thrown down, from A eolution of llic soJa- 
Halt, by niintti? of hilvor, tun a ^royish-wliile prccijiitale, toriiln^ ri>Ivi 
on i:V|MJHuro to light, nnd cakiug togoiher in Inwlin^ watt^r. — IW 
compowfl Uilow 100'. 

OH^o*. ..ill fie'55 aaie 

Ago . .. ,.. IIK S3'46 . .. 3144 

0*H"AtfO*.„ »i7 ..»-.. 100-00 lOMK) 

Llclu>nif) bcid diwfloTvrfl roailily in alciM^ in rMer, arwl tn t«W»&<™ 




Felletter. -4nji. Chim. PhtfS.S, 105? •T, PhaJ^, 2, 336. — ^nrt, ^mi. 

SoflREfiO- ^^ /- Phami. 3, ;SaC ; 7- pr. C^iein. 2^, 473. — Amu PharrA, 
54, G7. 

Oiimlg. — Discovered by Pellefier in 1816. 

Sovrcfs. Occurs, togetber vrith rami and a littlo loiiHoic aolil, in 
tho guin i>f the olive true {Utifdb, viii., Phytocktm, 47) (PeJlcliorJ, Tlie 

SiiD of thi& tree outaiue, besides olivi!. a re»iii soluble in ether and in 
A. alc^iholt !i HeeoEid retiiii Iji.tlii Holubk' in f.'1IierT but ear^il^ auluble in 
hot nnd cnld alcohol, and n giirn inHobible in botb Irqiiids (Sobrei'u). 

Srt bIbo TromBflarff on Tlie ppiinof (lie olipa inw (jV JV. ]9, 2, 42). 

By eYhHiiBting olive leavea ^tb dilute? hydroefilririt; add, precipi- 
tatiiiff the Gooccntra tod cxtrnct with flicmoaiEtj difisolvJug th(.i pvccipilato 
in dtuiti^ bydi'Oohlorie udil. and precipitatiog with lojkg'aeaia, Laiidcrer 
(Jtgwrf, 57, 20-5) oblajued a pULij^itritc whiuL, wlieu l-reaLed wilh 
aln>bi>l» yieldi^d ciyHlali* having a bittfr, disagreeablt? LiHte, biftoluble 
in alcohol, but. BoUihic in dilute acids, witbont fonuiog with them 
crysUllienblo cninpoundfl, CryHla(a were ulao nbtamed by treating un 
alcoliolic extract of fit'flh oliye-leaveB with dilule atretic ncid, piecipi- 
tjitiiiF- the i^iulLOawilh ii^utrnl acetate iif It^ad, free Lug Ihe filtrate 
fnim lead by iiiejtaa nf liyrboHolpbtiric aei(l» and evapi^ratrng-. These 
LTystftls WL'Te Jffliqueswat, and melted when heated in a platinum 
tf^iou, giving off ail aromatic I'idour, au<l leading a reBiduo of charoooL 
— LaiKlcrcr {RqKrt, 72, 348) afterwards obtained cryetalH from naripe 
otive«, but did iioL further examijie them, 

Frfparathii. The finely jtowdered gum is digested witli ctbiir to 
remove the resin, aud tlie rpRidno ia boiled with alcohol of 36'*, Tlie 
qiiickly-!Ut«red polutioa solidilioH to a ctyetitllinc laaea, wbieh ie puri- 
bed by waahing witli cold alcohol and rc-cryntnllieiag Snrm a boiling 
alcohoUc solution (Pelletier, Sobrero). 

Pt-opcrtit^M Obtained fri^m ai)floli;te ale(>hol ia anhydTous crystals, at 
IIS — 120", which melt in n t.niiiHiaiii'jit Ihpud wiLhniit loss of weight. 
The incltyd maas solidifles, on cording, to a colourlesrt or yellowJBli, 
ttaospareiilreaiii, wliich oi'aeka, and, when powdoryd^ bocomos electric j 
he»led to 70°, it again becoitiea Ilufd, but erystalhueB from akohol in 
iu iniiniial elate. — Inod(*r".fUs* taotea biller-BWCct, flomewbat ai-ojiiaiic 

FuiH^. Solipepo. 

*8 C . IfiH IJ315 HH-IS 

18 It I.K fi'7:] fiM 

10 80 ,., WV6 :il|-77 

)l> ICWtO lUO-OO 

«f wtcf , i; 1 

h^ math hyAr^vy^v 
> 1mm iwi^lilT nf oxaUu Kod^— 

r, as it M^H, tm ftxposHre la ti# 

1^ bMiat g i ^ t m and jcnnttkloi ^'^ 
1W avdpitata, ooHaGlttd ttfUr mmiJ 
■liin^yitfc tafiftrwattfr mad aJishol 
lottoa, ftt 150', tW vUe of in wmktr, » noTitattnUv- bikI conUtai 

to the fM»»l* iyU^iPJCrV,— ^ r^tih ^/t^odh dwnbMdtgr 
boQiiig with ayepui «&TiL vii^ait cvolatkn of gu, miiI, aft«r «Dt 
^y^ boSn^ b fiodnctted iMo « Sglit powikr coouiiUDjf oiidv <ti M 
UM a rainoai onJatkftj u t oJ wc l of cJinL — IOl Aqo^ous i.tlivil culonn 
Mi^pAdle pjf ca f fitr , on bon^ pale-gncn; it immodiatcly ruduoe* f^ 
Olid tftbor-Mto (Sobnro^ 

C-mAMlvM.— m& ir«lv% — A. ITirA 1 dr< Waim: OHvfl otv 
lotLIaed fmni wftler and dried in a vaeiinm, luMir whes ouUodi fiOB 
2-56 to 3-33 p. C-, water (I at- = 3-37 p. o 00) (&>brwt»). 

19 H. 

61 ■« 


^^ 7-00 

n 0,,^ 

M^«,, Sl'H 

C^H"0« * Aq„.,,. STB lOO-OO ,.„,„ lOOOO 

U. IF^ 'J fU. Water. — Culourle^f tnmttparctit tirUou, groopod^ 

etuni' Th<.7 hmvrfnjiii h'\^h tu 0'17p. c. wiitt^r vrbuu fuarxl (3 at ■= f^ 



wftt«r not Godicieiit for completo eolutjon, it melts at li)^ to ou oily 
liquid, solidifying to a cn'stiilline maee on coolia^. It b not altered 
by prolor^gtsd boiling wilii wnU^f, A hut wjiieuitH aoliiLiuu i)f olivil 
coutaiuiii^ reain, grown turbid oei aioliiij^, aud be(;<in]i*B t?lL-!ir again 
only ftftex long atauding, forming, at tlie same timt- , a gi"aiiulai" deposit 

Oii^il a7Btaliiat;B unchanged from dilute auiphitric and hgdi^chloric 
!^(£s. — It Ao^v, ij'jt deiu>m(K?se w?trjf!rjie LwfiuHH^ta (Sf>biiji'iA buL ilin- 
aolven in a»;^neoii9 ummoma^ jitAaih, rtTid ntnifti ( PdlolitrJ, and 19 precipi- 
tated unaltered bj aculio &cid (Sobroro), 

LtiQ'l'Cvmpomid. — NuuLrLl aceiiit^ of li*l lUroHS flawii from oqucuiu olivil 
vhJXt flake*, bi6u!iib]*' in fltvtio BJid tl'^illyLiar). VVlOH liqlU'oUs uHvil bpTocipI- 
tiited by baeL- nji^tutu ^>f lead, eaita con laiiiing from M'Ml Ui 55'il» p. c 
oxide of loud are i>btL^ii<:d, tiie last of wiiioli iniLj p»^rliapfi bi? repro- 
BtiQled by the fonnula 0"ll^'0'S3PbO (oalu, =- fi&TO p, i-, PbOj (Subrero). 
— An !n.|iit*f^iii^ solntioTJ of nitiTLie nf m\\\, adrled lo a bir^^c esi;i.'rt« nf 
aqueous olivil auJ iirjjmoniu, tbrowa dowii a pretipltiilo coiitninuig a 
emaller proportiou of ojddc of load. In th» ticuD oUo, tlw a&lt Tftriea lu i>oio> 
poiitiou (Solrero), 


S8 16B 3*Ea aiaa 

18 H „ ,...^.... IB 3-«S .,.„„, a'u4 

10 O „ ««„.,.- BO lG'3a Iflie 

S PbO BS4 15-71 -, ■45-61 

S8 C 

18 H „ ,„. 

10 O „ _„.,. 

S PbO 

CH^'o^aPbO , 490 100-00 .„.»,.H 100-00 

Oliril diBBolvcs in xeood-spirit and iu alcohoi. Boitbig ulcobuL dipBolfn 

it m aU prOfiortLcnc > it iet tiipowjj dcTm from u muclcrftivly dilute solulion uu cmli&g 
in c^itult [ UpliilaE, frum i i-oDtvut-rot-ffiL imd n.'UQ0U5 Hjlulion, starcli-likc fruiiulvt 
m d^poiuted (i'likrliiv, ;^4>b^tJ^:t) . 

Tt diMolTeB flb'ghtly in rtAtr-, and freely in Htrong: acetic acid, from 
wbicb it IN rii>t prfri[iilated by wntti. Soluble. acc;ordiirg lo Sobrero, 
in votat'te iiti6,Jii:ed oih ; a&^oidiiigp to Pollttierj only in email quantity, 
eej^amtijig again on oooUug. 

Appendia tt> OliviL 

SoBBEftO. Ann, Pfntrm. 54^ 80- 

Fortiiafwii tivd Pt-eprvfition^ 1. When oil of vitriol ia ai]ded to 
anuL'OUB olivil, a precipitate is prdduood conaiBtiriff Just '>f pnle, and 
flfterwm"da of dark rod tlukca, vhiob dif^eulve, on furlKor addition uf oil of 
vitriol, and are again precipiluted by w^Uer. — 2. Diy liydrochloiTC acid 
fan irt |»aB**od ovti- oliviK mid tlit Itim^jeiaturo gradualJy raised to LOU", 
wbcivui»OQ tho j^rtt-n mibsliinoi- tlitet toriudd Inrns red, ami (in wasbing 
wiUi water iirioH-s oUvinitin. — 3. OUrd is diasolved in fuming bydro- 
cUoric ociJ and booted for somo tuuo in tbe wi^ter-batb, wUon a tluok, 
du-k-iod precipitate of olivirutin is produced, 

Gliviriitiii fnriii3 a raouJi'timtti ro^i;-redi sometimeH dark-red povvder, 
varying sliglulj' in colour and cj»mpot*itiou ju^cordiug in fhu t**mpL'rn- 
lUTO ut \^'lii<:li it is prodoced, aud t!ie fiti'onglli of tliL- acidt mfi\ilvi^i;vi. 

i^ ftytt- after Aooao tivw. 

mML 6; 417: »- JiY^ dl. t4& 
37. M. 
X MSr Ch^pt «rf U, 743i X J: 

Tu. W. C. M^mt^ X J^«rt. e^ 58& 

JrtJUvii>M<£UBaa.)^lV> pBtooona coMtitiwiit of U» ttlievm 

i|iifttititv kii tW t>y>l .^ JVi ' —wHi Kvv, ud in iltll nwUbr ifM&titjr in tk 

uuWn-r lAV- -'''^ IH) by AiiBmir hvAh bniWd lyilftii"*- 



pTtpatatiGtt. \. The roots, ground to a pit!p, are eshaustert with 
cold water; th^ filtrate is tvaporsttei!; and the eKtrict i^xhuiiated with 
alcohc^ff aud ullowi^d lu uvftf>oriLtt iipootaneouely {Salodia). — 2. Tho 
Kiota are i-sliausted witfi alcifhtd of "0 p. c. ; the tincture in fvaporated ; 
aud the I'-itTMtl Frfied fmiTi wax hy t'thi^r, and from mnt^'jiis hitl*.T nnb- 
*Jtance and ^j^ltj; by CLild wjitor. Tho residue iw dlw solved in boiling 
TFttter; ihesohitiou t;lt<.^red uTidcvopoi'atcdj aud the extract iflilianolved 
in abeohile aloliol. The nlcciholic solution ia a^aii^ cva|jOL"&tcd» and tho 
cTcTarain left behind Is deccJoriaod by «:lutlou in alcohol and treat- 
ment witli arjimfll clinrroal (Bu^-hiicr *& ITprborffCT). — 3. The wiinhud 
and comminuted rootw are digested iu an einial weig-bt of alcohol for 
15 daya in the dark ; the alcoUthl is decanted ; and the rofliduo is preHsed, 
*nd aj^aio twice tn^atod \\\th alcohol. The mised tinctTires ai%: then 
iiatilled to remove the aJcoho], mA liie rihidue m dried in the water- 
bath wilbont exposure to light, afterwarfls n^-disaolved in nhrobrd 
utid allowed to evaporato K|)ontaneouBly. Iu about 40 daye, white 
arnorphous mnescs of cyclamin eoparate, aiid may bo purified by waab- 
inpwilb cold, and diaflolvin^ in boihng alcohol, from which they aro 
liri?dpitated cai cnoLug- (Luea). — -4. The i^rita of Whw-bn*jid, i^illecLed 
iuHutumn, are slicedj well rlried, and reduofd to a course powder, of 
TlileU six pmniia are placed in a etill, toR^lher with 15 volumoa cf 
iilwfhol of Bp, ^i\ 0'«17 to O'ea.l, flud allowed to stand over ni^^ht. In 
^raominET, 1^ or 2 volnmea of the alc^ihol are distilled off, aad when 
^ i^mainder iu tbe fitill hiLs hi-eome cntrif the i1i>ttilla(i? is poured iHick, 
lod tlip prccefis rep(?atpd twicp. "Hie wiiole JH then, while KtiM warm, 
prteaed iii a Mneu clotli. and the aoHd portion treated afre&li with 
y Tolomea of alaibol. The tinctures ai^ mixed toi^ether, distilled until 
fl* residue ia reduced to G volumcfi, and the contents of tbe atill aro 
emptiwl. while warm, intx^i a g!«aw vetihe!. After i^Ltnidiiiy from 4 tu 
ll>wcck«j the cyelaiuin in separatee], [.viilly in ttie ftfrfii of a crust, 
portly aa |>^wdi'T. It ;k coUeottd, washed will: ci^ld alcohol of sp. gr- 
0'617 eo long; aa colouring matter is thereby removed, ancl eryBtalUsed 
^FUTQ boiling alcohol, with the help of auliiml charcoal. By roriwnCratmg 
tfc noiliK^liijiJor uni vB»h»waierp, i; litt.lo mure may bo obtiixioil, tho whole 
U^Untiug luVflh ofLlic dritd i-iwld (^iLrllua). 

Prfjpcriies. Small, white crystals (Suladui). White, cmorpbouti, 
"itblo niasa, without Hmeti or liiBlre, becoming; brown on espoBuro tt> 
%tit, bfid ewrllinp up in moist air from ob^ierptioii of water (L«c*), 
ftrfcctlj uHi:rvstaIhftitble (MarliiiaV Topte, very sharp (Luca), and 
ttpo:ially harsh mid bitter in tbe llmml fSaladiti) ; imt bitter, |jut 
roretiiely ahaiii and Imrsh (Buchner & HeTl>ergor). Aetinn on the 
■^^ajiiem, emetic m^id purp^ativi.' (I^aladiu). Poitionona to t^inall nnimalfl 
(wca 4 Bernard), (r^cc J^. ij^rrf 6, 3*JC; 6, i52). NeutmU— An 
fciwoDfi fudiition mtotea tin; plane of ^i jnflansed ray aUy:btly to tbe 
Wt (Lnai). 

CaUutathi* acecrdiit^ fa MuriiuB £ KIbigcr Do Luea, IGiiif;or, 

10 S^ ........ 66'©} &VBI ,„.,... CS-JO 

SI H ,-,.,- 21 566 912 7-99 

go O „,... IfiO 37 74 :tS"31 afl-«t 

C*ll-*0» 4£l ,. lOOOO lOO-Oti IWOO 

The fma cims fi hytlTojni in the iLiiiJfHfl nudoti lliv corr.'t!tJii»9 uf ihn 

IHO *- C"WM^ 

ivbts it b 


it flfiStt 1^ ^ .^. J-uiuETiui 


(LacaV TW iMrt i^w dM ^ iffMr i£l tte lifiM to 4Mi»r 
■towA ' I II II I ^J»,fa.(Bi^»AHf>b»,^^6. JnM«dtf 

CDDVOTtt il teo onlc Mil (SUadnV— 7. FoM mvAiff p^tt^t ooa- 
vartB it iito » fttcafiar acid, wiib eivtanoo oi brdfnetn (LmV*- 
a OjdmiB does m4 mAg gci l i wwtHMU vitt Wr^fam, bat b 
eootact wTthyy<ii<, at a teafMntan <tf 9&--3«% it k ffamqiuvi 
with farmatkn rf frti— lilii ■^gmr(Lqea)> 

CyiduDb il BrJabtp in mbunt 500 putfl of 
^aMib). cm «m«r cocitTTlfl it into * tnaia^%iwnjk t^u^ hum* u*J 
■ftc wv Mifa disBolrw it tMlr. Hic »dlitti<w FpoAa like ecap-^riu^* 
beoome^ tnft«dat€0— 70' mm pgparariofiof coapibtrd cYcUniin, aaJ 
olom agKui iftcT oooliB^ and Efaodio^ f<v wrvnJ dara (Li>aiX Ha 
Kqtbeou M^Btion is g ^n tfi M ept (Ihnnu). — Cjprbcnin diMuIrr* moft 

It is not pnvif4tAt<sI ttotn tat aloolioficr M^tdku t^ <nwHM<i (Bodi^ 
ft Htfb^gvrh (T bv mm^ mkt (Sdbdtn}. Blmc^vc* in »qwM 
«ltaU (Lues). * ■ ■ *- ^ — " — ■-' "'^ — '-"'^^ T^TTiiiiBBiiiii^i ii* 
Hid wodAj ite aqa^am ■iihitiwi to— » «^ii« pMuitatt* viih ib» MttM ^ btf» 

C^'cliuuin diHaolim in mvtff-gpM and in ateo/uL Soluble ui fftfir 
Md vilh'.iut BOpu&tiaKL on bming (Lncml 8otnh^ mmijun to 

kpoiaiblc, ivnmlutf lo llvtitB) ia /^^nru- loeoltlbio ID mtfyhUt ■/ 

cAi0r0^>ntt (liUCA), m dAcr, ukd in m^ both fixed ud volatile.—' 
pteltilj predpitated hj tme^n iif$aiJt (SttliM^i Loom). 


A. ScHUEFER. Amu PharoK ^9, 957. 



of Carlhtim^ii (rnftoritk'i {Uandb.yiW, Mtt/tockem. 6S) esaminfld tmmf yearn 
ftg^i by Dufonr {Aim. Chim. 48, 2S3 \ A. QchL 3, *81), and DabereJaor 

(iS^Au", 26i 2Cti), Bofl Ihe Prroncoua elntcmcnta DTPrciBBor rtfcrrod lo at piigd 26, 

Ttfl. »Lt — OccxirB in saftliJWor in qdantities d front -ft to ^ per cent. 
(Salretat, N. Atni. C/iiri^. Fhi/s. 25, 3^7). 

Prrparotion. Safflower is wiiBliL^l witL pwre water, or witli water 
Ci^nfaining- aj^olin acid, bo [ong na _yp](ow r'Mnining mutter [k removed, 
and then treated with cold alc"ln>l (wLicU iliBsolvCB but litllti of tlia 
carUmmiii) to romc»vc a futty aiibbiiuice, TUo rcaUluc \a buutcn to a 
|nil[> wiLii wafer ctJiitainin^ 15 \y. c. cryetalUsed carb^uile of rmd:i, aJid 
atliiwuil to stand Fi.u' w>tjie nonrs, after wliicli it in straiueil arid prt'see*!, 
And ibe red [Jkalinc liqnid is nearly aeutraliacd willi acetic Jicid. Collon- 
w<iol (a thon immer&:'d irt it, luid the cartUflium is ttirown dnwti thcre- 
upou by n^ptalcd addition of ticctic acid, mitil the liquid ie iic;utraliatd. 
Tue cotton-woo! ia taken out afl*r 21 houiti, washed with clean 
water, and fiLmeraiid for ha]f-nri-bn»ir in water contaiiiinLt' 5 p. c crys- 
laliiiseci carbonato of Bodo^ whereby the cartbainin is extracted. On 
removing Iho cotton, and iTomodiately udding in the durk, ycllowiah- 
rcd Boluiion an excess of citric acid, the cartnamin aepartttes in flakes, 
whjcb are wa^litd ai:^ much as ^ttdhlc by dccautalion, and [kfteiwards 
Colkcled on a filter and tiiasolved in 6tr<:>ng alcolioL By cvapii-ating, 
firet ov<T the water-bath, and afterwards in a vaemmi, the carthamia 
ia tlirown down in the foiiu of n crust, while a product of decoiupoai- 
t] j^mainft in the uiotber-liiiuor, The concentrated liquid is mixed 
uifh 3 or 4 vtfl[unBat>F water, the tir«ei(iitated caxtLamiti wneJied till the 
waifih-wfllc'r LegiuB to exhibit a pure I'ed colour, iind then dried at 100° 

ffichliepcr), A timiW method was previguely tinplojcU by Dufuur & Kf^tDer 
J«.pLrv-. 13.346,) 


Pmprrtiei. Dark, brown-red powder, with LTeKuiah u-idescence; 
►rphoLfl, even wheu highly fnngnifled. Diied in * thin layer upon 
er, it forioe a aploudid green film, having a metallic luatre. 

of 100*. 

ss c „. Ifla ,., 

le H 10 ... 

14 -. lis ... 


...... 56-9 



P^H'»C 396 ._ 

.... loo-oa . 

.,-. lOCMI 

Cont*iTw» morWFer, 03 p,c. mtrogeo. 

jyeconpoBiiwne. 1- t;arthartunyieldsby<fry</t?fj7/ftfro73,a amaHqnanlity 
of walei' and oil, with eojLTcely any gas, and ieavi?a charcoal, amounting! 
to one-t!iird of its weight (Dufoui'>> — 2. aolb d^cd with Hllliiwor blfluliQ* 
quirklj Oil eiposurt 10 light aud lur li^ufuurfiund ercn in tlu> dark fit e> (I'lupL-rnluro 
flf IGO" (Guy LoiBar&llimflrd), — 3- CartUamiii is decomposed by boiling 
ill Witter oratmJi^it. wi(h formnlinn of a I'cddinh-jellciw prodiif% BoUiblii 
b water, which w not rcudL-red iUBOluble by repeated soluiion and 
evapomliun, and is tJiert'by diatin^ushed from sataower-yellow 
(Sell lie pt-r). This prnJuct of dccuit)]i(>rtitjnii remams in aoluliun wheu, 
TO the atieve priHVHfl, lh<! concr-Jit rated alcoholic sohition la ptcdpitaled 
by water, and may be obtahied, by eva^xirallng the Hnlutiim, as a 
dark brown, hygroscopic gum. Its enlution hi waltjr containing uoetic 

JiOf PfilMAnV MJCLEUS C^J'i 0XVGfiS-^^JCIXV3 C^W>». 

lu^id, produr^H, with neutral acetate of lead, a gli^lit prrapitAt* 

tlnrk rtikk?-!, nrid, nftcr icnictviD^ tbf^B1?t ammoTiiA tbrovrs iiown a 
orange- jt'IIow prccipitttte. This contains, at H^O**, nii an a^ia 
&0-\i p.c. risiJe of lend, tlie remainder o.iUMijtLiijg of 5I'i4 ji_ c_ 
■J'34 n,, ftid 44'42 0.; rcprt'wentL'fl, tlierefow, hy Iho fotmi 
CM**0'* + J- Pl>Oj and produced from carthamin fvy abpoipdoQ 
6 jtl. 0. mid lo&3 of 2 at. water (Schlicpcr), — 4. CarthuTam licatod wi 
sftfp^vroia af:i<i^ \a diesoWcdx ionxung a yellow liquid. — o. It fe 
separated from ita red Bolution iu oilo/ vitriol hy watir. — (1, N^iItv" 
pri'diiilntps it fnim an nlkuline Boluticm ; in ponfat't with the acrd 
procipitat4? lutiis brown, aud, on beating, is diBBilved with yellow lv 
— 7. It ia net altered by htfdroAvlpfiale of ammoni'i. — 8. A noltitt»n 
cai'tlioiDiu m dilute cduific pvtusfi becomt^B cban^cdt fram absc^rptloDi 
i>jLyt^ea, anaiuuiut^ a bri^bt-ynllnw colour; tlie change taki^e placo aU^ 
ill cloned vPfflt-lR, l:iEit ninix' niowly- An ujucoiu unniniu&cBJ nluiLoD, *] 

tui he4ioiiw< jfiloH W fllfendm^, ii pr^vipilAfi^Ll by lU^Eic nfkd in hroun fl&kfA. t'pli 
in nUnJifipTirLtcipEliLhto hj* ivict, and fr^iTAEning ftl'Stb p. c. <?., 5^tiO H., Ami 41'iS 
ttinnflpmuiJnL; Lv Ihc foniiLiln O'lfO'^. Tliu ucriicr Rlirfeic giro*, wirlk 
octflalv i:if Jl^mI, a »«ond brvvni |;n3dpil(LiCi hwH &■ lut, on uddjEloa of u 
j^oUdy Baki:a conlainiii^ tiO'SS p. c, ijiddc af Icod, tlif rtaiwindpr nauiitu| 
49'20p-c^C,,4'0£ H.^vidi'iTS 0.: Ibnf aiv fomt^ from ooritaDun by «bM»tia 
of 1 bI. OijgGn Had oliminntiim of 1 at. ifitar ^C»H""0* =. *y'12 p. c.~C^ 4'06 E, 

MnH87o6,). — y. Carthamiu heated with aqueous bkhromau ttf p^iaji^ 
ie diesnlvt'd, forming a yellow li<^ajd-^- 10, AfH^noftincid mitpium ^ 
Vi'ppft IbrowH down, from a aolulion of caTtlianim In aminriiua, u 
iilmntit Muck precipitate, ci^nlAiniug cuprous riuile, ammonm^ »M 
■ i>:.ii1ii4cd carLhamiTi ; tlic Hliraie H green. 

rftrlhamin ditfuolroj* very elis"ht]y in u^attr, forminp k ittJi>-nd 
«olu1.ioti. It di^Bolvea iu Miilii tmd <tIAGlinf <:arbvnatfj in nU imfp'- 
tioiLH without nentr.:kli«inglhcaj ; il ia {n^lubte ftko in miut-uu^t omnAiiiB. 
1'be deep yoUowich-rc*] wohiUuns are predpitaled by acid*; xhtj 
undergo dt^compoaition on staadia^. <s«eiiboTe). I>4lwmstt- tUimM ■ 
rsiUkiv^iiDd of nvthAiun uwH «od», ciT«&llim^ in eakHiFieM^ tikj ih««db>, vtaA 
ft-hlirffr nt noi fcbl<^ lo obtaiiL ^ CaJthaiuiii dissolves in haryla-mUr U ft 
yelliiw liqi'ifl. pt" i^'Uatod by acids i it b not precipit*tc4 from »>hl- 
iiori ill jtmiuouia t»y cblorido ol bamm orcftldum. Th? oniiDiuiBal 
solution pni^iiwv*, vUh pnAidUbnde o/ «nt, ■ yelb>wUli-l.TrDwu prvr^ 
Ut«^ f^^jid^k- m nci^lic moA ; it pnvi]itaU<B wnjwiiilftfnifu Af trvm bniwiH 
Trdf a^d Avnvnv juMiti^t rf*d. 

Cartbanoin dMiohtA ia oleo4»4 ^tk fi«« pvpfe coloori it v i» 
aiiaUv ID •ibr <SdifamTV IbmIuMc la mlofib awl jCnrf «A (IhJovt 
It 4j** <^ ^^ paitkular, a fim mw^ to tftenj-mi ooioor, km ^ 


Igr »g ma i at^*W« M lr>Ji 
Ac ttlnbT ocDUaliit^ 



with ammoTifd, wlmrehy a dirty nrangB-y**llaw jirrHiipitiite Ih pivjchiced- 
This in decomposed by dihilt? sulplmviu tidily and iKu Harb-bruwn hoIq- 
tioii freed from L?3t*^of5n of the uoid by mejuia of u<JGtate of buryta. 
After Klti^tlon, tbc liquid ie evaporated iu a reU^it to i^ tfvnip. and the 
Siifliower-yeUow pxtiftoted tlieriifixjui Ly alifiikluto itli.'olioL Tlic alco- 
hoHciaoliTlimi ifl mdiiced to a ^yrup, out nf contact Tv[th air, nndmiied 
with water, whereby tlio uxjdised aaffluwor-yelluw is precipitotod, 
while the tinchftu^cd colour renia ins io aolution. 

The aqneuiis fiohition is of a deep browo-ycUow colour, has an acid 
reactirm luid a biUi-r sjjino taul^^ It is {iFkwily nlli^ruil by Hlanding: or 
wamiiixg lit prt^seiio'' of uir, ftmi throws iiowii a browii pividucc Kohiblft 
in ftlcoJioL ^ A sotation of the i^artially chao^^od saiHowi^r-yohow in 
dilute acetic aoiit proi^Epitatos iieotral acotatc of lead in dirty-brown 
flakci*. wiiiohcouLaui, at 100", 29'42 p. c. PIX)., 3d'4a 0., 3'21 11^ and 
2fl'!*i) O., f5.*rre*i|wiiding tu tli; fiirmiila C"JTi'0", PbO. Thy Jiltmti? U 
pix^clpitated by amoionia iu dark-yellow Hakes of a compound of tha 
uBchauped yeUi>w with uskk uf lend corit^uing tlil-Oti p, c PbO,, 
iT'bo tj,. 1"92 ILi and 16'tio 0-, jmd reprcaented by the formula 
C'*EI'"0'VJPbO- Elenco it appeura that in the duoouipoflituiu 'Jiy^u 
U absorbed and water ebniinated (SohEIcperf Ann. Pfiwin. 5^ Z5S). 

Garminic Acid. 

Pellktiee & Caventou. Auri^ Ch'm. Pljfs. 8, 255 ; J. Phttri'^^ 4, l^X 

JoH^\ Cfiej},. Schfi/ten 4, ISIS. 

XurVE. Ann, Pharm^ 55, 101. 

WABfiEH D£ LA Kde* jl'j/i. Pkirui. C4, 1; JV*i'i Mag. J. 31, 471 s 

.VfiH. C'/-^m. .Soc, 3. 4.^4. 
ScPCTiKNRFitGEii. CaiijiL rfiid. 40, 47 ; ./. p'. C/*^m. 74, 444 i C7*fl;n- 

C^nfr. lJi58, 943 j in detail iV. An^^ CAfra. PA^/?, 54, 52. 

Ctrjti/fciKiJi. Carkiiuoi-rft't. COf-^«trcfh. Ktrm'Htfoff'. Prinpipolly iitTCMtignled 
br Wurmi d"> In Ttm' Freipi.T^ n'siilw {fl(i« ST, £S) are given if«. anVirf. 16, 53 ) 

fknireet, Jn the vamiiH kimU of wKXsua whicli yield cochineal. — 
Att^i'nling to Lassaigne {AriA, Chim. Phj/s. 12, 1112), the fpd of the i*i- 
^Ikd kctmog {CoL-ctia liicia) is identical with thai of cochineal; and^ 
fecoordiu^ to Gmelin {Etl 3, fl*J4) probably also the red of stick-lac 
(Coccuff Jiciu) iavestiijatod by Punkc {A, Tr. IH) and by John (Chvm. 
SchriftetL, 5, 15). — Amiriliii^- to Ikdlh' .nnrn' {C'>mpf. rend. 43, S82), the 
bkif«<^ui of Moftardtt did^irta containt^ canntuic add- 

Pnp^tration. Oochinciil m boilod in 40 pads of water for 20imnute» ; 
nfnii hour, in dccuuted from the sediment and pvccipitJited by an aquoous 
•olnfion ofn'^ulral otretatJ^of Ipad, lo whidi n iputntitynf slnimg" Nicotic 
add equal to [th Iho weight of (he ccyrttal*jj Jia** hoeu previously luldinl. 


ad mho* 
Iv cOwr, _j It 

^ ft ietfe ftlMki^ Mia pmW. 

«f •^ir^wkcRbv^tW liiH^ m li 

4ttTCakBMt Ere* ffCM I^Md (WttTKB^k Am! 
CodMMl if freed horn hit hytt^ktt, Md afltfww^ kiBed n- 
VElk akokol «/ 4d' Ol Bj emiwntBie iW red Unctopib 
d« iiaAa^ gy^A re MM tbnlvlt Ite 
■re repMind- TW tdiiu^ aisM with reon 
eqiod ij— iliij ai ether, ihfvwv don A* flobamff reaiter afw 
rtaoi ln g >orec tJMg- Tfae &qad borevU^ rhrrrjytWt ttct nbrai^ 
jkfcli, OB evvpontiire, * rcredi* wkU k treUfd im tfacsarep ■mibs' 
m llm lijUili (Nktier A CkivntAv). "j -'^ jrDciu r^b ■_1„^___ 

I, roMfar ft scvlet-rM povto- wbtt 

. PefVMwat a Ike fti 

IrilvBted; wA <mtaJliBe, 
truMparart tukder iW micnM 
■U» fti IM'^. Uh ft wmk 

1* ", 


W O ^-_^ 


-^ u-s 


no ^^ iiOi>«o 


p^Bfl^t «iiui add anIuBd «»*lh<vC.«^a,«Aii8MJi. Urn. 
CLa ^^-^ SI, >»). 

tkctrmpomtimt. 1. Heftt^ ftbovo 130' !t jrirlds lu ft«y IL|tf i 
and ftt ft rM-hntt, sweUfl ttp uid givv« off % cbmB <fMBrilitr « rvd 
rftpottr, but on frmr'Trenniatio oO. — 2. The ftqaeoaa volution doe* wA 
tJbvtth rrryyn^ nX ordbftrr tetaperatorctf. — 8, Tite Kid b qQiokty d^ 
OOingicHH-KJ trj" iodtw an^ cA/orrnf : it forrm* wHb I r t m t l u nn wannfaif >r 
•tftodirt^f A yi'ltiiw prL-npituU* fifitutilc* m aItijIioI — 4. AiliU^d 14 ra^J^ 
r%\Ay warn nurie acid of e\k gT. 1 '4, il pmdiicea ft «(i^y« rvulalk*! 
of i>ilric oxidi^, and ie oODvcnf><i ujto a miihirv of tuUo-axcvmc ttd 

ulftlic acid* <Ue U BtU^), — I>fHiAi« of mriiunl b MAj dHdlnbi^lr 
j^l^aatfaWaptf aod iJao, mwc dt^lj bj Jt^tTf^wfr^iit »f mi— ah at »*^ 
jftfwtW* tT'i'M* rednBOTa* ji« ookiar on niiSNt* totivilr ffaUMre.Jre 

^^^^^Pl CARMINIC W 3^ 

PIvTBh 9, 266), SiJiSti«ibergcr*g cwniiiLic acidi exliibil a nniiliu reActioiL in ctnt* 
tact witlj liTJrMulpburic iieid (ku bf?lc")( 

Comlmtntiofa. Oarminip noid diseolveB in «*fifrt- in all proportioue. 
— It U solablc vritboiit decijmi»08itif>u in strong htfdrtKMtftic acid aqcI 
in oil ojj^itruil (Dr la Rue). Tho nHd of Ppllelier A CfcTtritoa in mrhonisHil \^ 
oil of TifTinl- 

Cnrminin ftciri nnites witli bas<es, forMiing- jt^iTw wliinli, with tbe 
excepti<>n of the cnpric salt, do not exhibit a eonj^ttttit oomjiosition. — 
Tbc aq^ioftne ncid ia coloured piuple-rcd by iho.^rflrf Maiin and liy 
amtn^ni'-T, Jind precipitated purplc-rcd by the rtH^itim enr/Aj, In the alco- 
holh^ }K?id. llje Qted alkalis and ammonia [.>tcduce slriular pn^ipiiaten. 

.Siifphntt of aljtmiTta ihrcw^ down from tlie a^|aoo«8 ncidj af1«r 
Addition of ammonia^ ii Une eamilnG'rf-d laki* f the at'^tat^ia of lend, 
line* and silver tfirow down purple-red prccipitatiia, the lost of which 
is raflily decoaipns^, with H*oparation -^f metniiit silver- With tlie 
nitrat^H of Ipftd, mercury (iiieiL-nnJUH Hn,[t), and silver, lb»! pTf^ifutatfis 
fcr<? of 4 reddish oolonr- Proiu- and bi-i^blorid*' of tin colour as|aeowa 
cArminlf ni^d earmiiio-rcd, without preeipitation (Do la Kue). 

Tlie arid of Pelielior & L'fivoutou producea a copious violet pre- 
dpitatj? with prctochloridy of tin. From mt aqueoue or alcoholic 
siSntion, htfdrate ofnhimimi piticipltatoB a red lake, l)ec(iming violet \m 
boiling: if on aeid or a salt of slumitia be added to the liqutdf the 
hirdrotd is eo!r>!irod bright r^-d in the cold, and liirnu violet when 
boiled i bnt if an alkah Ix- added, the hydrntc of alumina forms u red 
Ifiko. wTiii^h is not iviidi-'red viuIeL by lonjif br»ilfiig» or even by lien- 
iralifling the alkaU with jin aeid after hoilin^. This rarminfe add prp- 
cipitntca tuirafe of eiteer only when it contama nilro^noua eubstaneeB. 

Cnrmtu'ilf tif Cojijirr. — All iiqueous ptf>lu|lnn of (larininic ;n'id, t<i 
which acttie aiHd has bei'n addlxl, ia [ireeipitattxi by a ipranlity of 
Boetat<> of eop|it?r not RiiiliGiGnt for eomplote fiatiiratiou. '-^ Bronse- 
colcQivd^ bai'd mass {Do la Rod). 

De Ilk Rao, 

MO iflS *8'05 ..^.... 4703 ] 

liK. 1* ...-.-.. 401 .MS ' 

le o ,.„ 128 se-ei ,., 36-74 

Cuo 39S ii-aa .,. H'sa 

C^fl«0",0uO, g49-3 IWOO 10000 

CanDioic acid ib eohiblc in alcofiol in ab proportions. It diaaolvee 
uiAy slightly in rthci., but is not, when piiro, ]>rccipitatod by ether 
fivm an olcobotle. ttolulinu (DelaRiie)- Inaoluble ui oiia, botb^^Lurci auil 
wiatiit, and is not prociprtatt-d by itinitic acid (Pelh-tier & Caveiiton). 

f?chuter'»hfrrtjn^8 Citrminic aciil^.- — According" to Scliiitzcubcr^er, co- 
chineal contains twt> or more coloured acidn, one of whiuJi may 
pmbably be reprt^i^iitcd by the formnla C'lPO*", while the others 
«T% jH-Thnp*. C^'H"Oi\ C'"n^" aud C^^H^O". They are obtained, ac- 
cording; to liifi elalemcnt, as followa, 

1, An aqiieons docoction oF cochineal ia precipitated by chloride of 

ctJcinm, aiiU the precipitate is decouiposod under alc^jhol with an iu- 

auMcicnt ^uaijtity of oxulic uciU : tho red tincture, evaporated to a 

^pmp, ihrowa down, on atnudiEig dtr a day, uryatallinc tyi^sine, n^j^ 

•oet»t« ijt le^ T\mv iircdii^le ta WMbed with hot water, aiid <1p- 
oom^om A , ciUict- with mUE^nric Add i& jaot cdbdest ^nobiitv, m «iik 
bydiONlpfaiiric Md, after wbicb the ivcdpttoiioo umI flrcouij>rvl 
■re gy^ed twii nr t1ire« lim«i. Oq evapocMinp the liquid, a 
BUM M obuiD^ fr9€! from iiitn.>^pn and ufa, amd rfntatntng^ 
Oft an STtn^ 5^-20 p. c t% and 4'17 EL Wbeii ti«MG<l wi^ 
■flimrmia, it ionas ^annmaoide {bv Mh). — X* In Xhe 
tMn of cutuluiL aci'Jf accor£iig to 1, ^ms nitFOfttiump sabetauon 
be mnn qdcklv rt^mnvt.^} bj- frwnionatin^ the Iratl-pn'cjpitaie : biii 
pnvlqct so obtain^ has ud anonkatoiH compositioDt and csnnot 
nbtaincd witti oooetant prop'>rtk)QB of CMttoa and bydixtgeih rrcD 
bj repeated precipiuUon with neutral ^cgMc of lead, and ilnvu- 
podtion witb b/dnmulpbanc acid. It coQtaiDit, jit ISO^, frocu 47'd4 if* 
:U-I9p.c. C, and frum 3-33 to 4'j H. — A miitcin? of xhene aiidi, 
Aw4ved iu a »mal] niuantily of aibsotutc alcohol, thruwe di>vru, <ii 
addtti':ni '>f i.-lher, a red-brown precipitate (wbu^ ]>« la Bov'saimiiucKid 
in b pun* nalc docs doL Er,). after the rvmoraJ of wbich, tbc addhk» ol 
5 "r 6 Tt4iuii« of etinT [in>dua* a predpiloie o! tine rwl flakes. On 
eva|x>ra(iiig' ibe Alighilv" wtluur^ ethrr-^ei>ho1k< liltnt^. It Giolidific* 
to ft miitutB of ted ueedleii and cryetalline graUie. the fofrner of vhkh 
remain nndiAsnlvcd when treated with boilm^ eibtir, whik- tbo bticr 
d^stalUfle from Uie tlowly cvapomted ttbeteal solution. Tht- nei^Jliii 
oonUuii 49tf8 IK t', <j^ ai)i1 4'29 11-, t''.»iTvspi^iidin|r to tbi* fonJiuJi 
r:*E*0" + HO; tlie grains, after driTiiic al IS**", wlier^by a l*Tffo 
qn&utjt^ of water is dnv^'n ■"^ff, contain 56'OS p. c. C-, *Jid i'lS U-. tbe 
ptoportions rMnired bj- the formula C"H"0», or C"n*^>\ I5y^4 
|«ratiiig tilt' etuen^ul fiolutiuiis, clh».Tt:rjstalswerei»blaiH4.Hj, r*iutA.!ifri_,' 
A1'S2 p. c- C„ 3-ft5 H.. Aikd 4&-l}6 C, 3'89 H. — SehtiiT-'fiUT^i j t- 
toin^d blKi.1 a eodo-esll., eryiiilallmtng hi kojiikse; nnK-ipiUI'il inmk 
coiiccutruti^ aquooua Rolutii-'U by a!*.'oh*»l, it Ci'nlnij»c1. oI J'Xi', Xj^ 
p. c. C, 3'4 IT., and 2\2 NiiO, tnrre&poiKiin^ tn Uic formula CIIV, 
2XiiO,3A(j. Tlv i>btJiiin'd furllier, a rjnninaniidi" lunl a tianuinate </ 
eiljyJ fw K'Juw}. — The (Simuiue ac\<\^ of S4;liiii.74»n burger ar« (W» 
col"rii^><! by jm^^iui^ liydrotfuJpbmic odd Into their eolutiinie, andfc- 
owci" iheli c*loiir on exposure lo tht-r air. 

C m wt imi iradtf — Sohiitsenberjfer'd eoniuuk' odd (ftit-pwd l^ maiL^I]) 
diaiHilvi'd in watvr containing ammonia* iLiid cwl ut^nic for twr-ni^ -J- ^i 
bourn or loiip?r at a t«rapcroturc of 30^, bcoouira olU-^nd in ji 

baviniji villi prfit<»cUIi»nde of lio, ojid leitvct^ ori tvw|Hnnlion mV' - .': 
\rnr*'r-bjith< n Itnc. vjolef -block- fiinblo rcsiilur, which is *if»bi?i.. •- 
wnter ill nEI p['oporLii.>Ti^, niui dii?fiii1v'*s iilen in i^UMhul, and Rlightiju 
cthc-r. It evolves nmmoiLL^ when K^ilM with ^'fnisho ]>otaAbi 9m4 
f'lctn^ with oil i]f vitriol a clew bi-own sobitl^kn, wltH'b, if diUed 
i(iimr<!ijiii4^ ^%ilb ^vntir. ia {iredpitatod violnE, bitL uftL-rwudH htm< 
tS<'h»il7i'iil*r^0T-), It dUnolvcH iu wiLlcr ui all pmjjorliotLB, in aloibfl^ 

43 C «...— ,..» 2Sa «. MTS .... Aa6t 

3 S ^ « .-. *H .... fJ Hfi .... 6-a 

ES n _ M ... 400 „ 4-B7 

^ o m — «« .... »-«o 



CtintiimUe of Erfiifii — On liualtii^ ulcoholic canniuic acid wJlh 
liyiiroohlfiriiL' ntiJ, two piv>dnct« ttre foniicdj rcnembling onch other 
in Bome respect*!, but |XiaBCbsi[ig dilforont dc^Te&s nf floluhiljty in 
^ilcoliol. — \\ h(.-jj a mixturo of miiuiniilxi of mtdji and iodide of ctliyl 
K hcat«d t<j 125" fuf fievcrd houra in a eealed tubct iodidu uf swljwm \a 
filmed, lokfi^tljt"!' wirb a rt^d ^ub^laiiuc! insoluble lu wiktcr, ^Uirli 
wLl'ji purified Ly rt'^wiited «nlntini] iu alcohol ami pcooipilali'in by 
w;»t<.'r, coiitAiiiar on an nvoiu^c, b'^O'i p. c, C. und j'^D Jl. ; it rliB^olvLM 
iu aqiii:<^>U9 alkalis* coloura fabrics like cochintiil, wid ap|icarfl ti> In 
the elhylic L'tber of cflrniiiiic acid O^HH)^ (Schutzcnberg^r), 

iViWr^ Nuci&^ C"H". 


Stii Vnntm hi the pnrr stati.v AciYirdiug to pippi'imcnln riled tn\ 
pu^T iS, vuL XV, it i^ to be nuppoaed thut mi^tlial oJuaie in coiuhina- 
ticiu Willi a fatty acid m HponiLLtccti (Udnta). 

Myristic Acid. 
C"IPW = C»I1» 0*. 
L, Pt.ArF\iR. A«H. Pliiifn. 37, 153; I^hH, gl%, J. 18, 102. 

A&l; C/^f/;i, aar, If^O:!, ;i21 ; A'. ^;j/.. C/«V/^ /'^-w. ^7, ^Cl ; A/f^fr. 

AV/iV JiJtt-esh. 18^2, 503. — Pm/j. SJU ]37;-A/m, P//*«-m. Hi». 3U0 ; 

.;. /ff, Cfi™. fiO, UOl; Chrm, U<iz, 1803, 441; X, J. P/ttjn», '2^, 

71; /.»V&, A"o/>/s Jiihrf.'>b. I^j3, 447. — P^^f- 93, 429 and 5^8; 

Ai^tu Phimi^. 1)3, £91; ^. pr. Chcm. C^, 349 and 483; (13, 1112; 

/Vi^^rrw. CVh//'. 18&4, GPi i PA/^, Jl/m/. [4] 9, 74; Z^e*. ^^>j^/;'j 

Jiihrtf>h. iHiJ, 45(j,^8ojiijniLry of the riisulta : J. j"'- Clem. 

6*;, 1. 
rmcuonEnk* Ann. Phurm. 91, 3G9 \ abetr, J-pr. CArm, 64, 47 ; Pfioftn, 

Ctr»tf\ 1854, IH2 > /.(^. AVy^ Jnftfcsk I85i, 4(>3. 
&.iiLii"i't. /IrtJ*. Pharm. Wo, 1 i abatr. »/^, j^f, CTrw. 73, 275 i C?tem. 

Crutr. 1S,>B, 279; -Y.^nn. C/ivn. Fhyi^ 52, 49fi. 
UiDrtiAicsB. X /^r. CActi. si, Soli and 367; Chm. C«nir. 1R61, 184 

uicl 102 ; ^. Chira. pun '^, 390. 

ify^titic crii. jfyWjfodJfl fldrf. — DiBcovefed by Pkyfair, and ob- 
IoIdikI pare by Heiiit^. 

Orrurrpa/^i. 1, As Myrietin, In tbo nntmcg-bnttor of M}friiit}ca 
'^rivWrt {l/tiiidb. viii. J'/i^'X^Affli, 43) (Pliiyfntr) i in tbe oioha-fat of 
■*ftfri.<,^r^<j u^w^, which eccma to coiitajQ altfo ohfic, but no third ncid 
(t ri,'-B-|i^a), In dika-bread (xv, 44) amounting to more than onc- 
Wl (il tlie fatty Jicids coidniiietl therein (OudeiuaDut*). — It (kkwtahv 

TOTh. XXL ^ 



'^mall quantity, together witii maiiy other fatty add* (^v. 44). in 
cfcoft-iiut oil (Cor^'^y, A nn, J'ftaj-in. <j6, 3H ; UuikiiiUJmfl) ; iii o^mm^u 
butl<.T (lleiuti); bcrolon ml (?^chlij*pc), — 2. Jti coinliJuation wJthclLid 
OrftiiaiiaVigoiiH luxly in n^jf^mnti-eti (tleiiiti). CanftmiJnp U* ocoQmaw*<rf 
mjTwtic Bpid, ice further, iintli^r pafmiric tintf (0*H*0')i i*lkew ibe fittlj »inrti»f» 
nifiil)oiiii4:K vliicb wtiv fciniiorly d(vcribnl bM mJi^peLidtut boiie*, but wkich» MXMrd- 
iug Lo thu iuvi^IigikLiuiiA of Ilf mts^ must bo conaidfljcd ub niuturcB. 

Foiynatioii, By heating ethal with iratost-limo (Ueicte, Scluuiw^). 
tn n &r u tliQ mam ■ubatanco roritaini methyl (p £09) aee aUo xir, 44. 

TVfTNiraJfon. Sjwnanpcli yidliLi cmly ft Buiall quantity of piini niyrialii: ni'tdi 
tlie melhod ^vm faere ituJ ir, i«> Aorm Imncrer, in gi^ierfdi for l)ir trp^ral^vB uf 
tbe ju^iibi oljiaiiiud from Tfltty bixliw. — Fi-om Spamactfi^ Wbi-Ji the fultj 
addw obtained, tog*'tUer with etlial, liy llie wftfirmifittilion of f(.*T- 
HiB-eoti ftceonling tf> xv. 43, are dis*i'>lved in akf^hol, in the mAimi-f 
there deserilveJ, a oiixliiix^ of palmitic «nd tilearie ooids orj'stalliaps <ni 
coolingi while a poiliou of b*>Ui tUe&et and the whole of the mynstic 
and Iftnric aciUa (sv. 4i3) remain in eoluiiou. — By fractional prLri|illi- 
tiiiit {al lAMt. in presence of eitceHH of ammenia) the akTjhelic sfihi1i<ifi 
ift Again divided into two partu — the stearic, pahuiHe, and a purrioik ^f 
the EDjrifitio auiU hein^ thrown down an laagueeLa-saltHf the launc 
odd and the rest of tlio myrietie acid rcrnainicii; iu aoKitiou. 


Treafmeut of 0\e prmpiUUal Mtignaia-'Balts.^Tht; niagneei* 
separated from the fiilty aeidn hy iMiilin^ tliem with diluU' hyilit^ 
chloric acid; the meltiiig-pjint of each portiua of aeid so obtain«li» 
determined \ and thodt; [iortione which meJl at neatly the SMtt' 
leioperattire, and do not difier caaentially in thciv mode cif eoUiiifjf" 
in^t luv mixed litgethi^r. Wbeii, new, tlie nu^iture of itcidN 
tt*ppat»''lly iTyaUllist'd from alcohj'l, and the mellinf^-pnifif of itw 
cryntallitiia^' purtioe determined ovoiy time, several Bm?<reswivc tTojw* 
crystula lire nbt^icned from each misti ire ; and thcae aroto bocxnieiJmJ 
pure ; \. WIil'u iliL'ir nieUins jK^iut remuiiiB tJje same ftfltr re|xaiw 
ciysliillisaitoiiw; 2. Whofi they holidify, on cooling, in cryatailin* 
SCftleni and 3. When on fractienal precipitation of their alwh<Jfc 
BoktioiiH with acetate of magnesia, porlione having ntic nnd tht 8*"* 
melting- fHiint are ohtoinod. The ecveral p'trtinne of the aamo tO* 
ehow alflo, when [n\n\ thu Naoie ineltiriy-jK>i[it uftei Ix-nnj^ unW I**" 
p?Lher na when ei'pnr^to, Somelimos, eB(teeially in flic pn-p^irHfi"^'' 
of ifiyridTic acid, it is netTssftry to Buhjeet the eingltr cryi^tLiMi . 
afienh ti fiiLL-tiohikl fircd|ntutii.>n> aud io repi^at the ah^vr Xv- .< 
aud e^^niJiJHliiiEi •}( the iiia>citT:<i4ia-Ha]tH tljus ohiaiiicd (IloiriUj. 

In Ihih wny TTeintK iihlaitirdi \'y ihr lirnt jireeipil^liun with aer 
of mngiK-sIn. ninetcert nia^riesia'MAllfi, tnm tMuh cf which hi^ 
mied tilt' [u^idsi He mixed toi^iEier the JirM su portions of <uri^i. 
mclliiijf-]KnHla i4 wfiieh v^mcJ fi^^m 427' t'> 45 i ullowf'd Ihr'in t'* 
•ojNxiTJtr fr<iin aleniiiil, t\u<\ repeated ihe cryetidliwAtioa fonttoco linm*^ 
hul, I'vcn tlkn \^i erj-KlaHimiliiJii jiroved to he a mixiun^ of jialmJiic wi_^ 
vtJ^uric ueidti, and irt nu cane waj4 i^ |iurv acid <.'hluii)[<d, \{y prodp>' 

lafiri^' the lher-lit[iior fnun tlie lirst nine crvnlalliwitiuna iu mtt f ^ 

portiiiim Willi iMxilale ef niuv'iietiia, he euoe^xiJed In ollainiasr, ffrt** 
ihe Iljpti m'inumI, and ihii^l jHrrliiiOM, :tftcr cij^ht i>r Dine tiioeti ir^K^lc'^ 
(jr thcnrly pnre, pahmtiu 




fifth porliODB yiclJod by Btivtii tiiucH ropcaloi, the Bixtli nnd sovcnlh 
by tJiree timca repeated cryotullifiatiiiii, mjiirttiu add mcltuig^ nt 51V7"t 
which flhitwed iLt aLt>vo algiia of purily. Of tliii ivuiaiuiiitf' acida of 
the Mlnet(M*ji magin^Hia-BJills, Lfie nn-eurk mid w'jAfA jxtrtioTis diJ nut yielil 
ft pure acid by repeated oryfttallisatioiii but wore rccr^grUed namiilures 
of pahaitic and myiistio aeidii. The ^-iTth pi/reivti>3 wei« nmod 
togetlier. The pait whicli firet aej^UJtttcH fr^ui au alcohdic Bo!utiou 
did uut yielJ jl puj'e ai-id nu lepeatiid crytitalliHaliuu ; after jt^turiiLig it 
to lliG tunihft-liiiuorj tliereforp^ n p<prtinn of the nciiLj pn?8ent wan pro- 
dpilal«(.i b^ the addition of a littk- aoetale of bflty!n. The liUrulc 
miatt'd witii wotcr depooited, iii thu cold, erynlflJfl moiling' at SS-^J", 
nkicli, oti tt'ciysLitilidittioii, yieldt^J pun; myriatic acid. Tht add fiepa- 
raUu) from tlio tiijhtfi^nlh ami Hmffraifh fturrinr^ prciveJ, afltr (hroo 
cry* till lisaffoDP, lo be tilso mjnsiio add (Moiut/^ Fi"jg. 1*2, 42y), 

To pojpiirL> niyi'iatio acid irom cbmmifn bMtWj Epjut?, proposes the 
tollowing; method; — Tho mi^ttoi'c of iicida obtained hy aiipoiiifyiug 
buttt^i" ikud deeouipneiug- tho rtoiip» is frtrod from volatile arids hy boiling 
with water, and from uhdc iieid by treating thi? h-nd-salt with ethi-r^ 
And aft^^rwar^.Ie dirtsidvod in uli-uhi^hl mid «lli>WL-d to cry>*[aUi«o, After 
idnovine; hy roeiyfltallifiiiiiuu oh much i^f tliu acid prefient aiji cart bo 
obiaiued with a melting-point of 5ii^ oi" 57° (coritaiuing j>almitic and 
stcarii- ai'iilri). ihc culltrti'd -deoholic motbei-Uniiorf* mc Hidiji.-ul^xl tu 
frooti'^nul preoTpjtation with [Kv>titte of mngiieHia: the myrietic uoM m 
tliun thrown d<»wii in ,the lai^t portioEis of tho precipitate, and may Iki 
ol»tauii;d tUorcl'rom hy n?cryHtalhBtttion, removing, if nccceftnry, tUti 
BnbstanctTS at firat preclpitLibb by acetati' of baryta (Ilcint^). — Tho 
»cid.^ ifbtjuued by uw riainjiiilioiitioii of diha-fat yhdd myiiaLJc itdd mi 
repeated cryslalJisation from iilt/>hoI, wliilt a eooimd porlioJi of tlie 
ACid. together vrith luurie acid, romoirm in Hohitiou. Iliia latter portion 
m&y be recovered by prei^ipitatlng the ei:4iitloii iu Hcvcral parte with 
(fcctlaicof uiot'iieaiai Bepaiatiiit' the ma^ucsia, and cr^stafiising the 
»ie|iHmti> |ioiiiaiiH uf ueid miiil the iijeltiijg-|H}bjt tme^i to ^3'd° 

PIftyfair eaponifios the myrialiu of niitmop-buttcr with etroog 
c»iatic |x*UiiShi waahe* tlii; soap repeatedly with soIutioQ of coai- 
ni<r]) hidt ; and afterwardd deeomjH^t^ea the hut aquLiiiifl sulutioii 
^rillt tij'firaehlorie aeid- The aeid» which sepsxratoa as a coleuilt^sa <>il, 
©olHhymg 0(1 eoo[iiip, wbea frc(?"l from all traces of bydrochlorio acid 
|jy ^k'ashiog i%ith wat^T, yields, by repeated cr^ fitulliaatiou from alix»hol, 
i^ar(aif"s mynslic ftcid having a melting'-poiiit of 433^ (Impuro, 
^"^^hiv, anJ itiiitriuiiiiaU-iil ^"tdi an ut^id cDiiUiiJiuji a sniiiUi^r pruinnlion iif turV/ti : 
J/t»tii^_\ — By BtipONifyiiig' oloba-fal, iicids aiv 'fbtaimil, fmni mi 
*i/cr.'h( ,1 it' flfihnion "f wbieh, jicetab* of magm-wia prmjJiittfB *>hlyj on 
*""t"Uy, myfistic acid, while oleie add remains in Eolation (Urieoclicn)* 

/^perlics, Wldle, EhJain^ cryetallinu lanihia), L'eKcmbUa^ pa!- 
^^J**|<-' iMiid; Ihcy molt ut Sfl-d", ami solidify ou cooling iiiuydtAllhic 
^^'^a (QuiatK)* It haa an aeid reuctiuii. 

as c 

, 1G3 ,. 

... iS'sg 

aa H 



.,,., 238 

.. lOO'Qll 



rnniAiiT nuclei's f^*. 


aa c 7a'0S ^, 

W H ^.... 1324 „ 

4 ..„....„ U-71 ,.. 

,.„ 7a'34 . 

-,. 13-27 - 
.,.. 11 OS . 

. 7310 ,.,. 

Soblma. 1M 

... \t^ 


„. 10000 . 

inooo .... 

.. 100-00 


oonddan C'H^O^ the munioI fopmulu. 

DtcompogiUtinx. SiibjocleU to tlr^ distitiatioa^M is partly dco.*rni-'^'< I 

On iK^Jliiijif with "rVnV "cit/, a part ia cuTivcrled iuto soliiMe [i^niuii-, 
with evolution <*f rod vapourBH tho reniaitiiDg niidltisrdv^'J jairtinu 
behftviug likL* iiudiuiig^d myriBtkc ncid (Pluyfnir). By the dry ilistii- 
Ittfinn of tlio limc-ailt, myrifltonc is produced (Overbock)- A niixfj" 
of mvrifltnte atid iWrnoIe of lime yk-lds a icpiilsirc-aiuclling' oiU wlihb 
ik'poflite iL Mimll <nuatity itf ^ »ulj'l prinlurt. Tliiw lubt, fjurifirtl lij 
re-cr^f^tflllizatioTi, forms small, wliitp. crj-hUlliiio soaltn, ctiraiiimth^ • 
largf r prj>jxirt]oii of carbon and hydrogen tban wt»uld be eriEitjuiuM m 
mjiiytic ^kicbydi.' (Li[ii]krJdit, A**n. Phnri'\.^ ^7* 371). — M^Tif*ti*t<^ *< 
]njt:i&li ho;itL'J ivilb [/i/oio-/>^ji:i?y?y/wj-i(r (laV/, ykldw myrietic aiihydi"ifi 
witli chloi-idt ofteiizflfff, bmizo> Lnyrietic auhyilritli; (Chloao^ft & Mulnbi). 

Con/ftj'/infto;i*. ^^yrililio add i8 (if rfr'CJly mhidiiblc hi wnter. Wilt 
b&soa ll fonna the vtip-iAftiffs (C*R"MO*). Xha mrriiilat^i of the »IUii 
tn Pol de«JtQ]w«ed h* wntar, vilh ^rmiiion of lu-id t>lt« (I^jfijr) . 

jVyrifciW of Pcto^h, Myristic acid Ih die^^Htci] wilb ccncvnlntfJ 
a<|no4niFi I'arboimti? of |><iin'4]i. lUe pr^idu^^t I'vupjntlt-il tii dryiM-w, and 
the myriRtat*^ of jv^lanh c^cirai'tpd by ahaolutr^ ab'^Tiol. — Wtdtp^ cm* 
tnlline £oap, caaily soluble in water aod is alcobol, ine<?b]blo m cttr 
(Play loir), 


MO.., IS8 ea-ll 63'20 

W H. 87 10-11 ^ JO-IS 

1 o. Si e-oB n-i& 

KO 47-2 .. 17-73 „ IJ-TO 





M^-i^iaie of Soda. A Ijoiling rtqao'tua soltilioti of ciiil>oii4it4) of m>1l 
iiuitt.' free from ^ul|.h^iLto and chbride, iu added m oxccrm In 1 
ul(^ob(jbi.' mj-HsliL^ acid, an I ibi: nnxliire ovapcjrnlt*d iiiniplo^Oy i 
ni'ji(»i 1)1 tlic wtitc^r-buth. Tlio reniiluo Lf thf?o oxtractoa witii Im 
absolute iJcoliol, and IJltored boiling lioL Tbc liltrate, irhkob eobUi^^ 
to a jelly on cooUiig, ifl liqnfficd by watmJng, aiid mixi'd with water 
llio pt^nmrtion r»f onr-tijjbUi of ihe alcohol oniplored, wliirri>by ft 
Vqnor irt fcirtned, which fakes np aiiy foroi^i aalfs prc-jitmt- 
«rrLidifyiu^% tho enll is pi>lki;led on liiioii aiid strongly proa<c4 {] 

M^rhttiUiif fitirfifit, OUaini'd f rma HdciridtMif buriiim nnd mytiittl 
i>f |h*tinili hy dmibh* d<*(*iiiH|M*fiilin,'i ( I'luyfaii), Ilebitir | in*t.'i|>itat*« 
iili-i^biihe inyrji^lie i«:id with a hof iMiinnitraled aipjii^n* .t^daljt* 
aci'tuK' of iKiryta. and wrv^litiH thi' pronpitufc with wmk nWhiJ **' 
IhjI water- Uiukiuiuiiia pEt-nipitntcs an alc^^hulic eolnlitkii u( Urt' v^ 



with cblorirJo'^f bctrinm. ^Vfiry li;^ht, whito* (rystallioe powder, mh- 
Ktsting: of tniumscoEiif, Ibiii lumliKt, bnviDp- Jipearly luetre. — Decvm- 
pi.ifli-j* before melting, Dissolvra ^t-ry slijjlitly in watfii" and in aliioliol 
^TTQiiitZj Play fair). 

a o .„.. S4 .... B'la . 

BaO 76-5 ..^ S5-M9 


.. eii-ai ... 

., B04 ... 
»?B ... 


as 66 

"1" 25-31 

L^ir^BaO^ „«»»«» SB5-5 ,.« lOO'OO 

JOCKiO .,. 



Jtffi'ij'tot^ of Mfigncxuj, Mjristic aci*l, to whioh anitnonia and aal- 
aDiiuotitiLc liive bactJ added, is precljiitalcd hy hnlphiiLc of ma^ceiat 
nriil tlir predi^ilJiU- wasbod wirh wulrr. — Vt-ry lig^lit jiciwder, omeist- 
uig of mioroaeopic needles. Bei'Limca traiiBpnront at NO", semi-fluid 
at 150^, and la dcccinpceed at a higlier temperature. Th^; iait dried 
iu the wr contains 9'54 p- c, watrr (3 ut, = l015 ik p, HO) (llcmta). 

28 C ™ „,„ .,.„, lea 70-29 ,..,.. 

27H.„.. „ „.. B7 1VM> „... 

S O Z4 1001 .._.. 

HpO 20 BAT 

69 99 

in 3ft 


L-^li^MgO' £9B lOO'OO lOOOO 

Jd^Ktnfjfn/LtaiL — The soda-sal I, diaBijlvod in weak alcoholj is Ujrown 
by nitrjLte of lead, and the precipitate washed with alctilio! and 
water. — ^Vjiite, looec, amorphoun powder, which melto to a 
cnlourlcuft Uijiiid at 110 — 120°, and soIidificH, on cooling* to a whitci 
Ojifutu^t amorphous uiasH (IleintK)* 

SB .. 

27 H. 

4 O,. 


,.H«^ 168 



„. H, lO-i 



31 ai 





CTH^PbO' 331 tOO-00 106-00 

Acrtn-fni/rislate of Lfad. On beathig nijiiatin with baflic acetate of 
If'Ail fnr Bcveral day&, a bea\'y, whiti powder, inhobibic in watijr, ia 
iHCfd, contnining myriatid and acitio iicide. — Coutmns ±0'J1 p, c. 
fi'G.j TL, 6-^6 0., and ^5'5d PbO., corresponding to the founnla 
»U"rbO' + C^tP.FLD* (Playfair). 

^fyrifttitc of Copper, — P:'ccipitatcd From the soda-salt by anlphatc 
(4 o'lppor-^BInifeh-grcch, very Hgbt and looae powder, coiisihtij^^r ^l 
nrieruH."ohie nw*dles. ileeper-cciloureil when heateil above 
IW, ond cttfceft together wilhont melting (Hointa)- 



w c ,. 

27 H ..,.. 

S -,-.,.,.. 

,-.. 108 ... 
,.,. 27 ... 
„„ 24 ... 
H.„ 40 ... 

.... fJil>7 
.^. iJ'tl 

.„. 9 as 

.„- 1531 


..,.„., 10-40 



,H.. 259 ... 

.... IWOO 




jl/;/ri«n^f rt/* -S'iZriCT'*-— Obtruned, bj doublp dccom|>oititiMif Frtiiatha 
ewk-Balt atifl nitratu <if Bilvor, — White, liffht, aniorphoTiB pow' 

10u°, without iiierting (iloiiits). Diasolvee in aqneoiia ammonia* 
f 1.111110, bj' apontarieDiie erapoiatioD, large traufipftreut crjiUk 


Fbjfiur. Hdnl& 


. 109 

60-13 u 

„. 46-S3 40-61 


. £7 

81>3 7'9S ». 6-Ot 

4 o« 

. ss 

,„„.„ 9-5i ,. 

_ lO'M ,„„,.. 0-» 


. VM 

aa-^i „ 

,.., 9?- a* 8a-2» 


. a3G 

„.,.,. 100-00 ..—.. lOO-OO .,Mv.. 100-W 

M^jatic add diaaolvcs easily la bot a'coA«4 cryetaUiaiagoaoi 
It is easily aclublu in et/ia- (riAyfui). 

With Laurie o^^td (xiv. 43). — Aa in ^imprftl, on mc-ltin^ to^fjll 
two or three fattj ncids, n tnL\turc is |iri>diiceii having a mi'ltiue-i' 
Ijcloir thzit of llie muT^t di[licii1Hy fusible c^riiKliliK-iiU aihI In rvrtj 
jim|>nrtiniiB helow Ihat of eilhtr of the nddft Hi?paraiely, ho vrhvn Uu 
m^iil m added In myriHticr Hcid, the melting point of tlio lattor is h'vci 
luiti], wheu Uift lauriu iml^ fomifl 40 p. c- or more oi tin- niiatunv 
jHclting-puiat Uee below that of cithv^r constituent* Mu&t o( ctM] 
mixtures tbits obtaiiiiMl difTur iu tbeir mmlci uf tunJJdifjrlikg from 
pure acids (Heiutz). 

Table t^ the Msltinff-poinU'of Xirfmrfs of ZfTiiri> nn^tl Mgfiatio Andt. 

to Nfiniz . — 

A miiture of— 





Hod& of SolLdxTjizi^ 





OrTBL&UiEK? K'Dtf!*. 



49 G* 






Dilld ditto 





rnuTT'iAihTit. with hJM 

lualruus •ppt*L 



»7 4' 


liVgv urirliUliao UmlflA 





rr>pr,r«tall^»d, with bdUfll h» 





UnorjaioHiwcl, nty 





Dilto di(W 







Cfmjuffoftd Compoiifitts ttj Mr/fnstie Aaitf, 
Myrist^te of EthyL 

'i^TTAHu Ann. Fharm, ST, 157. 
lEErrz. Pogrj. 02, 447. 

Mfp-istic Eihtr, — T)iy liydnwihloric arid pas is paHtMxi Intn n, liflt 
>lution d niyrjstic add id abaolato alcohc*!, aud the oil which eepa- 
fclce t*T\ cooLuj^, ia wftuhed rc|>L'ati:i:ny with cold, and al'tenvarda 
tsaolved iu a amall quitQtity of wnrm Lilcobol. Tbo lajor of idU Lig^iu 
irmcd on ctjoliiig, aftet beiu^ ttepar^tod frcui the aud i-oi^led, 
pp^witB Irirj^i-, hard, vny easily fiislhEo crystjilfi^ froiu wliich the 
lother-ljquor is douaotod (HoJntzj. — Thu ep. gr. of liquii inytiatio 
ther is 0^864 (Playfnir). — Diasolrca eaeily in hot alcohol and in 

^M BB 193 750 73'8l ^ 74 &2 

^r W H 32 12-6 la'41 I£*Sl 

J 4 O..., 33 las U'ga IH-g? 

(?'H"0*,0*H'0,. 266 „»™. lOO-O .« 10000 lOO'OO 

C"n"0" = c^n-o",3CPTn'o«. 

PiAtrAK. Jnn. PAa™*, 37, 155 i PA//. Jf.^. Ji 18, 102. 

J/yrTWtffrrrH- ^mein. To be dieticgnivlied Irnm MTriiticia ^KiV- S89),*-' 
Dwore m antmRg-biillor, and doiiblWs also iu the faU m&utioDed on 
pfigc2l0, from whifh [Hyrietic add tiaa been obtuiuod, vitb the cicep- 
Diw (^f ftpermactti, 

Kntmc'g'tnittiT was exanJned hy BoU[iorE(Qufirt. J, o/Str, lft,3lT), 
lurl B\ey. IVlmizo i Baudtit {Ann. J'h'inn, 2tl, 41) coiiRkloivd the 
pTiTnipftl oonBlilnmt nf Ihnt pub^tftiico to Iw marfrniin, Tho fnt f>f 
thn fTiiit of Aft/i-ktica Fcff'/cfi ii.Tid thut of M'/f^ntici "ffici'vtfi^ poaacaa 
chiu-iiU'Li4 fliinilar to those erf iiUtrai^^-buttt^r. Si-e Bonastrfi (JL Pharm. 
19, L6d 1 aAH, PAorm. 7. 43) ; iJn;idi<fi {Ajtn. FAan». 7, C£}. 

I*rtjftir'iih'i. The portion of nutmc^'bi'ttfir inaukblc; in cold nlt^obol 
laiWiJvedin Iriullci^ cflicr ; iht^ HoliiLion Ejltcrc<l hut; Atid th^ Fat 
*liifli BeparalcB on cooUug is pt^nsi'-d hctweeii blotting pi^I^T, nnd 
imriW bj rtjcryetflniealion from othei- till the mi? 1 ting-point becf^mea 
"^Hiutani (Flayfuir)- — J*owdercd rutraopa arc cxhain^tod with commor- 
benwjl, f^nd tbc extract is filtered and allowed to evaporat^j epon^ 
wly. The crjMlallino must* thus jimdiictd is purified by recryftl^l- 
Irum & imslurtJ of 2 pla. absolulo alcohoi and 3 pta. benzol. 

ai6 FlLUfAIlT NUCLEUS C^^.^^^^^^^^H 

By thh nroot'Bfl 10 p. c. f>f myrlstin is obtained Ti-om uotiPf-gj (C oWfa 
^\ J. Pharni. Zb> ill I Kopp'6 Jahr^h, l^% S36J. flH 

Pfiiperlieg^ While, Hilk^", cryeloUinc maee. 3[(^1U at SI" (P^^- 
Fivir) i that prepared from fitobft-fat multe ul IG" (Uricot'ljfiH Ann. 

^^K 00 C , 540 T-l'Sa 7^5L 

^^H BG H 86 ll-EH l^-ay 

^^H la o 96 ia-a7 laaa 

^^P C"IPHJ" 7S3 -, 100-00 „ lOOOO 

miUicn's fom^^U i-3C^lI='0' 4 C^H^O* ^ fillO) •jiwa b*t1<T >iill» llv «o- 

liifijn^ propOiFlioni of glyrjerin, luid is in mceor'baiie& *Jlfa lb< muJii of I'brButi 

DfcompoBithas. MyriftUti yicldSf by dry dLHtilUUon^ ncrolcfn fthd a 
ffilty ncUl. By loo^ boiling' vrilli basic ac^ttU of ImH^ il ia roeolvcd uito 
g'lyrcrLii itiid iiiyristic aciJ* 

Tnfloluble in fvvr^, SolubU: in all proportions in hoi etiter; lev 

frcoly in hot alcohol. 

Benzo-inytlstic Anhydride. 

c*'ip»o' = c**n»o',c-H»'0>. 

ilmatzk & Maleuga- Ann, Ffianu. 91, 101; /. ^, Chcm^ Clf i^i 
rW™. Ctutr. 1854,71)4. 

Myrifilftte of jjotash is hciitcd \m an oil-bnlb with nri oqui' il ^ 
quantity of chh>ridc of bcRKi»yI, till Ww smell nf the Inttcr in ih' T'l-; ' 
ix'n'Cplible, and the rtsulliny; \\u\&s Js c-xtmctpJ ivitii boiling [?tlrt- 
Th(^ i^om|K>ur>(l r^iystiiUtsos iin conliriff atkI ovft|vn:ilii>n. 

Shiniag Ininiiiri?, friinf^j^Toriit bofoni dr^iug, ineltUig atS^'toi 
cxjlourleee biiuid, and Bt'lidifying ftgoiJi at 30°. 


OrcnCECE- i^. 86,687; -4nn, K^™, 8i, 280. 

OlilAincd from myristato of Umo by ilry dUtillnliin, iu llm lOW 
mtuiTi*^ ns laurn-Blcurono (jcv\ 51) i*i ifhlmTUHi fnmi kimilo oF Liraf. 

White* pearly scalce, which molt ul 7j°t wid f«>nAi mibattij vQwU^ 
on rrwiling. Ui^mvs strongly electric vrjjotj rubbed. limdiiD* 



51 C 824 B2-23 . 81-81 

51 H fi4 13-71 14 01 

i O IC 4-oe 4-18 

C"H*^CF 394 100-00 lOO-OO 

OrerlKck giTCfl thr formula C^H'^O^. but tJin obova formula fullowg from lliat of 
mjristic acid {Lieb. Kopp'i Jahretb. 1852, 502). 

HjriBlin docs not oombinc willi bisulpliilc of ammonia or n;th the bi3;il[>]|iloa 
of tlie alkali* (Limpricht, Ann. Fhana. Oi, 210). 

MyriBtic Anbydride* 

CuiozzA & Malerba. Oei-hftrd£. Traite^ 2, 789. 

Obtained fmm myriatate of potash aod clilnrophoaphoric acid by a 
proccse similar to that dtBcribed at page 94, vol, xii. 

Indistinctly crystalline fat. The melting-point ia eeveral degi'ccs 
lower than that of myrietic acid. ^Evolves, on heating, very 
agreeably smelling vapours. — Difficultly saponified by boiliug solution 
of caustic potash. 


C«IpQQifl _ cnH*»O>,0'T 

Pklletikr & Caventou, Ann. Chim. Phye* 26, 57. 
O- J* Mulder, Pogg,44y Hi; J. pr. Chem. 15, 422; Ann. Pharm. 28j 

Occors in the sap of the Upas tree, Antiarts toxictiria (Uatidhuch 
■vm*, Phyiochcm, 7G), which forms a constituent of tiie arrow-poison 
of Java- 

When the sap (which has been mixed with alcohol to preserve it) 
is freed from aJcohol by diatillation, and afterwards exhausted wi(h 
boiling alcohol, a mixture of vegetable albuniiu, gum, and wax remains 
undisaolved, while a solution is formed, which tlirows down, on cooling, 
wax, antiar-reain, and albumin. On removing the sediment and eva- 
porating, more resin and wax are deposited, and the solution diies up 
at last to an extract, from a solution of which in boiling water 
ftntiarin, amounting to 3'5 p, c, of the dried sa^ crystallises. The 
(Totals are purified by washing and recrystalliHation (Mulder), 

Prop^rt^^ The ciystals (seo below) lose their water, when heated, 
without nndcr^oing further change. — Melta at 220-6° to a transpa- 
TCDt liquid, which forms a vitreous mass on cooling. — Heavier t^^n. 

218 rniMARy NUCLELIS 0*rH*; OKYGES-NUCLEUS (?"H»0», 

watrr. Tntidoroiift. Neutral. Cauflta death wlu^ introdnood 

CTCn in minute portiooB (Muldo', Folkucr 




ffl ^ IBS - €a-w 


ao H , BO Tie 


10 90 S9'85 

-, 30^ IB 

■■■',., 100-00 

Jhntfdin 249*5", it turna brown and gives off acid vapoura will* 
BuLIimiug. — Colli oii of ntnpi turua it brown, an J detxiniiioftea 

ComJitnatiom. THM 4 <», Waf*^: Splendid mlverj l^unlnn, 
blidg roalatft of lime. AVhtm heated to 112'^, il loses, on an a 
ll-dij p» c. water (.j nt. = 11 fttn.c. DO) ^Mulder). 

Tlieliydi'jitcdciyatnlj* dirtaolveiii 251 parts of water at 225°, ftnJi 
27'4 jpan^ bfriliiij;' weiLit (MuM^t). ^Antiann dit^siilvoA more re&dik jn 
diUno uruh find fl«'<7//s11i»n in woter, and is Tint prcoi'ijitAied from ila ^Ju- 
tions b^^ amiuonJEL nr m^h^ioeia. ' — It dis^Bolves in conceDtrfttt'd kf^r^ 
cklork ^wX ftiti-icacids^ vithoiil colonktion. Abforbt diy nsemu Mmmwii 
id a littlo ]>7c|rtK^)ilorii; acid gu at iqd&ii lemprrnlurcv, bal Ioks buth al 100* in i 

DisBoIvoe In 70 parts aicdhoJ^ and in 2,702 parts eihcr, at H'J* 

(Mnlder), lBUOlprc'cipitnlcd(oopt™ryiutLcBUi*aiiuitofrcniiiifT±CiT«n«B) 
by tincturt of /fails (Mulder). 

Ajqtmdix lo AnUrrrin. 

Antvtr-raia. — In the flap of ih^ Fjiaa tree* — Obtained by cittact' 
in;r the dried 8(ip with boiliiig nkohr'rl, buih'np' the liukcs whidi a-p- 
rale od cooling, with water, nnd iigniti diwsolviug in Itoiiingp aLcohrj ; Lt 
in prwhiitatcd in white flakes on cndhig. — Tnodtirona, vehlV?, * 
glftasy fracture, and tritnrable to afne powdfr. HeeomeH loety »ti< 
ijTy^aod betwoGTi Ihv fint'ori?, arulmclUat G^i^ ton tniueiinn-n!* tfiloiif- 
IcBfl elastic luasp, which doe^i not hi-come ci*lctuiX'd al n k-mjurraturei/i 
225°- — Sp. gr. at 20'= l'r>32. Tlasnoacid rem'ilm, N"ni (jnlnnnoim ' 
OnntainK* after (Irrmg^ over nil of vilriof, nn an jivornt^*, HVt^H ii, a C^ 
lO'iOlI^, aiidT'Sy'u., t-finvjipoiidirigtothelorniulal^M^U'ftyft^^^fr 
lO-iini .wiiir-rn O.) — DiPsnlvet^withyoUirtvcnl'njrinoold.MidcAi 
irt hnt o'l of ritrt4tl, I[is'.>lablc iu tenter. Docs ant cooibinc wiUi *J^ 
rfilon'e ncid gof or aminmaa. Ft^rms a niilky fluM with pota^-ity. rVpn 
ki hrh1nli'>n tif the re^i^hi in alcohol mixed witli alcoholio arafmi aMtfr4^ 
tettiiy water prticijiitates Hak^^H eontaiaiiig £:t'44 p. <3. oxide ^ iM 
DuHolvea in 24 parte cuM. 44 parCfi boiling akf^oi^ ud j in Vi MUid^ 
(Mulder, i^y. 44, 419). 


Primary NucJetia C^** ; (h^fjen-njideus (T'H^O*, 

Will. N. Jahrh. Pharm. 10, 149. 

Prodnced, together with Bngw, on boiling convallarin (yid, inf.) 
with adds. OonvaU&rin ib euspendcd in dilute enlphunc add^ and the 
TQixtnre boiled ; tfae conT&llarin, which at first BobXb on the surface on 
thti liquid, ulljioately cakes together and flinka- — ' The convallaretiii 
thuH fonned is separated from undecomposed convallann hy meajie of 

Prtjptrtm^ YcUowish-whito cryetaUine mafiB^ without smell, and 
having a slight resinous taste. 

S8 168 69-43 6901 

86 H 26 10-78 lO'Sl 

6Q 4B 19-60 2018 

t^H"0* ..« Z4S 100-00 100-00 

Dtcompositkni, 1. DiseolveBinoi/o/wirfo/with alight brown colour, 
wid is precipitated by water, — 2- Nitric add^ of sp, g7. 1'54, disaolvea 
^t with violent reaction. — S. Not altered by alkoHs. 

BiflBolTes readily in ether* 

Qhcosuk of Convallareim. 

farther 10, 145. 

Sources. In Convallaria majtdis.—'We^ {JaJir^^ pr. F^orm. 7, 171), 
^**ibed ftiK from ComvaUaria itniltijtora {Sattdbuch. yiii,, Fhytochem. 8B) crjataJa, 
^ mXan of which hu tloC been eatabliflhed- 

Pn^aratum, Prom the plant collected, together with the root, 
dttring or after flowering time, and dried. The coarsely powdered 
|J>fit is boiled in water, aud the decoction treated as in the preparation 
<^f convallamarin (p. 220). The reaidue is extracted with alcohol of 
"p. gr, 0.84, and the tincture thus obtained is precipitated with basic 
"cetate of lead and filtered. The filtrate ia freed from lead by hydro- 
■ttlphnric acid, the alcohol distilled off, and the residue allowed to 
('J^liiBe, The crystals of convallarin, mised with resin and chloro- 
Wn, are then collected, pressed, and waahcd with ether. Besides 
^miunarin, the mother-Uquor fltiU contains oonvallaho, which may 

230 rniMAav suoleits o="H»; oxvcek-kucuvs cb^k 

1>G obtained by oilhet rtf ihti followinir mellicnia^ — o. The wuthr-- 
liquor ie precipitaUd vith w&tot, which throwb dnvn a iitii^iiiro "T 
convFiUariti nad rp&ifi ; the latter i* trtnovcd bj" r<h<^r, oiul ttie c^'uvaV 
lariii cry f^Ia! lifted Froju Jikohol with hdp of iLt^Jnml i;bitEci3aK Tin- 
eiiin'allBiDariii rt'iriJiiiin ilis^ilvt'tl in llii? whUt — /j. The umiUor-li^iii'd 
is nearly iieatraUaed with eatietio B<nln, and rvft|iointorj in r»ri t-tfrid; 
IhiH Lh wflrthcd witl( iliiCT, uud tin' unUiawlvod <.''iiiv;»lEamanTi rxtrit'Ud 
by wftlcr; tlic reriidual wnvallaiin iw th<.^u puriHcd by co'tttiilliz-ajiii 
fnTjM alwli'fl, wjib lilt' uid uf animal diarotfuL ^H the hij^ily^'Lilourrd 
fcohttiima Dbtair>cd in the jjtoui'shos n jmd i bt* digvalfii wilh aTurpuiJ 
cbJirooftli a etill furlhor qunntity of convallarm ia taken up, whiUl 
couTttUrtTnariii remains in BoUition ; tEie convaMnriii uvoy be obUuiif4 br 
liciiLujg lite cliatojiil in n]ct>hul. 

Pti/jKrtiri<. \l\xUvwgu\^T pritfmi^. 11b Hobttiou In wnlcr or akiiW 
excilca a hurKh taste in llie thri>at. 


H .»,_..»..» scM 63 16 .,_ ea-os 

HE ^«^ , 81 S^ ICIT 

uO-.... ^-. aft ■>■ B7-34 -» ai:-fls 

C^IPIO", - 323 - iOOiW _.„- lOO'W 

Thi* ftmnuln u gifon bj W»lz, 

nrcirfigxaiiions, I. Molt« nt a tcniDcrature above lOO"^, Mid £n 
when nutrr? Mlrongly heatud, lenviji^ diiirroah— 2. Ry prolnnged twi!- 
iikg wilb dilute ttcith^ it is converted int(.i ftJji vol hircliii uud eugar. 

2C*'n"o*^ + 2EO - 2cm*0' * car*©**, nvat) 

S. Difjfirilvca elowly in oil of vittiul^ afiriumiTig n brown etilonif. 
4. Diprtiihvfliii nitric '^cidtyie^. p-. I'54, with viJeut froUiingai;dyt;lbi* 
(."t^iituEiiii], — 5, %frly diseolvcd by <K>ld4 luid dcoum[)owd by b<A^ 

cfnatic poUisfi Hijlntiojj. 

C<rrnhinatH/n8. ConvftUfiriu die**oh'oa vor>" slifflitly in twiP", Wj 
inipuitM t»< it llt*t LTDpetty oF frolhing like «<Mip-wnt^T, 

Pis&olvts eiiBily in alcohol, aiMl iH jn'ocip tilled by water ur flfcr- 

App^idix to Cont^atiaretin and O^/itaitarin^ 


Walz. ]>^.Jiihi^.Phanfi. 5. 1; furU*tr 10. U5. 
The bitter principle ol c™r<j/frtrjrj mtiJaliM. 

Prfponit!t}n. A dtrowtimi f»f the dru'il r*nit#, J'r the dwirlJoo rf 
the wlu^lr I'lniit oblHined iji the fiTopnr^tiinj of coiivaJlaTm, » pi^^V" 
tali'dtiy liifchiLiiix^t*a-'*»f Iritd, luni tUlwri^l; and the 61tr»t< ia f'^^^^ 
kttd by itit-aiiB i^f d wlighl (iieeas of cnrUiiiAU: uf Bodu, aud prcd|#UW 



■witli tAnnie flcid, TJin llioninglily wjj^liod nnd dried pr<?nipiUtp iR theil 

esiiftiiiit'H] vith iilcofiol, njid the tincture is iJigeatecl witb t'austic liine 

to roiin>vc t^Miiii^T ucid, imd ii|(,ci"cd. The iiltraU', after ilintilliug c»ff tlis 

ak''jhid, is freiid from lime ifmmiiiiif;' dJee-ijlvcU in it by nat-anei of oir- 

j bomV, -Ac'iA, nmi aflonvaidf* crvu|KUjiti'j to drjiiess. The ctnivallamaim 

I thus obtained still rontaiiianKiii arn3 asih, the firat of whiuh is extracted 

" Iky ether; to reniov<> tLo nali the c^iivallamuriD is ngain tliruivM dawn 

from an aqiK'ifoa eolatioii by tatmic acid, and rGC<>vercd from tltG prc- 

I'ipilate aa jiliove^ 

The aiiuenut; flulutiitn nldamed iii Uj« prr^iamlinn of iimvafhiiii, as 
d^srribodatpage 220, yields convallaDiaxin by precipitation wilii tainiic 
acid, 08 in the above ptoccsBi 

PrfiptHict. Wliitc powdor, wltli Bmull cryst^Lls iatcrmi^od. Uaa ct 
l>QcuIiar, per»iatetit, bittor-swcet tadte. 

4fl c 27e 

li H.,, ». li 

21 O ,„,.. .,„ 192 _ 

S3S1 63-71 

s sy s-3f; 

37'EO 37-03 


613 , 10000 10000 

jy^^omptt^^uyii$^ I. SnflCJiS when warmed, itnd btinia witlioiit 
rctiiduc at a etroii^'tT heat. — 3. By bciiiiut^ ■i^itfi dilute <iciV/j» II is 
rvkuvi'ilttd Lut<> i:tMiviillujUuiuLiu mid augar: 

It foriDR wui^Tir alpo with cuifstk potufJi, — 3. Oil g/ viln'vl cnlmre the 
M^lkd hiiliHtLiEjei' bum']]; the iLipicoiis HolutrTii [i fine vbilelT iln^uhn iMl^l 
<iri aJdiliiiJi of movn wnter, — 4, DiaHolvviK slowlyi with sH^lit yelluw 
cvlour, in nitric acid qS sp. gr-, 1-54. 

teftmhi^iilti(^H8. OojiYnllftmrnin diesoK'ce roitdily iq ww/cr ,■ iii aquoitma 
rt)V< it dL»flolvcH without Oiilcmr, and it* loft urjclmiig'c^rl on evnpn- 
rmtinti* Tlie a(.|HeouB sulati'm does not aEfett miwL i^'-a^'nt;*. lint 
prtwhux's a whiJe |ireci|Htulf*, liecimnn^' ufttTwardj^ gi'T- vvitli mer- 
cvrvut tiitntu^ TLud \\ ftUf^'lit turbidity wiih L-hUiriat- and foJiHtf-j/'oen' 
uijLiC'OilH bichUfridt of platinum, aud yruluiiiilphtxte ofii-oa. 

Rtadil.Y tfulubli' bi Gh:iih\fl^ ijiprdiildf in cMci". — AqueoQB couTttlhi- 
niiirbi produtcH with BtjbitioiL of U\ni\ic acidt a wlkitti prcuipitaLc whEcli 
lK>0Ji bccrini[>s resinous. 


^Ali. JV. Jfi/ij-ft. i^arm. 10, 147. 

Prfw!iiix?d, togetier witli sugar, by beating ennvflllamjirin wilh 

Ciirivalbi mil rill ib boiled with dilute fiulphiirie acid; the rt'flin thereby 
Kraimted, uflev wafthin;^ witlj water, ia disanlvtd in alctilm! ; and the 
iHjlatioN it treated with ftiiirual djaicoiil, lilleud. and left trj eva^ni' 
The yellowielj- white, tridietinctly cryRtsdliiie luasa rGnuvvm-u^ 


bohlnd TB trented with obanlat^ ether, whereby a fiiufvll nuuititf 
ikdmutod Biibstiuii.'L'B (dorjvod probEhbly from the cuQYiJIam«riu) 

Yellow wh-wiiitc, crjAlH-Uimj jiowder, having a woak, remaoBa 

40 c 840 ..... 09-40 Aeao 

3C H 36 Bin e-W 

ifl o las 31-fiD fliia 

C-H^O"* 401 lOtl'OO ,H.. lOOOO 

Wlieii Iteattd abnv'c 100', it tnelte, i^ufFs up Qitd A/mx. — PiMfiol 
plowJy ill oit ujfiirio/^ witli ruddirth-brown colour, and is |jn>QipitJiU*d 
■writer. — Fonna witli ccmt^oiitrateJ nitric (loit/, ajtillnw eidutlon iir^ 
ci|jit«.lffc hy water, — Not iJtertid by fi/^diochloric acid, c<TU4tic patati^ pf 

BisKoXves iti akvM, oiid ia piucI^t&tiKl iroux tbo fiolutiuu by leiH* 
Utd cMer. 

Einic Acidp 

Mora correctly C"11'M)" = C"ll'H}',0*, 



Bcrl. JiJifL 14, 133- 
tidier. A'ut. 1. 43C, 
PHILLETTEH ACAVT-VrOi;, Aii'i. Cfiiai, Ph^t. 15.340 1 Semite. ?, lit 
0. llEKKr k Pusao*'. J. Phat-Di. 13. 2f;«i 15, 3pyj Ann. CAim. TV- 

35. IfiJi; Scfiu-^bl, Sd. — A/tn.C/»»uJVtf/ii. 17, 127. 
LlEJJiQ. Puj'J^^l, l. — Ann,I%irfi\.ij,\^\ I'oj'j^ 20, 7*i» 
Bai r. J///-. rAiwi- /*A^a. .''>1. 57 ; Ann. I^ny^u. (S. 1 i Poijg. 2fl, 54. 
Wi»SKfiE3S>:x5KV. .4riii, Pfiornt. 24, 257; Pharm. C^ntr, 1*3^, il27. 

■Wi>ni.Ell- ^rjn.i'/m/vrf. 4:), 3fi4. — 51, 146; /. pr. CTrm. 33. 117. 

KnEBCEn^. .Iw"- /**imH, 7i, i)2; PhiiriH. Cimfr, 18^>\ Idl. 

O.IlMflK. >IfiPi. i'/imvfl. no, 134; abhtr, a™, Cc-i/r. I«A9.535l/« 
pr. Chrti}. 77, 370; /ff)', TArm, jiwr; 1, 419, — -4n/j. Pkitrt^ U* 
333jaletr. C"Af«, C«ilr. ly^y, Cai; J./^r. CArm.77> 371 1 K^,0^ 
purs 1, 463.— -4'-'j. /'Mrm. H^, 53; ubelr. C/.n/^ Ccnfr. 18(0. 'l 
J. pr. Chfni. 79, 1115; AV/n C'/«?n, j^urT 2» ^2. — Ann, iHucntL lU 
232; nbHtr. CAfnr. Oflfr. Im^l, 377; /fr/i. rAim.p/rr 3, 1«. Cfilltfdd 
Pa|K!»LT ultfo iLS lli«Bi'rt;tlic>n : LUittrs. iiio' di^ Cfantj yf f 
Catin^.i, 18«0. 

Clkh«. J*m, /'/(.^fP^r, IKK 31S ; CAen*, Ccntr. lfl5^^ 681 j -/./r, C**- 

77, 371 ; lirp. a*m.piins I, JfiO, 
Zww'iKij ^^ Sii^ui:uT. Atiu. Phfinn. 115, 108 : nbst. CAfM. CMr. IM 

&ii|i|il. J, 77. I 



^^mMcdeU. Qvimp atiJ. Aridf Km^-a rf.inatfi^rf. — The Bnbstanco 
BHIffrt y recogTiiBedbyHcrnibBUidtCCrW/. Cht^uu Ann. 1785,:^, 11.^), 
jfM^PPnp, nnd otIiL'rs, aa cunJiona-baff^ wa* sbowji by lluffiuami, uii 

apothrcary in Leer (1765), mid Vamiaalin, to be ft compound of kimc 

acid und lime. 

tSovrca. In the true cinchorm Imrks- — IiiMaracaibo dnchona-bark 
Qicklrrr, Rfp^t. 105, 194); in China nntn suriTinipenais (HIaaiwetK, 
Ann. Phaftn. IS, 14J); p^^iiirar^ to the nUteiocDt of fiWnlioiiK Un-, Pinrw. 
64. Ityti Phil Mft^f. J. £C, im), wliu I'KiiaiiiHl toci Humll a iiiiuulily of tLe bark,— 
In thcbiIbiTr7planl( Kam/i/Mw ui'fi(ifiu!*)m cullte-trtaiiB tutbt? auir.nmt 
of aVout -^thfl p. c- (KwcJi^r A Pidieit. i Hte uv,. 504,) Probiibly, nU^ 
in the Ipavpw of the co[Tpg |>lantf and in the followitig pc>rtions of 

plauU (ZweilgeT & SiraX'Tt) [LnasiuueU oji 9l«.houat> {Phi!. Moff. J. f4) 7, 
21 s ^-B. J'Arti'fli. 8y. sni, □bUiuerl kiiionc fiL 168) &om these, oa waU u 
from rvidbtf-WiinFiH bj <lJ>iillniioii willi pulpJiuric npid Jind 'Jiddfi of mangaoHc] | 

The leaves of lia: nfftiifvUnm and I.p(tr'iijuo//fttaia,JJ<ftiiitr^im imifjtvfif Htdtru 
hfilir, i^u^row robbi; (^ Jbir, UJmus ctirajtatrin, Frfuitt'/a rj:ccltfiot\ OSid 
Ci/clifpia Utifiitiay — TLe cncrt<:toufl plauU, Ciiili/wi fuftjitrLif Pip-oiu 
urnhMiifi^ Ji/ioflvdtitdrtin /en*iiffii}ejim, and Arhutiij* Uva Ursi^ yield, by 
dry dislilliition, erifibone (Ulolh, Aun. Phai'm. 111^ 222) [iilnii^ieiil wiih 
hjdrokinoin^ (Hcflai:)], derived jjiobiibly fronj kiriti; a^id (Zwcu^'or) 
fKW dei-eaipoiitioTi hy drj dintilblion) ; lu tUo Ciiw: of Arhiit^iSt \\voha\Ay 
from arbutui (XV. 419) (Kr.)' — Nat in Iho nlbnmiiin of Uia fir-ttMS, u vm 
^mcrij fluppoiijd lij DtTJipliiifl (WqIiIpt, .*■», Fhnnn. G2, 143 i Stetihtmae). 

^^g^'fjifiroiioft of Rinate of Lime. ^ A, From Cinchoiui barh. I. Tlie 
ffl^d ubtuixei by precipitating the eulphnric add oxtracl with luilk of 
lime in tlie pTL-pEimtinn of quinine, lg evaporated to a syrup, decanted 
fn.nii pulpbat** <if liiuff^ aud (^vapnratc-d ovt.T the wiitev-butli tu a soft 
eitract ; tlii^ jr iM^ile^l two orthiee tfniea w^th ^lenbol^ and the ^ef^(due 
ifi dinfiolved ill a amsM quantity of water: the Bolution, tdii-r standing 
for sninc* daya, Rr^lidilioa to a crvfltallino inn^u, wbicli in ^troii^i^ly prratied 
and [imifiea by ic-crjelallisalion. The mutL;LT-U'i*nn yields a fnr(her 
yuiiiiUly iif tile Kail (Henry ft Pliaean), Or the iillriife fniin tbc bnseH 
precipitated by lime (hydrate of nliimina, aee(-rdin|^ to Ber^eliTifl)^ inny 
be digc'sled wiib animal chareoal or hytlnited oxide o* load, Jiad evape- 
rated (after ronnhviup- the difinolvcd lead by meune of by dree ulph uric 
aei"i) till ciywtidlisathjn (MniLEneiiceH (HeTiry A. PliHsun). — 2. A ducuc- 
TioTi of eincbona-bark In wntcr cont&hung Rwlphnrie acidT Ik lill*'Tt.'d 
wJiilrtt hot, and lo the filtrate freshly procipilnled oiide of lend is 

C dually ndded until the liquid beoj'jmet* neiitT:il, and ia no longer itd, 
"f a |iftle-3'^lh>w c/doiir, (IF too little oxide be midcd^ colouring 
fiiatler rcmajiiK in solution ; if U^tt mneb, bawie Vinsite of leiid is thtowu 
dn«rny The filtrate is freed from lead by )jyrti'Onid}ihuriG acid and 
filtered ■ milk of lunc efl then added to priveipitali* the quinine and 
cinrUomnc; and the filtered liquid ia evaporated to a aynip, which 
Tieldj*, nn eoJiUns, a eryatalline mass c»f kiiiate of lime (Ilenry & 
PlitiMim). — The de|>Obit frequently fourd In eitraet of citicborui ih 
impure kinale of lime ; it may be obtniuod in etvstala by pre<^i|»itatinjr 
an aqueous solution with neutral acetate of Icafl, rrmoTinp- tlie esCGaa 
of leiid bv hydrosulpluiric acJd, and evaporatiEiff (Qoiiicke, Pharm, Centr, 

^Hf, Frojii tht BUh^xTtf plant. The freeli pluut, ooUcclc<l ^ ^7? '^ 


Uiiletl in water, with Jiddif.inn of quick-limtr ; tJie ilecoctiisti b <"V»p» 
r!xlod. and tho kiiiate of lime llirown down b}' al(?oliol, Tln> gluliii' 
pn.'npitatc, dJPEolvetl in wator cuiitiviuijjg ncc^lk' iidU, \s iix^d ikh 
cijlouriii^ matter by additioa of ututtal oceta-lt: of load* thf^a filum 
niid tliii Iiilrutc? (fict^d fixnn It^ad) la ovupoiuted to a Hj^rup, iixim virj 
the kinute of lima ciystiLlliscs aft(?r Rome days (Zweugcr). 

Cp Fro"i Coff'ec'fj&tits. The thoTuugbly di'ioO (ov roastc*^) 
crittrael^' IKjwiieiVil lieaufi art- iMuled roin:iiU;dly in waiici'; llic dt*ci>ctia 
ftfler being misod with tnilk of lime, U concc^ntrnTed, firHt over an f>f* 
liiv, and later, aftor liltratii">n, on a water-batlij t'j a fiynij* j twice 
volume of alcohol is lliou added, and tbu prceipilate thuroli^^ (ortaod 
aei^oiiiti'd, ciftur 21 iiouii?, From tLt; huIuLjujl, whicli u^ulrtlita calTel 
The precijiitnie Iti wanlied with Ji!ni>lmlj proBHcd, Jiiul ilissolvj^l in hi: 
^atcr- TheliltercdKLiltttion isfili^^htly ^eidLliijd with acotic acid and pi 
cipitatod with neutral &(!etji.le of lead* whei'eby tannatc of Lead and niht 
flubatauccs urc thi'owu down ; and after eepart^liiig these by filtrslu 
the kuiic aeid is precipitiiltd with b^Rie ueeUte of lend. Tan- l<-ftd-H( 
thtia obtaiuod^ uftet' beiiijj wiLshed and doc^nipinied unrier water nil 
hydr'JttdjjIuinL: add* yields aqueons kinii; add, wLieh ii* courerU-d \n\ 
tac lime-Halt l»y nuntralisritiun is"itli caiLouato of limo (XwcQpcr 

The kinat^ uf lime m purified liy repcat^^ cryabtllisation, m Xty 
prooipitating it with alcohol of SS" B. and dieecldug in ftkohol of 
18" li. 

Separofioti of the aci'd/i'orfi the liincsatt. L A ^lutieaof tbc LiLae-Mll 
in water i» decoinjiobed ly un exactly eqiiivalejit quantity of dcuEc 
aeid. fiUerod from tlie oxalate of lime, and evaporated to cr^AiaUJflalkai 

(VouqUeUn), Hc4C trnploj* a ali^lil cuffa of omllc nc'id, tr1uL>h ho rvmuTn fro" 
llic HilraEc b^' uiftin* <if uc-ittniE lU'i^luU- of li-iJ ; \\\c oicc» of Iftid b tlipn reimrrr^ 
by hTdrosulplitiric iKnl — *2. An GqUe-jiw fioluti^m of tilO ftttlt Iti pivdpitAl*"! 
by taeic acetate of lead ; the washed pTecipitate, Bas]>endcd in ifal^T. 
iH then decentjicsed by Lydrosiilphuiie aeiil, and Ibo nTjbitHJii is fiJtr^ 
and eva|Kirflted (Borzeluis). — 3. The lime-salt is decoiupofcd by w 
nqneoua or alcoholio ablution of aulphuric acri). 

Pr&pertitti. — Lnr^fe, hard, traURpaivjut, coleur1ijfla« t&bitlAr oryfltftK 
bclon^DK ^ ^1^^ I'bliquc prismatie gy^lem. with chumcttfiistic h'lui- 
roonjhiBm cm the right side of the hijrizoiilal ^ixia. — (Fif^. f*^) n-.u^ 
14(> 8'; i:k = 12-')° 75' (Woskretienftky). Knop HisiingiiishrK tin- 
following f"T[us : 1. (P'ig. 81], llie right edgo u : u heiuq jwrivmiip'!- 
larlv tnmi.'Qlcd bv a face t (Fir. SV); n : u= IhSJ" lit)' and 47' lO'i n" 
— 127° -ZO' and if^" 40'. — 2. The eame, with tnmeati^^n of the hvrr 
front and npixr back eiigetit itii\ by 4 in'tdiedrul faen-s f/; 0' ti=^ 
112" 12' (r»l«,) = 112' b' Me-): O'tt'^lH}" 2ti (nb«i.)= l»' W 
(cak.) — S. Tiie aame, but with tmueuiiou& by O' occurring Ot th» 
light Bide Hide only ', between i' ; t on tlie rifjlit above and btlow. lb**' 
ari; ivrv truocatkiiio a (Fi^. Sft) and /), between a ajid f ; a:i'=1M* 
nearly (iilie,) = ''>*' *&' Mc) a mj = 158* nearly {ohfl.)= iSffl'W 
(ealeJ): /? : t lOS" 40', — 4. The eame ci-nnbinalion, Init wifh llw ofO- 
bedral faeea ae in y. — D. The left f-faeea, ri^Iit ^faco, and ttv^ !•" 
rictabi^lfal faces <»f fl. — C. Four w-faeea, an i-fiux*. m^faec (Rff* '^) 
^-fv,v alj*fve and bel'^w, and the two ueliiliedra! facea of 3. — i. T^ 
»-fAce«j i%ht /-face, rifftil /*-fa<.v>i al«vc and below, (bo two flCU- 



^)ie<lr&l focen of 3, and an i"-fntx?. ^8. Tbe loft u-face aud tlio two 
[tictahcdnil facofi 0' of 3. — D. Tb<^ cr^Blala prepared by Zweiig^^r from 
Ithe bilberry [riaril, cRJiibit llu? fiH^efl i artd u» cm Uio k'ft tbe a-faces 
;Bbovo nnii Irf-Icw. oh die rrght the twu O' faces of 3 ; duo r, ^, a. — 
,!rhe oiiaracler of ihe cryntals is cilbor priemahc by predomiuaiicp of u, 
bj" lAbultLr from pL^dc^iuin^ict^of i; mostly, liowc^Qr,rLoiQbo-aphciicridai 
|(Ad- Kno[N J..ft, Pfm^^R, 110, yJ8). 

S|i. ^r- I'*i37 at ft'n'i^ ^Heury & Plijim^ri). Din** not !<»se Wftg-bt at 
.00°, Mc'lt-i, with lOGB of water (r.<* iwlow). fl^t ICl'lj" (Mrrpcted) (flesee, 
iweiiger &i Sipberl), at 155* [W^oekreflt^enekyJ; l^coraye suft and 
icky at a Utile over 100", aud molta at 140" fUlemni). ^oJidifiua, oa 
iH>Ui)g* to a bard, amorpliuuti dllihh. Mi^looular roLatur^' pijwer to tbe 
|i*ft; ^rrealeriii a sr^luliun prepared^ (yjld Ibaxi in one prepared with 
bot water j least of all iu a aolutioQ of the fused acid [fltest). 


IS H... 

la o 

~. 8i ....... 


4375 -„ 

0-aB ... 

60-00 ... 



.... C'30 
... 60-11* 

» 46-» ... 

e-aa ... 

— Eo-aa „- 


.... 438 
.... 601 

CPH*^"* .. 

10000 .„ 


, . 100-00 ... 

.... 100-0 

CInnm. ZwDoguF. 

C 43-38 .-, 

O ,.„ „„„ ftO-ll ., 


43-61 43fiO 

6-5fi „ S4S 

49-H , 5a0fi 

lOCMX) lOO-OO 10C>00 

Tbp nralydp} are ^vou in nu^n numlnra : a wiu obtikiiied from coffbe-tiesi^fl^ h 
in ihp bJl»prrj jilout ^Zwp'i,t'<T d djtjbcrt), — Heiirj A: Fljt^uu (J", J*A-mti. 
,&. S9&) r«ufld 10 p. □, i-arbnn lt*p ^ Bmip, ttJio fgund *7'U3 p. c, C find C 82 H, 
II4V. ucording to H^bpCi liaro aublTPi'd ItiniiJe^, —'big lirst ffsve tiis cairect 
(irniiiU \Artt. Phantk- 37, aSS) ? Gerhardl [ IVaiVfi 3, l3;ij and otkfK doubled it to 
i^H^O^ + 3 w]., mgorditig fbe Hid p« bibasio, and wjipoflEng Ibr preaan^^ of water 
If ajBt&llu&liuu ID il and in fhe aiEvor^flnll ; Huah hud npmm contf^dli'tcd 
SfrhftTitt'i rifiv, uid coaAmiiTd the mrrvctiusa of Liabig'fl fDnnnlL 

Decpinpositintui^ — I. Kiaic ocidheuff^d to 220 — 22r/ (liectJining browa 
iu the latter caAK, Iomp wa-n-T and Ls oonvertoil into kicdde : 

The evolution of water bcffiaa at loS^*, and amfiunte to between 
4-7 and 52 p, c, (WoHkresfleriflky), At about 1 C5' the acid evolves 
111 fi. r, water, without attJihihig a t'otietwtit \^-ei^ht ; et 220" the 
tr«9 nmtumls to more tbnrt 13 p. c- (EfetiHe], C'bmm'B nf^id bi>Hiiiia brovns 
••^•mh Ift.J' and l?**" nnd dorainpriwd, giTing nfT hubblw, ppobnblj, arm.'Pding 
to Urmr^ bfinuw it itiU rmitairLiHl Bul|ihi^rid oi^iil. — Khiic add, which bae 
t-acu heated over SOO^i ocjntaiua email auaelitiea of carbuhydrokiaoikiQ 
<Kid| rDGOgrui^ble by mcaaa of ecBEiuiciilorido of Iroti (flesse), 

2. Subjected to drff daiiUatlwu in a rutort, kinio add melta, boilfl, 
^M at alK>ut 230^ beuoiaoH browi:, glvhig oU water and a gas whJeU 



batik* vnth pal^Uo^ fitaip- WWo tamv stnmgiy bmlPil \i y>^V^ * 
Itabtifn&te of veElnwu^ |<ifM, wkidt inc^l nod cmmJ^os*^ 

benicJ, uhI nlk^koi acid (C^ia^iliutoiiahiTtil f Kt-i Ttw lUtl^br»va 

tvn=o»-C"wo** SCO ••HO. 
CVtmh»'« ^>^r*IM nl—Tbe nha of kiaic aott vlr 1,1. hr dn 

<'ncin<>i>»' (C.^U'^J*). La ftvnicct Afv^rHifig «« Itic Add uf in crrnfvtiaU«i 

Wilb bkAt« or in lJ>f frM" ot*le ; in tHi* r^s*' of l:u*f^-ia' mn<J lilof-^jJU 

ariil flfhffn qnirkly b**»l**'t fi«r»* Willi ^. , „. ^ -__;:.l, . :u.;Lj;ig ibi- oJum 
(fi bonun^ lirUrie vid ( WBcfct-nfodvr). 

dowtk B brown ^obstftlKtf, wU«t phocfiholjnilnolciiMtiiG »ci 

c»qpK>» + po'.sno - c^Hw.PC + SCO t ana 

A ttdmiim itf Ite ItaH->i4k «btttiaid I7 Mvtnliniig Ihc acU viA 

frviBki ofi. oa ilapdiBii or wnuc- uiW bi 'f ^>^Trorv tnd pfuvjibftTr nf jitop; a 

ftdijju DdtlnlHctalccif lr«d t*th*«ohrttoa. | ' . ! i- | r . '. 

ISbn^iofi rfHiwrww (1I«k). — ^ Kiiue Ada Uj£sd|vi?[4 m ciinji.r.i^ •' \ "^ 
w«r 2^ vitrivi, witli f?f-ijliilk<a ot carbotitc au4o adJ fonimjiuu t U«i 
phof jdrokiaoikk; iidil : 

C»'U'0"*eO*--C"H«K»»* SCO *6U0. 

At ab<iiit W*" J"ili*htitT>UB ov-id iri alfm ^rrn off (irc*flr>. Tfc* 
tl*iti, »hw'h IS f<iliriirk-Bs nt fitsl. U'ortiio' j^tJU-s-gnra wlirn 
A»d lii^fly bWk (llf'iirv ik riiRR>M), AtiIiviIp^us eu]|ihiin(? i^iA (1 
Ufuiu^ciii *'( vitri'^l) iiUii |iri>'lMO>fl bi^ul^ihi hrdmkifKntic ocad, bat M* 
U>uiaea a Inrgi^ igunniity iif tiio kuiK acid (Ursai^). 

G. ir>'M Chfi/nAf, Oil djflilllin^ kirtir nrnl or IStiaU* of 4>oii^r 
oxido ^t rt]AiLj^n(^i% conifn>*n ^uTr, mid iHluii- Ku^iititinc iciu. an 

liipiiil And a yllow cryalihlLiii.- Ji^iilhitL* aiv tbtuirK'^t iUij tfUAttft li 
llnTiHtTCl ftwfllm^ n[t \k»\cn\\y &i firs U and t-toUiiifir cftrbitaic ifll 
ancl n litlk- chli'nnr. TW ^1i^l^lIi4^i.■ o>iiUiii* a-|Ui i- *oi 

i:hl'tn»tin<>ni> t^i. li*.*). bk^hliinkkinurH* (si. IM). v- ,h it. 

liKl), ami cbUimml, *8 woH Jis |'<'fitJU'liltiriM.H'l'»ih^ <.^H< .'.m ^xj^i- *^* 

[vitiirr1> ^n^irn w n-nil), hy Ih>iIi||^ hi)»iiki]^ kiiiic su'iiJ wuli hv-ii-h-klrOT 

ndd ariil cM<Talr I'f imLi^h (tho iin>}>ikrtLiini4 N>ii< .>i>'*i^ 

rvi^hilliin ijf ohlnrino mid rlilomiir* ndd U n ::rj'i'-^ 

ptxtbACit.nEi'tii-|ir>'lucl4 ni kin>iiK* nrv* likL*tvii!>o fuLruiJ ^i jif>U tl 
dtiiul *>viT In^'i'djur w'ttl* |W'Ut!i>^M*rinvlom', and hv (i^iinf^tr ''*■* 
■ iMlillnff iitK! Liifilimiint; thr Uiliiitf, niny It ivn^j^ri 

i\fiu lM>oMuiiw'-l {<Xiii\v\i.^u Ann. PAitrm. fiO.SiKl and I n» SiUJ. ft**" 


chloric acidoD a dilute Bolatioo of kinin ocul (ITpsw),- — 7. Bromine, dropped 
into an aqueous solution of kinic iicid, forniB carbohydrokinonic add. 
With pure kinic acid no gaa is evolved, but loiig^ pafc-yeUow neodlea 
at once make their anpearnnce; they arc insoluble in water, and 
amount to scarcely yj-gtn of the kijijc acid employed (Heaso). 

8. Nkric aciV/ converts kinic into oxalic acid; a peculiar acid being 
also formed at the begiouiog of the action (Ilenvy & Pliaaon). — 
1). Kinic acid heated with oxide of manganese and dilute mlphuric acid 
jTcldfl kinonc and carbonic acid (WoHkrcsseiisky). — 10. Peroxide of 
lead, added to an aqueous solution of kiuic acid, evolves carbonic acid 
and forms hydrokinone (Kcei^e). 

cn^" + 2PbO' - c»n'o* + 2C0= + Giro + apbo. 

Part of the kinic acid conibinos with the oxide of lead formed, 
andisthen not decomposed, oris butslowlj'decomposedby boiling, with 
Himoltaneous formatiou of a ba^ic salt (Hesse). — 11, Kiuic acid is not 
altered by boiling with an aqueous solution of bichromate of potash 
(Weckenroder). — 12. Ou boiling an aqueous solution of kinic acid 
with nitrate of silver and excess of caustic potash, metallic silver is 
reduced (Wackeuroder). — 13- Heated with ani/inej it is converted 
iutoktiiamlide(IIe5He),^U, It is not altered by emubin(Schoonbroodt, 
Par.SocBulL J, H>7> 

CoTt^inatioia. Kinic acid dissolves in 2^ parts of water at 9'^, and 
iiamuch smaller quantity uf hot water (Henry & Plieson), The 
■nhtion becomes mouldy on standing. A concentrated solution fomiB 
a thick] syrupy liquid. 

Kinic acid expels carbonic acid from its salts. It is jnonobosie 
(Hesse, Clemm). The (general formula of its salts is C'*11'^M0"; 
"either bi-acid nor double kinatcs are known (IXenry Sc Plisson, Hesse, 
tlemm). The prepnraliou of a bibaryric sitit, corraspondmR to neutral Balicj- 
^ of tKirylfl (iLii-251), hw not bivn effrt'ted (Clcmm). In tho quadroplunibic 
■ok^iDthe ferric a^t, and in l}ii> bic^upric 9:^lt more than I atr hjdnrgen is k< 
pl>ttd bj metalf in th? bat at lea»t nller ^irying ; lic-?iBO re^rda it before drjitig tm 

C^H^M}uO'',CuO,HO + 2 aq, — The salts of kiuic acid are for the most part 
•^rptallisableT and have a neutral reaction : with the exception of the 
«fflO lead-salt, they are soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol 
rtrongcr than 32° fi. They arc thrown down by strong alcohol in the 
form of glutinous precipitates. Their water of cryetaJlisation is 
(fipplled with difficulty, being- generally retaincdat 100 . Docom position 
l>jW,aeoab€>To, — Kinic acid acts like tartaric acid in preventing the 
E^edpitation of metallic oxides by caustic potash (Hesse). 

Kiaaie of Ammonia. — A neutral solution of kinic add in ammonia 
WoBies acid on evaporation, even in a vacuum, from loss of ammonia, 
*nddoes not leave a crystalline residue (Henry & Plisson), Ammonia, 
to whicii an excess of kinic acid has been atided, is not precipitated by 
absolute ak»hol, even on !on^ standio;:^ (Wackenrodev). Crystalliaed 
^iov icid uTolTea carbonic m'id from ciirbonale of ammonia when triturated th^T^' 
*i^util forms a moist coherent miuiA, whirb. ov^r the wnter-batht ^TeAofTlherioed 
'^UQmjnia, and fusea to a neutral m^iaa- T^iia ia probably the animoDia-Balt 

Kinaie of Pota^* — A bitter gum, not crystallisable, even after 

^d^tvm fit Fi^e kiiuc adil (ITeiuy & FBamti). UtkCf^vtAffinbU vjvtp 
(Clemm)- Tbe »olittioD beb^TV^ unruds skohot Uki' the aquno M-^ i lr 

KinaiA 9f iy>rta, — Obtuued b; nentnliaiig^ Ionic mod villi CAWtc 
poda, or with thf« c^rbonalf. Crj«talliiws bIowI j in (in^. trmnsf«tTiit« 
oa^eiiled pristue (Henry k, PIihsod); in larg^, pwlv trbite, fi'fflihic 
|d&m9 <ft labk's (C!cmm)» Pcrnmncnt in tbe ur (ticTnrv & ?!■■*- ■■ 
Siri bittf^r (Bauir^ Does not lose wat^r ft crystal I isaiiou ot I'hj 
(Henry k. Pb&?infi), Mult« at Kut^ t'l a colotirle»M lif^uirl. with l(iM<jf 
w»t*r,' but 13 not rendf?red arihjiJfi^Q* i>r d^nninofled, tv^n m 190* 
(Cl(nitm> Dresolvee in ^ p«t wator at 15^ (Bauf>)« lese fwclj ii 
alc<rbol (Ileafy i PUaeoti), — ConUina 4 at. water of CQretalUailiH 

O-fl^H)^ IBS 732 

ir»o Bl .^^ IS-* U-M 

4H0 ^ Se li-* . 

C"B"KdO'*,4«i 860 UKH* 

KinaU of J^urr/fd, — Aqnt^ous kinic add uid Hnate uf poCjuhm* 
nnl rp;n(I^refl tiiibiil liy liar^ ti^- water ur LthTonJo of barium, but after 
fldciitiotmf alaihnl, fj^tclcft a«» slowly fonned hthf liquid ( \Va<:i<e(invterl 
The ncQtral ealt it: obtamod by satar^ttDg the arid with carbunat? 
barvta, I( cryslnllise^, by epODtanooua evi&p.trjtiim of thirr aicobnl 
rioluiLira, h\ IniL^, traimffarcat octuliedronSi ^liich havt anaiirtrH>u«la»ia» 
and i^J1liin'£»- in llie air {IL'iit^' & Pli^ttiiiii). It irt ubtainod in 
h«drona with 6 at. waf?r of orj'stalLisation, whL^li do not efHi 
tbe air (Baup) i as a partially crvHlallkod ma^t^ (Clectim). Tht 
droaa salt coutaiue 20-25 p. c. UaU (llccrj A PUs^oii). (Oila C7' 
BaO = 29 48 Ph c. BbO. 

C^H^'O'^ 183 Baa7 

BuO .„.„ 706 E*40 J^'llT 

fiHO,.,.. , 64 iraa 

cy^H"jiiO",ftiq - ai3'S loooo " 

EinaUrtff Srrant'o, — a. WirJtlOat, Water. — EmiIj cr , : . ' 
;mblca ibc Jimo-fialli ikiid is pi-rhaps iaumorphnns tin 
>ffloreBcc» Bpeedil J ill the air, U'mn^ 3 nl. vaitunud Uh^hti.*. aiiiuiiiiuj, 
pf^arly. Di&*j<»lvpe iii 3 p:irlfl water at 12°. !ind iu » sriuiltT qa*»t« 
of hot water (Baup, ClciomJ. 

D'ff^O*' ^., Ififl M*S4 «»«_ 

8rO .-^ H'8 U-M 4M-^ 161» 

10 H0...«...«. 90 .„ vm 

CH'SiO'.lOm] S3U-g lOMW ,.,.,. 

b. mih U at. It^aitfr.^NeodioB, wbioh eSorawc npdlr b dr 



C*'H'*0" .« > 


16 HO._ 


183 49-40 

fil-a mM 13'H1 

„,. 135 ™.,., 36- SO 

C^H"SrO".l5«i „. QGQ^ 10CH)0 

S'lTkoftf of Lime. ^Oocurs in cinchrtnabftrlc — Lime-wator <:|och not 
prccipiiat-G aquoouH kiiiic ocid, even *m boiliug, and only aftfrr kiQff 
etandin^ whun alcx;btd ia addi^d. Chloride of calciuru jjrcclpilalee the 
&i)Licc^us suIutioEia of ()u' !tlk;iJiiio kliKiTrs, iirdj' afkr nddliig uloNhirl 
nmi ammonia, aoJ allowing ihi> miMiiro to Btaiid (Waolceuroder). — 
Eiauli^ uf limn in couiaol willi it solutiiJii of limo in feuj^r-wat<T doo9 
not foim a Ittjiic sail ^ nor can uuy other thau the mono-ftcid aalt, with 

10 «t. water, be obtained from & ai>lution to which either alcoholio 
bjrdrochlodc Hcid or an uxce^ of kiiiit; ftuiU hae been added (Hesse). 

TT7M I0*i( Wiitcr, Frvmn»[iu)i(p, SSI). Rhotnboidallaminae of 78*ftini 
1 12", freqnentlyhfSfl^jQal, from having the two ai^iiie aiiy^l*'is truuoateid 
(Bauft). Very Iilt^iv rranspnriTit tnMrfl, which Tuay in? hfiit between 
the le^th, and are riearly tastph;e« f VimqneliuT Ilf tiry A Pbaflon). From 
ftcad solutions it iB ohtiuned in hig-bly luatrooH, ooitccDtric prieiDS 

Wbi-n ^s|KJ8ed for 8ome dayn to Ji'y air, il Iopi-h from 1(1 Ui 12 p. c. 
water (JJebig), It -jnickly loses 1 at, watijr in coQlacl with the ah-, 
^Kit- over oil of vitriol (Hesse). The hjrp;er crystals, when expoaed to 
^Hb aiFt acquire a nacreous limtre ou tho surfa4.'o without eUlni'i^acmg 
(Clenru), — The huII ujelts in ils watt'r of i^tystallisutioji when 
quickly heaii.'d to 100% ^ivesfiff tht water completely at 120^*, suffers 
DO further diminution of weight at ISO*, aud doeg not turn ^browa 
OvGU at ^0Q\ The dried salt heated to :215% bec^a to melt liud Uiroa 
brown, with ioee of I'S p» c, b conaequcutc of eonic decompoHitiou 
(Ileftfte). - — It dissolves hi It pta. of cold water (Yaor|iieIiii^ i in fl j^trt. 
wAt4?r at IC ^Baup) ; much more abundnnily ici hot water. It tH 
insoluble in bi^djly rLHJtified eptritj but dissofvea in spiiit of 2U B. 
{Henry & riiBHon). — Ita aqueoufi eolutiou lume the plaueof poiarisa- 
tioc to the left (Hc&se), 

14 O ^ ~ „ a* aSRl 39"8 

11 H. ^ U , 6-El -., bA 

11 O -..^.._ Sa 4171 - *17 

CaO as la a7 lai 

B0-3S 39-US 

fi'*5 5-34 

iiaa 4213 

la-ai laaa 

CMH"C»0«._ ill 10000 lOO-O IWOO 100-00 

«- From bilhfr^ Uwei ; h. From ?oflV4. — Cantmni 13'3 p- O- linifl (Uvntj it, 
PliHDDj ] 13-14 |i- c. (Liebig). 

[>*HaOii 183 .... «0-S 

OhQ as ^„ 9-3 

loiio 00 .... aao 

Banp- L]r>tig, Ha«. ClemiD. 

c»H"c*o".:oiHi aoi ,.,, loo-o 

The ivli obtAimid imm liUbpirj leaves oonlaiufd ^9 OS p. o., thai ^m rwfliM 

jT ; r^ '-'_V.V"- % — ^"^il'-i ^-eile^ ^^± ^fr^ <•? Uieir mt«T of 
crri-.*!.-^:- L 1-. : ' \ — ^tl- --: ::i.-'.-^^^ -i'r.litZ at ibii lempentnTe iff 
wijrL I-^tl: ' -^ ' r'r.r^Li.'^-: ^ '^x i^: verr sololile in water 

c-^H"-:-^ is» na 

Mj":* - -_ a:- 7T* _ . 7flo 

':=-» - u *:vi scrGi 

C'-H-Mj-:*^.^*^- *5r i'X>«> 

Sjirti* if z:*^%s Lvf ^:t ^^«sr :. =:±« vi:^ lin^ A^d. — Tlwkbutsdo 

aadd'.'L-: iLtIt wi-^:.' t:ir3_:. — ^A^i.^ U: al->at ^h) ptft. of cf^ water 


o*w-^£z.o^ is3'> ran 

lIuO - - &5ie . Iti-** leiT 

C^H-itO« tl^-6 K<KM} 

Kinatt of Zihf. — C*n preoptTatlng' the Ume-sailt with sulphate of 
ziDC actl ^fa|--rai;:tir tLe ^Itniu-. dirtv while laminie uid imtU 

pennAoeut at l^^.f". and u-t lutliiu^ when burnt (CLenun). Verr 
■olubLe ID water (UearA- ^ Pli£»>u), 

a. k. PliuuD. 

14 C ^I-O .... srW „. 3735 

11 H IIU ,... 4i'l .. 5 13 

110 h-'i-o ... 393S .... syw 

ZnO 4£r6 .... IMS ... I vit ... 1810 .^- 1779 -^ 17^ 

C"H"ZnO^ -.223^! ,,.. lOOOu ,... lOOOO 

Kinate of Cadtitiunt. — KcsoiiiHes lhi> zinc^salt in appearance ud 
when ht-ated. Di^r^olves in abuut 2j3 pm. cold water (CLtmm). 

C"n"0" IS3 74-03 _ 

CaO fil 2591 25-97 

C'*li"CdO« 217 10000 

Kinate of Uml — Noiilral ncet:ite of lead doen not predplite 
kinic at^id iu ai|iieoi]s koIuIloii, t»r combijicd wuth alkalis, i'ioe|tti>'< 
add i lion of aDnumiii. busic iKVlJite of U'ad^ added to a cohceulnfrd 
aqiie^iiiH or ak'-iliolii^ ruIuIloil of kink' ucid^ tlirowMdown acoiiious whii^ 
jicxripilutOT wbicli it4 oasily rtoliibk- in tfic bauic acetate arm iu wiwfi 
and iHTComeA crystaiHue aud jrearlv on Ptatidtn^ ( Waekeiutkdcr). 

a. CtuidrifhtiAic. I'recLpi(Al<'d bj ho^ir Acvlale of lewl ffvto fciiute ct^ff 
(PfllditT A CmTtfijU*u). An cn-eMuf (li* jinwijrtiaiil dU»lT« thf prMpitai«: h^* 
it it boiler nat tj prwipilalo complrt.'lj (Baup). — The boiliug aolutJOn of tbf 


mono-acid salt ia precipitated by ammonia, and the precipitate ia 
quicklv washed with hoiiin^ water, bciDjj protected at the Bame time 
from the aclion of carbonic^ acid (WoskroHHcnaky). It easily absorbs 
carbonic acid from the air. When heated, it gives off water, witliout 
sufferiog any further, alteration at 200°. It dissolves hi acetic and 
Other acids. 

at 200". Woikrcwonskj- 

14 C Si 13D1 13-53 U93 

6 H e 1-32 1-25 1-49 

8 64 10-59 11S6 

4 PbO 4 IS 7418 7336 _ 

CHH»Pb^O» e04 10000 lOOOO 

Contains 7273 kud-oiide (Baup), 7252 p. c. (Liebig). — Boichardt (CAtM. 
Bataruttk. der CkinarimUn, Bevuhscuw. 1855), mentiooB a^t containing 69'31p.c. 
PbO at IO0-. 

b. Mono-lasic. — The eolution of hydrate of lead in aqueous kinic 
M3d solidifies to an acicular crystalline mass when evaporated on the 
water-bath (Ileory h Piissoji). The mother-liquor evaporated to a 
^yrup yields neodlee, which, after drying in moderately warm air, 
contain 2 aL water of crystalliBatiou (Baup). Permanent io the air, 
and has a sweet taeto. Dissolves easily in water, also in alcohol of 
32" B, (Henry k Phsson). 

At 100". Henry & Plieflon. 

C^H"0" IBS esoe 

PbO 112 3794 37-48 

C^H'ThO" 2i>5 10000 

Ac^okinate of Lead. — When aqueous kinic acid is boiled with a 
large escesa of neutral acetate of lead, and the filtrate, evaporated to 
a symp, is mixed with alcohol, distinct crystals shoot out, containing 
acetic as well as kinic acid (Woskressensky). 

Ferric Kmatc. — Kinic acid protects ferric salt* from precipitation 
by alkalis (Rose). Aqueous kinic acid is not coloured by ferric liydro- 
cnlorate (Ilesae). Tlic pale yellow solution mixed with ferric hydro- 
chlorate assumes a deeper yellow colour, becoming dark-red on boiling, 
with formation of ferrous hydrochlorate (Wackenroder), — The red- 
brown solution of ferric hydrate in aqueous kiuic acid, leaves when 
evaporated a semi-crystal line, very astringent mass, wliieh does not 
become moist on exposure to the air, but (s very soluble in water 
(Henry & Plisson). 

Bi- acid (bask). — Obtained accidentally on quickly evaporating a solu- 
tion containing kinates and ferric hydrochlorate. Micruscopic laminae 
having the colour of chromic oiide, soluble in hydrochloric acid. Gives 
off water over oil of vitriol, then no nmre at 100°, but decomposes at 
170* (Hesse). 

ai 1IJ0\ Hesse. 

28 C 168 3844 380 

21 H 21 4-82 4-8 

a Fb 56 12-82 124 

_g4 O 19B 43-92 44-8 

20»H»0",HO,reK)' 437 100-00 lOOil 


mchk the ■ottitfJVts 


n die «ir, ftAd MStfmr a 


'^*»0» .. 










_ riiififir Ir fn ir r 

quite cqoivakiil quatztj of <apnc «^lJh*le, uidafow drofv^'i Uryu- 
wAter are added to the dear £hnte. -mhkh then, ou eLai^liti. 

cva|icintiD^,di^uaiUrv£alara7«talB<Ljebigr>. — £. Aqiieijufi kj 

ia boilnl with eiceaa of ^nirit l^jArMe (Baup), aail Ui^* tilUnlr is p?- 
dpitatcd with etber'^^ciAot{Xwtngtr k Svt->n). u ihu maJ« of pnp- 

nlian it it itigniit to «*P;;n** ^ Jiiiiglj aabUp atM innu ' 

l.Td»te dMla^, — a. Tike nit t& likovrioe fovncd in en 
cvoli2ti<Ki of aortic acid* oo «rafi»ratiiig a »>ldlii>u i<t Mr^ii'^ " 
wilb capric aoi^Ut^ (Baup. Larbi^V Ov*-r <fil of lilHn] il j^n 
odIv itfi adh«iag traU^r {Kr^tnen*^ luiiiiuiiti^g U) bciwwn I ju.j . ■' 
p. c. (HoMe). Belwt^n irXt aii'l 12tr, it givca off 4 at. n-ttrr 1/ 
CTTBtallieaCioii (Lit'bi^)^ aiul dcco>npn^c« at a tcmjM^ratuto abovv i^' 
(KidocTs). ~ Diwolvea in tlfiO ti) 1^00 pto. tratcr at 115° (tiaiip^ 




Wotkna- Kmnflri 

... J8'I7 ... MM 
_ 4-f« ,.. 4'&S 
... 40 51 .. M-90 
.., »e-*7 . 37-43 

_ c-oo 

.. BfrftO 

14 ,.. 

£ GbO , , , 


.. llffO .. 
.- T9-4 



„ E8&-4 _ 

, im-aa 

^,. 174<P 

WW 00 


.. Jflo* 

.-, -71^4 


.__ . 


0*qi"Cu<O",4«i „ S81I4 



... 1446 


.... 47 B3 
.... L3'83 


„ la-M 

.... ULee . 


,,.— ,„^,-.- 

-, la-ia 1 


14 C „. 
Ifl H._ 


, B4'0 

. 1[M> ..... 

73* -.-. 

.. 5107 







10 ... 

a CuO 


- 253'4 ...,. 

.. 100-00 

.., ,, 100-00 

, JlfMiA-fteid. — Obtaiiie'l by miring aqueous kiaie acid, in Oscobb, 
I hjdnitc or carbonato of copper, and cooling the recuUinf- 
IJOQ, or lijaviiig- it Iti evu]>ornlc- Any pi^ition of giet-ii baeii; 

llmt m!ij l«' prci^iniraU^il iit tliertmiiF? thru*, Ik removeJ, an<l L)u3 
ral Halt is crrsIaTlisod from wa I it coiilaiiiiiig kinic adJ, — Palt! 

lamijiie or ocedtee, wLioh cundiiri 5 at. water rif i^rystu-llieation, 
^ve off ) of it in contact ^ith llic air. The saJt diHeoircd in 
It 3 pts, of cold water; the stjlutiuii dt'crimposcfl nri fltaiidin^, aoil 
ET ijiiirkly wlieii healed, witli tiepanilimi i>F a ba^ic halt (LJniip). 
y A PUF^m iln^mbe gpc^'n, eiuilj ■r>luli|'* iiiT'll(M,iinrfainiriy 17 '5 |)r i'. CiiO, nt 

wliiL-ti |itHii.p* bi'krng to this pboe tD'H^GuO" a 1783 p. c. CiiO). 

rrcunV A'lWff. — Aqucoiia kinic acid, citbor free or neutralised 
ai^ida, di»es not |irecLpiIi4,t<! c^itbi^r jiiLTCitrk: or nicrcurous bulla 
Mirjnelia, Wacteiiroder). Thp gohilion of mercuric OTide in the 

•iius acid d'kos n<»t crystallise, but dt>poBitti a reddieh^ycllow powder 

u bcaU.'d (Henry & Plieaon). 

'pmU of Stiver^ — The alkaliae kinatee do not pr&dpitttte eilver- 
(VaiiJ|uclin ; Pelltiticr ^ Carentou) The mixture of aqueous 
acid, or a. kiiuito, with iiitraLo of ftiUer, quickly tuni*, blacky from 
rtinii r»f uielnl I WcjskreflStiNrtky), — To preixire the s^dI^ uqur^oua 
[add is dif ei4ted with roceiiily preciptatod earbimat** of edvei', 
|t hquid, whw'h lias bocomo neutral, \ti ovnfinralcd in vacuo with- 
:[xiHuro to ligbt OVoskrt^&acnflky). White. HpK'riad nodijea, 
[quickly I^l3<:keii wbeii ei^poseJ to li^ht (l^aop). lioen lose 
at luO" (IIi-Hse). MLdtR wIu?il hejLtcd (l.'lcmm). Easily sulublu 
r, less atiluble hi aluobol (Ili-rkry & PHhrou). 




3 75 . 
,Bt91 , 





3a -4 








that fnnu 

rr-ult obrQiacd fram bilbvrrj Ihtci cooljiiot Sfi'lO pi c-i 

251 FmuAT yrctiCT c»="; oxTGO-sccun 

*"'■_ T-7 - I: i»=-:t^'i* 1^ il-=i< ir.-.rf*;* zijin^ ir^-iicUT Unn im alco- 


O, U£ii3. Aim. /'Vr-n. Il<>- U^. 

/V<p^vjri>*_ K::^? acil :s L^^trl :a 43 ^b'-'bttth to between 2*0' 

Tiiidd sal-~:u;i?tr vL:>?L ?^f>ar^iT« vn c»-^f is remoTMl; tad ttt 
crvFtaU wLkh £«(iar»:e >-ii «[.-:':^:datvQS erapontWD are Teoi7»Ullind 
iiottt water. 

^[bftU cryetftU re^^mMin^ E^'SJUia >tiiac whidi. in presence of 
certain todfr^. take up water aod are convened into Baits of )aac 
add — B«^-Ev>D acid,^Ea$iET E*-Inl4e in tnttr wbetber coU or hoi, 
Apmnagij la cUinte oictAiL So ojl^L'TacitMi wiib fenic chluride. 

at 10:^- mtmm. 

14 C St 48-SS 4»50 

10 U,-,-^ 10 5-75 ft« 

10 **) 45-W tfU 

C*H"tH' 174 lOCWO lOCHW 

Conjugattd Compo^indi 0/ Kink Add. 

Kinate of EthyL 
c^fl'H)" = c«fl"0",c*n*0- 

Obtained by bea(ing kiunlc of eilver with iodide of elbvL Tn* 
Gxcct^ of uKilde of fXUy] iif drawn off, aud tbe residue a qzHto^ 
with abeoluli.' alcohol and evaporated, 

Yelicw ayrup, virtcid at lui-an temperaturei mobile at 50°* hi^* 
bitter taflle aud arouiatjc odour- 

Ih racwo. 

1» C .,.. lOS 49-09 «-B 

I« II 16 7-27 7-4 

120 , 96 43-64 4t^ 

C"H"0'\CHH) 280 10t>a) 10(H} 


Appears to distil without dccompoflJtion between 240° and 250° in 
a riream of carbonic acid i but a lar^r portion of it is dccomposod, 
with intumescence, at a temperature a little above 100". — When 
/teated ou platiuum-foil, it volatilises at first nlth a white flame, and 
finally bums away with a bright flame. — Slowly dccoinpoaed by 

Easily soluble in vjater and in alcohol; leas soluble io ethfr. 


When kinic acid is heated to 180° with eiceas of aniline, water 
^id aniline are volatilised, and a residue is left which solidifies on 
cooling. From this substance ether dissolves unaltered aniline, and 
the remainder, dissolved in other-alcohol, yields the anilide. 

The small, white, silky needles whiclj separate ou cooling and 
evaporation, give off, when heated to 90°, after dtyiiig over oil of 
vitriol, from 6-4 to 6'6 p. c. water {2 at. ^ 6 32 HO), mi^lt when further 
heated to 174'' (oorrected), and solidify in the hinainar form. Neutral. 
Decomposes above 240° without subliming. — Dissolves easily in water 
and alcohol, sparingly in ether. 

26 C 

156 ..^... 

«74 ., 

4-91 ,. 

6'66 „ 

33-69 ,. 





.... 6-7 





15e „_... 


5B'42 .. 
5-24 „ 
&33 .. 

8001 .. 

..„ 58-5 

N ..„ 


17 H _ 


,-.- 6-6 


10000 .. 

Appendir to vol, xi, p. 164. 

1. CarbohydrokiiioiuG Acid. 
C^JIW = C"HH)*,2C0". 

^- Hesse (1859). Ann, Pharm. 112, 62; 114, 292; UntersHchungtr^ 
^ afer, die Chiiumgruppt, Gottingen, \%m. — Anii. Pkarm. 122, 22L 
*■ liADTEMAiiK. Aim. rhattn. 120, 315. 

Formation. L. By the action of bromine on aqueous kinic add 
Ip. 227)- — 2. By beating kinic acid above 200° ; by tb« a£l\Ott ^ 



chlorate of potash and bydrodtlohc acid on dilute &qii(^r»tje 'Udbwii 
t)i of |>crifX]cIc of matigaiicE^c and riiil[ihuriu iu;id i.m aijueou^ kinatc nf 
lime, small qu;mtitieK uf carlKthydj'okiiioiiLt; add ttre furmcH], n^^gruu- 
"ble bj ferric hydrucLlorate (HeBHe). 

Prrpra-ntion. Prcrnme is G,di]ei] to Aqueooa feanic Mdd bjr ponifm* 
of 10 dr'ipa each, till a jjorlion of It reDaajna uniliflfifJrod, even */lM 
tie liquid li&& bc'ik frequently agitati!^d nnd loft [o ^liuid for 1^ bouff. 
The eoliitinn is then dttaiitcd fr'>m tbc iindiaeolved bromine, diluliM. 
filkifoJ* and mixed with caibuuiite of lead, oa lon^ iks a bridle evnlutlLn 
t>f gafl is tborebj- ^at ujj, nnd brnmide nf li^nd inY*diH'(.'d- Th*' fiitni' 
evttjKiratod to a lliiok nyrap on liie waior-batli, ord stifJion iq ^:'i 
about 5 vuL clher, yields to thit* liquid cnrbiibydrokjmmic aeld. ^' : 
after the ftLer hiis been distillud off, rtirittin^ as 4 bruvn tn -1 .: 
ret^iiliit'. It is jmrificd by re-iTyHiiil[jwaJ»m frnm WAirr futiijinin: 
bydroeblnrif? uriii, witli hol|> of nuiE^ml ehiireiiab — Or [h*» Bfihji iii. 
treoted with bromine uud tiltcred» is oiistil with (»H>onfttr ^^\ Wil. 
till tbis palt iK'Briiin to take up organic ftubstuntva ; llie Jilfrii' 
l»rfcii^laled with solution nf iruIiuI ucuUte of lend, and rltr^ii^afl 
tbia ]ir<'dj»ilii[i' h:tK b(.'i'ii rnllei.-lnl, t\ Further p reel pit 11 (e is obinJru'd 
addition of nmrnnnia. By deconipoein^ the predfiilale* euRj n'ridtd 
water with hydrosulpburic acid, then boiling tip and diluUnrr ^ 
filtrulc. carbuhydrokinrniic acid i.h ob|,aii]ed fnin the Jir»l [ifcdpiiik. 
The? add obtiii lied fmni llie ei^Niid lead-precipLlAteaiill retAJriH ujnilt<'m/ 
kinfc at^idf fn>ni whidi it may bi^ separated by ctber (Hc^kkr). 

Pii-pt-i!iti. The CTy^tflUieed acid ie obtmcied auhydc^xin by ln^iiifr^ 
to 10[> ^' "'. itf) Melts l\X 207° fiTiirm-iixi) wifb jiurliul ih'c:i[iifir.uitiiki. 
aod solidifiert in the radio-ery stall! no form betwt'un lGiJ° arjd ITw" 
(tte^E^e). Whc-Q eantioualy h«uted, it eublimes ivith partiid dmiifa|«- 
sitioij (Lautcmani^. — Taetee sour, and at the aomc Luim; bm 
Reddens Uttnns (Ileaae). 

14 C 84 E4Si ^^ 

BH ,.„,. e ... «- 3-iK* _.,. a-w 

8 o -.- B4 4118 ireo 

cm-o* 16* 

100-00 10000 

The fnUnwIng Kill* p^TP renclioTift rvry "iiailDr to 1 hoiS of tarhkili jdmliiuaie v 
^1. Morintunnif tiriif i^v, ITJJI ami Jk/'frm iiT,-t77), wliiiilj. iH-ounling ui UIhbhvV 
furniuU (1T4 i^-kt are ivomcrir vtjeIi (tni'l>.>hrLlroliiDuaic ocjd. ^ S^ ^rmitf^ett"^^ ] 

8tniW ^-fi". PAdnt, llfi, ISO) Id 4iia[ in i-AlvL-bu. lOiicuiiLrh iv lifi iv^tAlfdAJ 
«iiiip<jund il»M:nbi-d as p^riK^nto'^hiti {ii. 371:4|, fimt im tli^ urip, Ih^n v lK* flbirv 
tbf'H iu<iH», HTiiL. tthnlJy, nAnTniirimmf ihi^iwo. — 3. /''Vffn^r^Ab<4<<H'K/. Tbui^ 
AO'vtnUTKE III Liiiil<]mBi[n {Ann- J'hiirm- I24)> 3tA>, mmt bt n'fm-iinl ju ulnillWw^, 
iiirlir>\i_v Jnikjii4inj<; a^^iil. tiiir-c tlii^ loAiet acidt nhrn hevleil mlli pujotc*, vcntk' 
jiolkiniV p*ri>cnl«kui (*'"'■ ***S)- B**^ iHN,'*>rJ|j<a lo Hr»« ( J*i>. /'Wift^ lAff^ 
the twvt ft" ids n-nct .iiltcfcnlJy with [^tipric lu-tmli?, o.uJ iilli«1, llhnraftjtir b« nf"** 

J'XAfiM- ISO, 3l^)p (Inn hi il pn>lwM« ihat i( m^y Fv <<«|>fcbl0 of puaii^i; inldW^ 
L^ilrskkiiioiili^ac'td (or ihr InllT mlo oiTntiirylin iu<idj. Ths uiiLlfta knd «MI^ 

i3«fCDin/irMilt0a«. 1. C&rbuhydrDkiuonic: acid is r^aolred bj l^vi^ 



great f Acilit}' when ht-^ated to 240**, into caibonic add and 
one (xi, 161) ; 

Ci'II*OH - OfE^O* * aCO» (Hoic). 

is heated with pumice, pjrocaieclnii is obtam«d. instead of 
tioone, tlie former beiiig^ ajijiHn-nlly cii|i!ih]t> iit pa«KUi^% iiruJer 
iBtances not L-xaclly known, into hytlrokinouo (Liuritmami, Aait. 
L li'li 31 G). — It is flijt nhcrod by boiJiug diliitij »itj-ic acid; the 
iilruted add convcrta it, vritb riao uf teuipemtiire aod evolution 
row acid, into osalic acid, topifchcrwilb ft (race *it u yt-lbsv eiib- 
b — S, AnktfdroiLS ia!jihtiric acid iIihsoIm-h it, wkliriut Evcillitum oF 
pitung a blue liquid, Umwuijih bj' vellocted lig-ht. No cnnjugaled 
ftiG acid CJin be ublaincd from thiH E^ — Iii oil of vitriol^ 
bydrokino™i<: acid disfiolvca alawlj, nud cbara wbeu lieated. — 
tmim diseiflves eitawly In the anutimn atiil, wiih evuhilion uf ^aa. 
iiiueaus cafbulijtirnkinoinc wild lit w^iiUut with hicarhumiU of 
Dd &ir> acqulrce ^ dnrk, iioaily bliiok (."otour^ and deposits » black 
II tftlCi which ctturvueijofl with aeide (HcHttc). — G. tVom f.f*/*?-HT 
fB and ftrt'uuify-cvpric tartrate a/]iieouu carbohydJ'okiDooic acid 
alee cupit^uts oxidu ; fn^uj j'tacuric aud sileet-fialls it sepaiiitcs the 
•Diliili: aiiut^niH carboliyihukiuoiiii^aciil mixed nt 8" or H)'', with 
P ftolulii^n of nitraU' of silvtr, bwcnmi'S dRi^-ci^lourcd in & 
erof an hour^ even in tlio dark, and in three houri^ ^eparutca 
!ic silver (llfnae). Accmdiug' to Laultmaini {Arm. PU'iiiii. 12D» 
Ai|ni:nuM carlmliydnikiuonii: acid raduceu nitrate of silver wheit 
hut not ill ilip (iohL 


_ jVkrfmnfl- With ll^a/*r»^BihTdrated CarMrfdrc^nonic fua'd. 
rcste ^oupe of needleSi ulao rhumbio laminae or granular cryi^tjils, 

pham. Tii0 ^fmiLuloj irystala uv diatcrted tfiJiiB, bclou^ing to LUl^ ubliqun 
btic (jBtum- Tliu tcnniiiftlionft pf Ihe rit;ht jirimmtic noodloa CQulJ not be 
fd ) thej ar« rliiiiuhio pn^mt, biLrLiif llit BriiteodgeA perpend culurlj- ti^aiKE«l. 

PC8 offr on tbo flvuraj,"''^, 10-6 p- c. water ^culc. 2 ui.. = LOIS HOJ, 

J>nidrJ «t /Atf air or i»tfr i»i2 ofvUrial. Htftiifr 

1*0 > » ~ 64 ,-..p.. 46« „..-», 464 

B H ™ « fl *«S 4-7 

10 , 60 4e-BB 46-9 


..™ m 

100 00 


Italliacd cari3ohydrokiTioikic acid diesnlv^fl in 413 or SO jitd. of 
Tat 17^ iind very easily iubinhui^ wutor (IIoheo). 
^'itli bn^rrt ibe iicid funnfi sttlls^ ■which arer for Ihc moat part, cosily 
lie in wutur, B|>uriii^ly »uluhle ur iimi.>]ublc \u ali^obnl, Ktase rf^ardA 
ud w mcrDOboBi^, mid i\\c f^iuiHiriia^NLTt ka a bosiL'siLlt, in H'liicli 1 ul. iDUiionut 
fcplipflof wnlcrylcnPlaUiBttUun C'^IlWIi'JO" + NJI'. Hut ritr^ckfr'ft new 
Sr/fri, £[3],tili6),whL':li rcj^arde thcuoiJ ju bibnalc?. ij-pprbBpfllobcjm'fvtTwl, 

Rydrokiutitiic acid deconipjjses tlic carbcmutca of tho alknlinu 
lb. lis enlts lui-ji bruwii in the ttir. la contact with a cimall 
nf fti.'fiijiiiclilnridt' ttt imn, th<?y aciiiiin.^ a vicilet c<*loLir ; with a 
luantity, u Bue pur[jle-violot to chiome-gi'een colour, especially 

'itiU^. — When dry animonin-g^afl is jjassedover diy car\iQ- 



238 ArpSNDlX TO VOL, SI, p. 16K 

hydrnkiiiniiii; ixcltlj inO [ita.of flie aoifl uVt-npfrnm a*'3 tv 2t*7 pit 
(ininnniia (2 at. — aiWi SW). wilJifnil giviu^otT wolcr. Tlk^ rL*BTiIiiiiij ccm- 
]munJ, ivQi^ii from exw^t^tif [uiimoiiia by litnndid^ over ml i^f virHrpI, [^>n- 
l;iiha 14" !>.<.■- U. ami Vrl IL. corTC-spi^nciiii^' t'l ihu rrirmnln C'*ni.}",2Nn' 
{fnilfl. 4^ liHp. f. C-acicl fi:iK 10, WliL'M (*X|«>*itL"l tii Diiklhi Jiir, iLiiurrkU t'l^r*. 
nlT itmnjcikin, and dU3i>lvoa, with fkikalino ronctiori, iii wiLternrnl .1!' < tn 1 
The tilt I er fl^UilKhn, when ovapomlccl, lirpaBJia emaW nciil cij-^sk 
Hydmted cUut pjvrl laWy d'lt^Avot* llio ummoina-eiilt, Iraviuff n porti 
porhapa cnnaistiii^ (.'f C"H*0'fSIl' + 2 lU]. Au (:tln'r-iJf«Ii<»l»L' » 
t-uin of carhnliyikrftk{]i4Kiiu add hLVumofl InrMiL u'tioii Amtiimiia-^tk^ In 
passed avGv il, unA ihondf^ar, dopOBidng (-nncciLlL'ii; groupfi of pilimu, 
Irown BubBlaiicpB aro fofmodat Ihu tam*? tinic (He«ie). 

Tho jmfmh-mlf 18 prmpthikil frnm ils iiiiHi^ftiis unlntlon l»v :»!rotii3 
!Ti \\ii'. fonn nl a syrup, — Thr* nwritjanofin itiit funiw fimdif pr*iris 
CLi'^ily Buliibic iu water- — Tlic ^inc-rtirfl forruFi laiiiiiin.\ — - Anin'Hi* 
<.-jirl»ol0dn.fkinouic jicldfl a grc)'isb yellow predpittvlc vrilL tuiiut- 
imetic (IleB&e). 

Leod-Mh. — Frnm fuiiicnis carbolijflrokmanJc aciA an aqiifioii* "i 
iilcoliolic BuluUou of nciilrnl ari^rutt^ nf Icail tlin^wn ilnwii ftu tj^jor- 
phoiis pVL^dpirntc', t'flhil.v miiuhk' in nifrii- jn-iiL with <IillirulfT In aivti' 
aci'L Parti^if iho '■iirljiiliydiokinoni^ad'l dis»^lvi>H at llir eflmc tJTTrf in 
Hic o^-Tlio acici whio^i i** aot froc, so llint [l»c tilLmlu sliU ^vcfl*pivci|H' 
UU' with aiamonia IUcbsc). 


14 C...H MO 17-4C ITM 

a H ^P~-, BO ...„.„ ID* «.„«. 110 

« n ». , 311-0 ...„ » l>l«0 6S« 

100.^.,,. 80-0 Ifl-n? - K'lS 

tf*H*rbO*,2PbO .. iSOl lOOtO ,.™ lOOHO 

Aqaeoua carb-ihyiirokincniit^ icicl fnrms with /*mfl h 
dark'jrrivii ♦At'luU^'Ti, i-.huu^ing to vMilol i»ri ntldiliou of 
iif B<.>dni rrr of tartnriu Eidd, fi^mc liydnicliIunilQ, and uiii[aoiii& 

Csiiljiihjiln'kin'WMr ficM illRBnhcfl vrry tauily in fifrt>f>^t Eimi in rf^' 
— Tho i*']»t<'<mfti«»lut]'>Ti<ku'a not privi}'ilfllt n i*oliiti<trj i4 ^c/imVi { I Iv***'" 

2. Prittocfttrt^htiie ocVi — Ohtupcd^ t'>Kellier vith oxalic aciil. *<^*a 
lU'ridf nnd hmmkiismibHtaiiccdr by the action itf luuUcd liyilraltiof po U ^ * ^ 

c»'ii'*o' ^ K-no - c^H^)" * CH*o* *^ cono" * sec * IIB, 

ITydrMc iif ^""Jl^i i* irti'lkd in a silver b/iein with & ^ninll i]ujrilily *: 

«'.'»ior, pijHTJit add in aililcd, wii^ omstiint Htirnn^, imd ^hf nu^t'*'^ 

1*1 hmtt'rl [ifl l.iM^n jjs it i-iUllililJCA tn ^\v& .iff ^':»p*. TIil> i ■ ' ^ 

■ liflsolvril ill wnt'T, siimreixtiirnfr^t with Hiluto siilphiino tu . ** 

uiid nbaki^n up with Plhnr, yicldn In thfit l^iiid, pr«hiof-ii(rclmK- 141 
Oi Hiijphiirii:: ncid 14 ndili'rl t'l Uk' I'iimh^iI irums in ^nflitir'nt L|imi^LLL« < 
jkOMiiHva "lighf .V'i'l rrrU'tiiKi ; flu* hi^iiid \t* Htr<iuir\j mntYtitrnTi'd, ai*'' 
thi' ivi^idiio Iffdod n\t\\ nlojkUiil. !'■ ri^Mmvc |ir'il*u'Mhc.'hijaU* -.'f p^^TimN ' 
tilt* ifclcohtjU' Hihluii'iM iM tlii'ij L'vjfcpi.init^si, lUi' rt-milui' npiin ink. 
with tiratcr, alid lliu uuhltioii pUnipitulod i»y utiilnil invluLc >i1 i' 


iiicli throwH down firet yellow, then pure wlute fli>uks. The lattor, 
>l1ected, washed with wator, and deconiposcd by hydrosulphuric acid, 
ield aqueooB protocatechuic add. By cvaporatiou the hydratod add 
obtained in furcate groups of crystals and kmiiiie. When beated 
t 100°, it gives off 2 at. water and leavcfi C**IL'0'. It liaa an acid 
action, dissolves sparingly in coltl, more easily in hot water; also in 
Icohol and in ether. Tt is resolved by heat into carbonic acid and 
yrocatechin. Eiposod to the air, in contact with excess of bases, it 
cqnires a dark colour. From an aramoniacal solution of chloride of 
aiiam, it throws down Hocks on addition of alcohol. With solution 
i neutral acetate of lead, the a{jiicous acid forms white flocks, 
;»H»0',3PbO(=C"£lTb'0',PbO,HO), which, at 130^ contain an atom 
f water lees, and dissolve in ammonia, potash, and acetic ncid. The 
alter solution, when evaporated, deposits colonrless granules, 
J"E'PbO*,2HO, which, at 140% give off 2 at. water, and dissolve with 
Meulty in dilute acetic acid. — Aqueous protocat echoic acid does not 
robur ferrous salts alone, but if traces of ferric oxide arc present, a 
vulet colouring is produced. Mixed with a small quantity of ferric 
bydrochlorate, it becomes dark green and forms ferrous oxide; the 
nditare is coloured a deep red by excess of potash, and on snbsequoDt 
*ddiUon of hydrochloric acid, it becomes violet and afterwards colour- 
fefls. — From potass io-cupric tartrate it does not throw down cuprous 
oude, even at the boiling heat: with cnpnc acetate it at first forms 
w fffecipitate, but on standing or warming, it throws down a red 
powder, soluble with blue colour in tartaric acid. From aminoniacal 
nitrate of silver it immediately throws down a black precipitate 
(Strecker, Ann, Fharm. 113, 280J. 

3- OxtftaHq/lic acid. — Obtained by boiling moniodosalicylic acid 
with potash : 

C'*H^TO* + KO.HO = C''II*a* + ET. 

Moniodosalicylic acid (for the prcpamtion of wliich tea Anji. Pharm. 120, 300) 
IB disfloived in strong potash-ley, and the solution is boiled down till 
■jl the water is cx|>elled, the mass begins to melt, and the whole of 
'IjC ioilosalicylic acid is decomposed. (This la known bv Ihe fusftl maia 
n^mj jpHow and ihrn hrowu, oa well tia bj tho non-aepaiatioD of uparingly 
■"■^ble iodoflalirTlic ftcicl on tivaliuc uninijlca of lliu liqiiiil wiMi ililuffl lijdrochloric 

•id). The solution is diluted by pimrmg it into water, then supcr- 
*tnr%ted with hydn)chloric acid, and left to cool ; and the yellow- 
™*wn filtrate is treated with ether, to dissolve out the resulting 
^jBalicylic acid, which n'mjiins in ciiloured crystals ou evaporating 
^ ether. It is purijled by Bolutiou ui water, precipitation with 
•^tral acetate of lead, and decomposition (»f the lead-salt with hydro- 
*Jphuric acid, — Highly lustrous, wcll-devclofwd, c<jncentrically 
pimped needles, without water of crystallisatiou, having the compo- 
Jrtiwi C^HW, partially fusible without decomimsiticm when cautiously 
^ted, easily soluble in water, alcohol, ami elhcr. — Moltw at !03° 
''"vjorrtclfld), sphts up between 210° and 212° into carbonic ni-id and 
Pfrocatechin, mised with vaiiable quantities of hydrokiiione (nV/. fiip.), 
^With alkalis it instantly assumes a reddish colour, quickly change 
^ to brown ; the oiysalicylates of the alkaline earths likewise turn 
l^iwa and decompose when exposed to the air. — The aqueous acid 
^ors ferric hydroclorate deep Uue, changing to a beautiful violet on 



adtlition of biiarbimate of noda i tbe Idttor colouring iri alsn ni 
va midhiun of Fprrin liyili'ix*:l<^iratej I.artaric acid, aiid afnimnna. Tho 
aj^ueouft add fnnns with neutral acetate of lead, a yoJloAiab-vhiU 
l.'Pecipilal(.% eaalEy BoluUy b acetic acid, ins<>luble in ivaler ; it dwa twl 
al tcT uilroto of silver in tlic cold, but redncee it easily aud compkl 
wLcQ heated (Laut^miuin, Ann. iV«a^™. 120, 311), 

Etbyl-carbohydrokiiioiiic Acid. 

Car6ukydrai^imimu: rther, 

Carhibydnikiuonr*! acid ls diswilvi^l in alcobol of 90 n, c, ; 
solutinfi 16 »inturat*.'d w!Th bvdrix-hlaric neid gas ; lln^ ftlc^bril is d»till 
off in Iho watfr-bath; tbi? reBidue is fhaki.-n up with ^th^r, a^ Wji 
i\\tX li(]uid takes np a Biib&taiifc which coloare fnrric chl"»rid<'; 
ether is then distilled off; tho brown crys^nlline rrmidue i^ sbaken 
with iHjiling- very dibite alc<ibiil find a Hmjill '|iijmlily of c«rl">tiiil<' li 
Hfida; tliGsfibilioii is left M cf)o! ; and the ncld in apaiu eTsbiiuntmi sriUi 
ctbet. Tbi; ethorefil Aululiun wlitu evofjonitcd Ilnivch colouivd cTrrslals, 
vhich may be dccolorifled bj again treutiu^f thciii witb dilute a1( 
Bodfit arid ether. 

Frftpf^tits. CcloTirlesB priamH unitfld ir radiftie j^nuiw, tneltlafJ 
134" <i»rit'uted), and becntnmg cryfltalUuo again at I24"fl , Xectfi 

18 «. lOa .„ 59^8* ,. W6 

10 H , .,.. 10 „ fi -W 5-fi 

a .«. 8* .- 85-17 ass 

P^H*0".<M1'OS .... 182 ICMJ'OO lOCM) 

Sn, u-coriimg C^^ 'STrcfh^r, Hciiu »gprdi the ih'id u monobfttVp vid iJiu 
jviiind u ihfl npufnl i?tltcr. 

The elhrr melts in ImlUHg water bi-fore diiHolving, — Tlie offiwii 
BOlilli<^n added to nnihnl irctftt" of tr/til, f.imi* a wlijto ain* 
»prroi|iitalH:- enbAhle in acclic aoid j it colours ferric hydr^kcldnrnte vtd 
clmnpnjir T" Mii'plt"^^'*''-'* "^^ addilir-n nf a larger ijuaniily nf ibo 
walU ftTid finally tc^ chrnme-^reen. It reducce flirrcwnc tMrn^t 
0/ n/iwr, M\ii ffifitivati-tvjiric fortr/itr. 

It diuMjves (.-a«dy tn o/fo/b/, and eapecially in «(W, 

Bisulpho-h^drokiiiomc Add. 
jHtx.rkarvi. 11M9G. 



I*i-^Mration of fie Bitr^ta-mU. Fumino; Hulphuric Bcid U poured 
into fu«?d nt finely pulvoneod biiiic acid, tUf a fresh ftdditiou no longer 
caufica aiiy coiiwdcmWc ovoliitiiHi of gas, and tho liquid is ^'cnlly 
>raraied trjsviirds tbe end of the "poraiiou, diluit'd uftj^r citt?liii|/ witli ^ 
larirc ((Uiintity of wjilwr, iieatJidif*<?d willi earlxmaU- of barj'ta, uni 
cvajiijnitod toth^'cryfitalllKmg jjoiiit. Ttie crystulewbiclifiretHeparate 
take up a laT;^^ quantity t;f colnuilng mattePT RO tbat the niother- 
li*luor yield* a ItBA Ci.fL>nn\l salt. 

Free (aqucFUw) lu^ulpLtiliydrokiuonic acid, obtained by decorniioaiiiff 
iLe baryta-Kttk with the exactly eijirivulent f|riaritity of sulpliurio acvd, 
or the h^ad-salt with hydrosulpliuiic add, fornm mj acid syrup. 

l*bo acid is biba^ici hut only the bimetalhc enlta have been ob- 
tairied. The ealta aiid the aquecius ftcid praduce wkh ferric hydro* 
chluniU' a Que blue cnlonr, nLiLb diHappeaitt oa heating and ri'ap|jeiU3 
wilh a ilin^'y lint on ycjoling. The blue eolmir in also deBlpnytd, «]cwly 
hj access of air, or by addition cf nitric or Hectic acid^ (juickly by 
udditiou of bydrochloric, suLpltitric, or tartaric ouid. A tiunilar action 
M iiki^wifiO L'3:erted Uy &al-iLUimonJac, chloride of barinm, cLIoiidi^ of 
GiJdiiDi, Buljjliati^ of magiieaia, phosphate of soda, neutral ftitlate oF 
b?4M], and ferric hydrochlru'ftte, — Tht BaltH 8ei>arale metalh'c eilvM" 
from the nitrale, 

Ammonia-siiit. ^- Ohtaincd by decompOBinff the baryta-salt "with 
car1}uiia(e of anmionia ; sepuratea from Uie concentrated aolutiuu in 
lAfgi' urj'KtErls. 

J^tat/i-BalU — Prepared by neutraliBing the aqiieoua acid with car- 
bonate of putaak The biputasaic salt He]>arateB evert from aohitiona 
omluiriing 2 ^.t- aoid to 1 <iL p■■i{u^b. — Ciiii^urlef^B ptieintTii wJiich have 
a aaliiie taslef retFiiii 6'SJ p, c. water when k-ft over oil nf vitriol, give off 
thia wntor at ]50% and decompoBc^ when melted. — Easily soluble in 
vati^r, sparingly in alcohol. 

Crifiah. Howe. 

Cni'S^O" , Mfi-O 71-78 .„„„, 

2K 78^4 20-99 ElB 

3H0 S7"0 7-38 6-0 

C"n'K'SH)«,3irO B73'* 100-00 

Bitr\ft(\'S(\h. Prepmrd M flboTiJ desflribml, Bcuutiful pHemB Iwlonpilff tO 

lUeiiblique prismatic »yft(,em, with an^lesof US'' 4'. When heated, it 
citPs otT fluffiTcatiug Tajioiufl, hydrokinone, kirdij'dronei and water, 
l*"^i»g a rcpiJtir? of chai-coal. Tlie salt dried in the ah' or over oil of 
rilTLnl ^ivet' off at W from iri'8 to ll-r> p. e. water (6 nt. - llBl p, o. 
tlitu between ISO and I CO^ an jiddiliuiinl 3"3 p. u, (Sut, = 3 77 p,c- 
tO), cnrrfHpoadtng iit all to 8 at* — The anlt diBflitlveB readily id boiling 
witlj difficulty ill iy*]d water* and ui alcohcil either cold or buil- 

bat iainsolublo vi\ ether. 

12 C ..,. 

12 H ... 

2 Ba.... 

4 9 .„, 



.. 720 IS-OS 

„ ia-0 a-52 

.. 197-3 BS-76 

-. B4D 13H 



24 O 1920 

402i ss-ss 

^^a XVI. 

C?*lL*B»«*0»8oq-.„ 4773 lOOW lOOiW 


4 H „„. „ 4-0 ,-.^ 

5 B« — »„.-„._,„, IST'S ---^... 

16 O IM-O — „ 










At lOO* it containa 3£ U p. c {calc C"H'B*^G^",3ui - SfrAl p. «.) ^«4^ 

ZjMe-wiA. — - Hesembles tbe linrjtu-Bott. 
C«H'9*0»« S69 

a Cp 40 — 

S HO 54 


ll-OG ll'O 

l4-fl« 16-0 

Cn«B*0ft'S*0'*,6«i „..-„ 863 

100-00 ..,, 

Lfad-salt. — Sepnrntcd from the c»>n<vntratpd eolation of tbo' 
salt by neutral acetate of load, afi a bulky pri-'cipitatc, whicbfll 
diang-uB iJito jellowiah niicroet^pic cryBlala h&Ting a silky 
Wlien bcnl*'<K it asHiiraPB sv iLvniin-ycllnw crilnur nnd becocnei «tf" 
boniaed. -^ Tt ta ncurly in(4Ck]iili1& in wiktet aod acetic 4cid, ^aUj «oIiAfe 
m aiUic acid, prectfHlabLc t<y ammoaia, 

Owr oil of pifriot. SaaVk 

IS C ..- 72-0 10O4 _ ia« 

e H. , . 6-0 aS4 ,™ M 

4 pb „„ , „„-, 4iea wer Ml 

4 e , ^ 64-0 B-d$ .^^... 

BO o - lecHi 

C»H'Ptf6K>»^(PbO,HO) „ 7173 100<» „._„ 

From KqiucEtiA memtrio oklariitf, the b&rjFA-flaJt rrjilaUiH* fPH fnaa DWRmf' 

BlBUlpbohydrokinotilc acid dissolvee readily in alcohol^ but i» ia*^'^ 
ble in «(Mr- 


B<rt;Hi.rDtR & Kiwiuttn* TtVw. Abad. Ber. 29, la 

Occurrence and Formation^ Occurs in veiv •maU qimntitj i"J^ 
FromUt T/iuj\r^ Ihe ki^cpd parte of r^iyrt tM^viarnttUii^ and ift prodnn* 
together Willi Bug^r, when Lhujin lb heated willj hjrdrocblaf^ ■*. 

Prfp'irtUion. Comminuted Fropdft Thujit ore IioiImI wllh tiff*** 
tb« d<i«><jtinn ifl strained and left f') c^nl; ibe dt*|vieitvd ww li "5^ 
Mt«d| the dcub4>l itf dibtiiU.'U fi\>in Uio tiliratvi and Uk« nv^ ' 



oaiicd Willi water, a few dmjis of solution of neutral ncctatc of lead 
b*^Dp added to facilitate the fittratinu, Thi? filtrate is completely 
precipitftled by neiitial acytalt iff L^aJ, and llio yt-Uow prn'i|.h4Lt? a, 
contHiiiitig thitjfti and Ihiijetiii, in uRfrd fnr tiii? iii'cjtELrfilion <iT ihose 
ULiljftUnwft, The filtered lii^nid, mixed with basic acetate of lead, 
jielda a Roooud precipitate * contairitug tlnijigcmn, 

a- Pi^fpfirilioft ofTUiijin. The precJfaiAle n Is WBflhed with wate'' 
Wirt dieftnlved in djlnt*? atftie acid; tho liquid m filtored froui uijdifl- 
ni^Tdl matter; the Sltrutc prmpitatod with Lxviic aeelafo nf lct»d i tho 
>*^lied precipitate decomposed underwater by hydioeulijhuno acidj 
tbe liquid heatt'd with thr Kij||ihule of Kvid •.^.u\\ lilU-red )n»L: tiio sul- 
pliiJe of Wd washed with a sTJiaH qu;miiiy of hot wai*?r; and the 
ftltntte, after being freed from hydrrtiiuiphuric acid by boating it in a 
Hreani of carbinii; ncJd, it* evii|.xiiuted iji vacuo over oil of vitnol. The 
Liqtiiil, after stariding fi^r some 'ixy^, dt-portilB c4-yttlidrt of tiiujin, vliitU 
"re lO^Uuetr-d, diriPiilvi^iJ hi U^illnjP wj»lt?r, with aihUliou of :dL^)ho|, 
iiRniii \'Ai lo cTVftraUiH'*, and n?cryRtallifted till tho Bolulicin of rho Hub- 
iiiaiii* ia weak «i»Lrit an loii^r tuiue ^'reeo on additiou ol ammonia, — 
Thi< Fulfrliide of lead still rotaiue a entail portion of thujiHi whicb may 
^ ikbtiujied by boiling with aluobul. 

ft. Pr/pamtion of Thiijigenm, The precij^itote fr, formed by bawc 
*«t»ie nf lead, IB vTfvsiied, suapcndt'd in watur, and deompoaed by 
Ij.vlriisulphuric aoid, and the liiiuid it htatcii wilh the sulphide of k-ad, 
uid lillPivd \\i\l thron^'l^ a warnied flUvr. Tho filtral**, lealLd Uh above 

a Rlrpiin of carbonic acid, aud evaporated in vaciLO, dejKisits flocks 


Ch If the chief object ib to obtain thuji^ciiin, the liinid^ obtained 
^J ilecom|rfi*dng with bydroBulpburic add tiie two preeipilatea a and h 
prMnirerf by neutral and baaic ceetate of lead, arc evaporated till 
'Ujiik and tliujctiu separate out from them ; tbeac: eubatancce are 
'(''DOvcd ; and thi- lillrale in ntixi'd with hydmchioric acid, wanned in 
tw wiiif'r-|>atfi til! it tx^gina to slmw tuL"t>]diEyT and then quickly r.ooled. 
H ibtn dt'piisiU thiijipohin, which must be colloctedr dissolved in 
*Iq)Jj()1, and preaipitated by water. — By further heating the bquid 
fr"rn which the tbujit^enin has separated^ and then cooling it. thujetin 
^ obtained, <^>ntaiiiJi]Eited with a ]'<>d ^nliKtaiieCt from which it Ih 
[JUriHed ty repeatod solution in alcohol and precipitation by waler,^ 


iVqpertt«. Microectipic needle*. 


ai lOO*, i% PWruff* 

IS n 13 411 - 

14 O ..„ lia 3886 .,> 

57 76 

c?^»oi* «. Z9a ....... loo'oo .,. 

,-. lOOiX} 

Chi lubMLbMS allisd to thli, see Qiieit^fifl. 

Ik^mpafitiana^ At high tttiip«rahire$, thujig<>Qin appears to be con- 

^^'teti mto thu jo tic acid, 9o nt Icii^l IWhlPiifr suijpcuea, be™u!*o kiff dried 

"^*r«nao piTt by flimljaii r&Uwr too muuh cwbao. Thujigcninj in coiLtact 


with chloride of acetyl, asBumee an orange-red coloar. and is Coai 
by beat into accto-tliujigtnin : 

C"H"0'* + C^HWO* - C^IP'O'^ + HOI, 

Thnjigonm disBolvefl very Bparingly in ic-atfr. — Its alcolkdUai 
tioEi njiiemn^B & splendid bluu-^rcC'U colour on additiou of atitmonia. 

It dieai>lvea in itlcoAoi and is precipitated Jilmosb compltittilj b; 


RoCHLEDtH & Kawalieb. TTict. Akod, Ber, 2% 12. 

Formatif^. (p, 246)i 

Prrparution, ]. Obt&iiieil in t]ie pn-pivrntiim nf tlmjin tmd llrnji- 
(r[?rua, art i^K-f^orilied nt paffO 243. — 2. A warm (ikinhiiffi' w^ludtiii nf 
tiajin iij labtdd with dilute sulphuric or hydixjolJoric aeld, and h'^twl 
till tho iic^Tiid, which \& ^recTi at firfll> aud then yellow, h;hs brtiiina 
ixtlourleHfl, and dtposiki yellow tbujctiu aftci evaptvr&tion «J tba 

In vacyitt at 100', meam. 

38 C 168 &4'19 WSO 

1* H 1* 4'fiK 4^Ba 

IftO... IM ■■,.-. 4XTO *l -47 

C"H"*0'" 310 lOOflO lOlHXl 

For Hlniiw'tf 'i tibwi on tli« pvlatioriff of tbujvEia ic qiunutin, tee Ibe htlM- 

By boiling wilL i(iry;a-K"rtffr, ihnjetin is converted into thiijctie 


C?^-0« - C^^O" + SHO. 

Thujc^lin b nrarly inHohiliTo in rrtrffr. It is not altirrod bj dvB 
hi/tirvcJiiciic or fntlffhuric atvl. Ife uli'oholif aolulion aiwinnrs a apltfBiM 
bluC'j^'ccn colnur on ndtiitjon of ommftra/i ; f*jvvi\ with fio/ivA, btfooott^ 
yellowi nnd fiiiu-lly rod-brnwii on Rtandm^, aitd tbt-n yiebiiJjg ml flnchi 
with acidrt- — It fonuh u-d pn\'ijiitiitrH with iSu} neuirai aad hm 
iicftntn of /fiul, f.o\ofir9 fm-ic htfdr'^ehiorate Itko inlt, aud after > vkik 
thmwB dciwn a dark'tiofourcd iin^ci|:tkti:ttap It colours ftouwr e&JM^ 
dark yellow, m'/ruf c o/ aiVtirr blackiah g;rcy, and hicMoride ^/ pUliwm 
giadually yollowidi bi>iwn» 

It dibfiolvei4 in iiicuhol and in tther. 

Tb^jetic Acid, 



i' Frfparnt\on.-*\. ThujfttiiitBboilfHl with baryta- water. 
Luric ocetI ib added a,ftvT a wbil^ thL>Ti alcctiolp aud lli9 
!red hoL Tile tiitralc on conlinff depoflita Uuoby, which 
jii wati^T, tiiattolvuJ ill aIcoIioI, and reprccipitateii by water. 
on is boiled for twu bnurw wifli baijta-walcr in jin utmo- 
iiyJrogeii ; carbniiiu jLt'i'J in |iiis8fd itilc> (lie lj*|iild, till tiicar- 
r burytA is f4imii)d ; the Holutiou timn l&ft to ctKtl ; aad the 
Irtcipilftle 13 c<JU*ctod^ wari^cJ wiUi water, and treated with 
L wliicij tiiHAi>lreH thu carl^oJiate oi baryta, and Leihves the 
ill The [jroduct ai^y be pariHed aud wafilied, oh la the Qrat 

JKL X^otnon-yellow microecopic ncodlea. 

^^^ ai lOO* In ennto. mean, 

I as o « 168 „ 69^ ,. BB-ar 

i HH -,-,.. n 3fla « 4 OS 

j 10 O ,... 10* aG76 3fl&5 

' <?'a"0« 383 100 00 10000 

[iBoineric with iviemBtm (Lintprit^ht LfkrharA. Bfnunw-hw., 1862, p- 
Igbably JiUU retama 1 &!. viaU-r (WurTz, ^tp. CMni. jmra. I, ?iG3). 

IQ ftcid diasnlvea in nkohot, and is. precipitated by water. 


B k Ea^alier. Wisn^Akad. Ber. 2fl, 10; J.^. Chan, 74, 
CWr, ia58, U9; C7Aam. Gt«- 1859, CI and ttfi. 


ce. In the green parta of Thuja occidentaia, 


piim* (p. 2«S). 2101b. JVondfff Tkuj'a yi#kl « few gnuamen afth^iia, 

ktfj. Shining^ IciaoQ-yellow crystals, appearing aa four-sided 
hi viewed by a iimgaifyiug prjwer of S^O diameterH. 
aatriugerit tastb. 

7« tamo df 100°> la^an. 

40 c 340 sase ., « 79 

22 H Sa 164 BO* 

fci O „.. 19* ...,^.. 4880 42-17 

0*H*K)»* 4W - 10000 IWOO 

I|l4timu «f thujin to qunoitpis^ ih the latter. 

kwlfMru. 1. Thmin heated on platiitum-foil, burns, and 
prbonacc<>aa residue, which burns awny nhiwlj* hot com- 
»-2. When healed in alooLoliceoliition with dilate fti/drijcfUariG 
addf it turns gri?en, tticn ycUow, tuid is rea*Aved iiAn 



thujetin, which separatea out, and BUp^ar. lOi* pt»- tlmjtn uk« 
7-3 ptB. water, aud ykAd 4<)- 1^ pis. ^ug^r^ aud 64l'7« tlkujciiUH 

Tliujigenin :ipp*^nTs also to be formed ^uhcn Oiajin Is heni 
short time with liydrxihlnnc odd (p. ^43). — 3. It diatuklvi-fi ia 
ivater, fnrminp a yt'llow sijlulinti, whbb» wbcn licalt,*!!, Ji.-p.wt8 
oraiigT3-jt*llow prefipilate oJ thnjctic w?id, liecomijig ilark rvddii 
yollov hy cuntlmied hoiliugf wbil« Fugttr remainit in solulJon; 

C^'il^O" + HO = (PH'iOW f Cf»H'»0»", 

Ob ihujiu'iugor, icc toL xv. p 3i£>. 

An alcoholic Bolutlon cf thujin is coloured yellow liy anmatUa or 

jwfosA, re<l-}iri)WN uitli in^rts of air, and yitrlils u tinp yi'Ilow jircy^pj- 
lata with neutral or Awif at'ff*i/fl y' /*vni. Il ia c^Umreil Jjipk-gr^ii U 
fci-fic h'f*htH'hloTate^ d<>C3 Tiot )iroui|jiIatP f^iipric /-lAljjkat^-. bU-^iunde "f 
phtinrm^t or ntfro^d i/fliVrtr, but the ailvvf*euIaLjOD bfCoiu^^S Liuckub gitj 
on additiDLi of unidioaia. 
S' flu bis in aicohol. 


Tliiijiffenm is covered with chloride of acetyl in a mnall fiA&k> "aJ 
Iiw*tejl for ;i ijU[irt<^rof an hour, the diliirldo fif aw'tyl heug xWnvt^ t> 
flow back, th*?n froed fmm th<? excess of chloride of nct^tjl |»y diM^U 
ItiUon, 'The refiidue diesolvod \n e.\iioh<A dcpo^itfl, Qtt addition (k v>t(f. 
ft coherent reain, which may be dried at 100° in vacuo. 

aa IPS 

14 H , M 

Ifi O 12s 

.- ii-iB sris 

4-19 4<il 


lOCHXt .»», lOChOD 

When exposed in the ai> in alcoholic solntinn, it tame r^d, *bJ ^^ 
liquid ev.ipnrftliid c»ver t]»e water-bath^ Vf'\t\i addition of wfttwt l<»^* 
a roddiah-ydJnw reuidui^. 

Thiya Oil. 

rt. J- PAflrm, 11, IS6, 
227 i A', .;, I%irm, 5, 208 i CV«m. Oai. 2, AG- 
The oil which paaiwa over on diBtJltinf^ with WMt«r llw^ ewif ('^ 



79); [amoadting to I p, c, according to lliihachmanTi (jV- Sr. ^j-fA. 91), 
£50) J, is cokiTirleijjj (Scliweizur) ; groeuish yell^^w tBonistrcJ ; of ap. gr. 

(BunasUe). After dehydration, il couUiua TT'G-i p. c. C, 10"02 l£, and 
11-46 0- Wlieji distilk'd it k'^ijin ti] h«\\ at 190^, tbn greater part 
gouig OTOT between 193" auci 197"; the rem ainrit r piesee over, with 
yellow colour, between 197''aiid206'', leaving only a fllight rod rusidue. 
The oil whiijh distiln below 107* contains^ on tlio average, 70'77 p. c U., 
10-6d IL, and la-55 0. i that which paesee orer between 197^^ and 
206°, contains 76-13 p. c.G.y 10fi7 Tl., and 13'20 0.; the ermle ml 
ifi therefore a imitiire of al leaat two oxygenated oila (KchweiTer)- 

Onido oil of thuja becomoa yellow in eontdct with the air. It riis- 
solves lai^e quaatities of lodme ; aiid on heating the aalutiou, a violent 
a^iiiin fjikeri place, hydritidic acid and a very vipEatile oil bi^iiig given 
off. The residice when turiher htaifid^ give* off a dart visHd oil, then 
vapour of iodLne, and leavea a re^Lduc ut' eharconl (Sehweiz^r^n 

When the volatile oil just nicntioned is repeatedly dial tiled over 
lodiKe) then over quick lime aitd pirtasbium In succeuGion, it becomea 
colouHenH, fn^e from 0Kyg(]n, like tur|ieii tine-oil in taste and odour, 
lighter than water, and tnili* between 165" and 175', T^iim purified, 
it contains Sehweizer'H thnj<me. — The viucid oil agitated with ]>otaah- 
ley, yields to that liquid, e*Lrvttcro] (jiiv. 414), ac|janible by sulphuric 
ftdd. The |Hirliou iasuluble in potash appeal's lo bb colopheue (xiT, 
S7S) (Sdiweizer). 

Oil of thuja ie not sonstbly altered by distillatioQ with pko!iph<fric 

tiad. By ail tt/viirioly it h iuimt:diat<;ly feaJnised (Schweizer] ■ turned 

lirown ii[id oharroil (HnimfltreJ, (J'iniinemal niiric acid turna it dark 

yellow, withcuu setting it on fire (linnastre) ; vr \th potassium, it reeinifiGe, 

without giving off hydrogen(Schweizer], — Hifdrate of potash blackooa 

thuja-oil immediately, and rcainifles a portion of it» whilst another 

porliou pw^ca ovot unaltered. Itepeatud dititillatiun nf the jiortiou 

which has gone over with hydrate of potoHb dimirnHhea ilB quantity, 

btiL does Qot perceptibly alter its external characlore ; after five dia- 

tillaliorie the diatillnt^ coniaiMB 7»'ti7 p. c (J., I0"98 H., and 1C'15 0. 

FrofD the black residue water aeparates a resin-eoap, aolubie in pure 

^Ater, while carvaciol reuiaiuA In the alkaline aolution (8ohweizer), 

^^ OH of thuja diMolvea sparingly in war^, in 10 pis. of acitic acid^ 
Uid eaeUy in alctj/iol and et/icr. 



coMPotrxrs coxtaining so at. carbon. 

Primaiy N\icien8 C"IP*, 

Occnre ftTnon(r the products of iho dry didltlltttion of junbeT,aaiIi)i 
A«p&ratcd fw.m chrysenf" h\ tl»c nipthoii oeacril^wl in vol. xv.^ piipt « 

WUitc sicndirr, lUt ueodles, VTiibont lAstt oremell- Meltsat Ifift'i 
but does liot volatili&e till bi^iiLed aUtve 3(H)'» wh(^ it dislils over lit- 
w&x, find decmnposa^ tu a sliglit extent^ leaving a small qiiantilj '.••f 


10 H 


„- 10 

,«- M-73 


C"il« 100 


..... KC J? 

SnccLBtereuc ia not altered by cold minora/ addi^ Imt bot lUfrVc on/ 
conv^rta it into a yf^How roRin. — »lt disieolv^s m hr>l ail ofvitri^tl wilL 
dnrk I'iut* mjir'iir, without admixtUTC of grt*t»n, and tlipn n«jokly clii'*. 
Tht' bLuG 9i>liitiou L& dccoloriacd by wutcr, but bocooitje Uluu agaiu wtitu 

SiK'cintertjne In insoluble in aiiallfj ntarly inHrjlublo iti cclii own 
Boliibli? in liot iikofml', vi>ry slij^blly iii fthtr. 

Prtmartf I^udtr^ C»fl". 

LiLREirr. Jifi. CAfin. Pftyj, 66, Ut>. 

Preparnivm. 8« ChiyMTic. (sv. 1 ). TliP (bi<:k oil fn:iiri n ^' "> ' 
Ben** bus r'ryfliJLlIi»i(4i f>ii ecHiling^ is mis(*d wiih th^ *»tber n It.. 
HFed to wosb tlio chrrttoriG, then cf-olcd *ith ice, nnd ik-rariti'I tr^ru "i* 
rcanUiu^ lamiriit, and tbf mother- li^iiioria left lt> cvn|fc«^riit*', wh"*n.'i7 ' 
ft'w more rrislalH arc obuined. The crystnU ari.- fn'ctl ftrnn inliirrif*J 
oil liy «pr<'udJnj:>' flii.'Tu uti fillmirg' pajH'tv presttiitj^, ilifttilliii^' lill -^ 
bAA y-nu^ ovor^, uiid wahihiiig with n Miinll qimmiiy of Hhfr. dji^I ^ 
otilainpcj eolourlei^ and frt*o from diry^fiic, by rc|K-atod cn,'»liiii»»if''' 
frorii iilci^iiol, 

MirropKX'i iic rbonibic laiuiniB, n^flcnibliriit paoiidi-d tnlo wIh-h Jrth*!" 
\-ery murh liki- iiiithmrienr (|i. l<-ft). IijrHjorouft, MrhsU'twr-ri i"' 
Wf'l \Hiy . PicOlilificw to a Uimino-i'TyaTulliiio nin*« on o*N»lin>,', iinJ ili 
willKtut iWL^rii|H>HjtioN nt a high lr<m|K.-ruUiro. I'jul of tbf vrir^ < ' 
condoMac0 in ihi^ form of a pulvcnikiit dM^liioutc. 


12 H 


. ISO 93-75 

IS 625 .. .. 

.... 6-11 


, 192 100<io 



Foljmflrio with aApMhalm (iIt. 1), 

When thrown on g-lowiDg coala, it emitfi inodorous vapours. — 
Viaolves in tyii of vitriol when heated, and then blackene. If chrysene 
ift present, a green colounng h produced. — Bj warm nitric add, it ia 
CMJIy converted into binitropyrene. 

Inaolnble In waier ; sparingly soluble in atcohoi and ether ; easily iu 
bcdlh]goE7 of turpentine. 

Ilitro-nvcUus C»X^«. 


UuMOT. Arm. Chim. Fhys. 66, 148. 

Warm nitric acid decompoaee pyrene with fadlity, and converts it 
i»to a thick red-brown oil, wbicb^ after removal of the acid, is boiled 
*^ water, then with alcohol, and dried. 

. Very brittle ream, having the colour of gamboge, but redder. Meltfl 
m bolhng alcohol. 





63' 83 


a N 



10 H 




8 O 

ft* .-,-. 







Detonates with incandescence on glowing coals or w^hen heated in a 
^WB tube. — It dissolvea with brown-red colour in oil of vitmL — 
"l>en treated with hot nitric add, it disBolvcs, but does not (hke anthn- 
•na,p. 166) yield needles on cooling. On evaporating the solution and 
«»tiQg the residue, jjj of the binitropyrene Bublimes in curved 
ttieada, whereas in tne case of anthracene, the whole sublimes as 
oiMthracene (p. 169J. 

Bimtropyrene Is insoluble in water, and very slightly soluble in 
«faabJand ether. 


KiHLKR. Br. Arch. 84, 318 ; 35, 216. 
Aua. Br. Ardi. 34, 319 ; 39, 190. 
QttKDdwrFBR. Br. Arch. 35, 219. 
& TBOUfBltoaFP. Ann. Phorm. 11, 190. 

9niLH«rrs. J. Fharm. 26, 152 ; J. Chim. med. 16, 168 ; Aim. Pharm. 

mKiST sccixn 

oXTCSi-^niCLm C"ir*0*. 


Mi&mACAUjmL JT X Am- 4. S97- 

HuML Jvk A«. OL !•£ aftito^ fW*. Cnfr. lfU7, ^'fc ; X |r 

IB UWbfEcbK 


feBADdlehA^vitb wftlrrt milk 
■i inl |MuJwa d b>A iBAftp^v-ftfi^^ 

TV EffB^ ebfUM by d^f<«&di 

Msd, ■!■<■! i^iM_ ftftvT ifrfc^ for boom timrf^^ ibr vbole i 
ftofctber vitk ■ t^t; &atXi loantiiy «f sBni4«in. 
ilhged tfcepc fa ifc it «>gd with * tittk ir>lcr, and bUMcA 
fltf nBtooia bcgv to arpmle «i the Mrfaoe, liM left to itaV 
id the njrtiliiitiiw «f lb «Ma^ « cinphte. Tin* mutlitf 
OTvtBk ve pvritted br mwMmg wkb aigQeM W mnunocu, &n{l rvrcBM 
Ci;«ldlintiaM bov baOK dDoU «itk betp ot vtiiual (-Ju^rvxaJ fCtl- 
bod, Ctntb> Uom 1/.n^*«yL l.m) further boiU ^r 
Mjtf>li wUb odk of Bw Mrt M emcees. dm«kww tb« eolntiott 
ftUB^GfaareD^ asd |«iii|iiilis with l^j^mdikiria adU. — U tbr 
hyulmiua of the ]mtf cftmrn^^ ol aantoeAn be >itpf:-rsfttnmMl 
l^dMcUorie acid, tmi tke bflnc^eoatinoed for five nunatc* kiQ0er, 
imleof tW natowa «:paate» viiks SI boon, wbilc tli« rt«D 
n^MKkd Im t^ Kqw^ ^id ■■; be ■**'**f*^ ibovwitb (Bv^lnn 

1 Anmttoirf of 4pte,irona«wd wiUi3|p4a.dfy bydi>lcof K«w< 
oxbaoittfd ihrrr imn hwiimih Ir wJlb 16 to 20 pte. wwiuakKMc' 
■pw gr. D-M* Mhd tbe ftleobel li dictilb-d from Um ucK»janM tflt oolj It 
to U pla. noMib bfbiEid, aftff whkth the ^oJd i* filler^ coiic^^ 
lo ooMalft aad boOeU for a fnr auavlce vub eaui^s l^ acvlic v>d 
Oik awBag; tbe gnatcr part of ibc — n t oab oepantva fiul in bM 
laa l baty ayatak, ud tM real b^j be obtained by eiapnraliof w 
liquid If) a *?^^ "i^ dOotiiiff witb water. The pmduct nvj* 
purified tr waebias vitb cold ^bobof. attd recrtifmlliaiig fimi b«f 
ftlcobol. viib kdp of animal i^arooal Tb? ricldis fn>tQ 1-B to J^M 
of tbe aeeda (0- Trcmwdocff).— 3. rulrcriBcd wunnaoed a «linid 
tip to i Fwto iritb water a)Ml praaitfd. after bi<ui^ left ui hactf icr IV 
honn; Lhu traataieftt is fepe«tod, aud tbe raudoe, after do^ ' 
«abaiistod witb ak(kl>ol of 89 p. & ; tbe liiHluree are ootkOCotnMir 
^l^lUlHjn and evapuntkniaMtbraaatuiuii ia left to cryi^lto *"'i 
f pLirifioil }ij nn>»iuro, waahtni? witb txjM ahxibol or ttbei. 4aa f<- 

ailJKiition (Uuilbwette, Roder> In thw maiuier a qwalilj 'f 

Hkiii i« obt4kiticd, aaoaatific to t*S p. c of tbe 


On the MtTHMtkm of mutqtim, «(.-SiJxlimpfltl<jr. Br, Arch. VXi, llf'), J 

Prvptttles. Rt'clanyulaT Fniir-si'lpd tablt?e belrjri^nj^ to the squ4rft-l 
pri^rujtlic^ RVrttem, ivilli Uevr-lled i-d^^'H (RjinMficJKbfrg'), Calnurlfisa, J 
with |K':ii*ly lu?itn\ Ea-sily frinhle (Alin*i). Melts t»L't.w<^*'n KiS" and 
170* lo a coIiuirict^B li<|iiid, whit'li solidifioa in the cryatnllLriG form oq 
cooling (TrommedoriT). Mt-llcd flaatojiin, ospocioUy tlint ^^hicb luia 
be<;D crystallifled fi"om acetic acid, solidifies, when qiiickly ciiulcd, tr> 
ut tuiinrplii iiiH j^ijiii, AS'hii'h diiiiR liut cryKtuLlir'i'i t*\^\\ when timi/Ur-il 
or PQt wilh rt liiu-i hfidy. Tr. ie rp^tnreri to the cryfltalline etjile 
by contact with the i-apour of iilcohol or other^ hy mfiisteuiiig it with 
thosL* liquiiti^ t^rwjtli acotic, hydnxJiU^rio, or iiitrif acid, or by heating 
it for some timi' to betAvtoo 40° and 5li*. Mointeiiiag with water, 
amioiiuM aiiinioiriBt t»r (KpUHhOi^y, doeri not ijtdiici' the rrystuTlittnLiou 
(HeMi). It vohtiilisoH wiihniit di»criin|T(>>ihimi at » few degrt»i^n al^ova J 
ita raulting point, in hoavy^ whik', irrilalin^ vajn^ure, which condense \ 
to white Ticodli?a (TrofnumdorFf). Sn. gr- l'2o7 (Alms); P247at21-3' 
(TVi^iunifldi'rff), luodoroua and nearly tsialtlese; tantos filij^htty bitter 
after tn-ing kcpl. fur wune tiiiii- in iht^ niniitb, «ti(iMg:ly l^itU'r in iLlai- 
holic finlniinn, Tl etorte an anthelniintii' acti<^nj hut i>i Fwinictimce ffltfll 
to ehilJi'an when pfiveii in qnifkly ro|»oated dosGs of t or 2 graine or 
more (Lavaltr, Plartti^ Vitrh^j. 2. 110), Larger doscfl of aantonin, 
ffive*n to adnllf+T produce colour- blindness lasting^ fur devin"al houre 
(Wells, S.J. P/mrm. I.>, 111 ; Martini, a>mpt mirV. 47, 3o9; 50, M5.— 
8e€ als'i C. Rofle, Vitrhoti-'g Airhf. pn/fioL AitaU \f^, 15; 10,5391. 

Santonin siowlv turns yellow iu diffused hght, more quickly in 
direct sunshine. Tiic ciystiils sit tbo same liiuo ppht into aniail irre- 
gular lumps (ftccording to lltldt* firat in Assures parallel to the prin- 
cipal nxis)j which iire I'llaii Hejitiertrd to a couwidi^raUlH di&tnnee- 
Thi* n^iinn i^ i>icn^1 bv il\o htu# and rialet, not tiy t\ie jpIIow^ gri'en, or red myi. 
the cliB-n^e lakA ]ilaL'r^ aim la Oie Tuirireliuui tscukid, iijiiL under walcr. uli^lkol.J 
9tbcr. and ^,l^^ (TrflmtnMlnrfl'). Lovorolalcry povrt^r [a]j = — 230" at 20" "1 
tn nl(?oh<iltc Br>lniifin ; weaker after addition of alkalis, not after addition 
of acids (Huequer, .v. X Phrn-tn. ii\ Sj2), — Notitral (Kahlcr, Tromras- 
dorff, ILcLdt); according to EttUng, it has an acid reaction. d 

l.iptiig. GtEling, G.e\AU \ 

30 180 ._. 7317 ,.,. 72-50 ,„. T^-JO ,... Ta-fifi 4 

IS H ,. Itl .,„ 7-3» ™. 7-47 .... T-e7 .... 7-5g 1 

eo „ 48 -,, 19 SI _. araa ., laira ,.. la-zs ] 

cuH»o* ei6 .,„ 100-00 .„ loooo -,- loooo ..„ 100-00 m 

IlrUL oah] Tfiod willi ficf ordiiut nuidU :— If- flauTonlii cry^tnlKiHid uiii dried over uS. 
of *itnjl : i- fused j c. urjEtalliafld from otbor B.ii(IHnc»i M 100" -, d. erj^tikUiscil from 
b^JiDg Wbti^r HJid driod bPl'^fiTii pawr ; f. cn'itlalliiwd from aeelic nc^id &ad druMi 
frff«r oU of ^iriol- 

J)ccompB3ttio'ts. 1. Fused santonin hcatfd a little aboTg the roelfing 
pniriU turns biT»wn, givts (jfT yeiliiwish vapouiH (aeid and irrilHling 
a(*cc]rding to WinnTeiii). which thfW back, condcnee lo a yelli^w trana- 
|iaxent roijin, while tfie ret^idnc bcconiofl carboniBcd (TrtinimfidoriT), The 

jtUovr rvfliii ii iiid4>lub|u in wut»r, bul Jt^olve:- in uk-ubol, <?tbi*t, and olkalit^ ftod in 
oinlvf. with Iho laMpr ni-quiTM a rHnmii^-rtyl cn^aur^ iHowiing fl d«liodto Teavt'vm, 
Tb* jitiiiiw ft.«o it libfiri-p uh[niiii?d bylifHrhig iMntonm wiili altalin, nlkilinBHirrlii, 
ur iDN4liii> uiid^jfl, Whi:u kept (t>t n loiij^ Limct i»]WcidUy in solution, ii Imu tha 
popisnj of reddmittg wirh olluJifl (TroaimsdoHf).^- 2. 3aii\tm\u ^Vfea^^ \w 


contact witli the air, b»rrts with a, yellow, rery snioky flnmo (Tromm*^ 
doril). white, wiih rioirl cd^-oa (Alms). — 3. PJifltpharus tbrown 
meltod Ba:itoiiiii takffi ttre, tiirij[ikg' the santc»nl[^ brfiv^ii, mid par 
converting it hiti> a resin.— 'SunUiam cAunot tx- fjiKm] with *ui/ 
l^Trommaaorff). At higher tom[W'i"!iTnri*B, it di>LV>m|xjBOB m owfti 
wilh eiilpijur, jjivirgoff hj-dri 'Sulphuric acid (Ht'ldt)' — *■ \V"Jn»ft fi 
With ivdiriCj it ^TCH off hydricidio iicid and iridinc vapours, ui^d is Oi 
verted iatr> a dark-ctduured mass, wtiicli dissolve** with i^Ih-itj-i 
cfjioiir in Hleohid, TIii.Md(!oh<iUo HrJutiiin it* ei)l(ujred lighT-gT>*en 
alknliP^ and the alkalino BnlnticHi i* prwipitatcd hy riitrio ncid in 
flockVf from whjeh the admixed iodine niav bo oxlncle<J hv nnuririDii 
Iodine docB not ott on alcoholic santtmiii (llcldl). — 5. SaniijiiLia ol 
wheu brvatiiic m pi>ured U]>5u i1, giviugoff hydrobroniii; acid- S»iju» 
iniriiLTWir! In wnltT, l^rdi^*slJlvl.^i in liut :ilwdji.»l, is ciniverled hy hrrtnh 
into an '^range-red resin; but when bromine is 'ImpfxHj iuio u 
dilute alcoholic Bolutfon of Eiantoiiin, trorao Rnhtonin is prwJi 
(Heidi).' — '6. DiT saiilornn la not altered yfhea cMorinr gtmis ^.. . 
over it; but ujclied eajjionin \a eonv-crLed iitto a, Lmwn tfr^u vrilli 
evffhiljim nf hydrtiolilone ju;id. "^^HirMi ehlnrine m pasflpil yrttii iir»fflt 
in n^liicli Eant{:iniTk is »iLe|iended] the Rantonin bveonif^e e<)V(7i?d wiHj u 
op&que while cm^t, From a hot aluoholic solutiitn of aantrvnin, cJil^mn" 
BCpnr&tH's n yellowish- red oil, which ooLidlhee to a roHiTi tm cvtoliag 
(TronnnBd^jrff, Hcldt). — By heating sLiEiloiiin with ht^hiieMir^-ir tuvi itU 
cfiloTGte o/ jKUfiti^, chloi7>-sniiinain \n formed (Held r J. Suut^^nin ilib^Tr^ 
without colour iu a larg^ quantitj' of water, and Ihp ti'iiutioQ^ aflrt 
Btaading- for a ehort time, deposits crj-elrtllme fli>cks (Willeteiu). 

7. When aantomn ia hcntod with glacial phofpAorie actdt » ydlov 
liquid is formed, which eolidifiee to a yellow-brown reaiu, eolubltf b 
alcnhr^l (Ueldt). SnnkiniQ boiled con tiuuautly with aqucDUti |ihnspluirio 
acid of »|i. gr. \^2^, diHsolven, ati'l i^ luirtly prtelpitalod hy wnteria itt 
nrigiual state, Tlie yell'iw bitter solution boiled for s<~>me liiuo^ t^atOM 
brown, and depoeita a bro^vii toeilii (Tromm^dor^). PhnAphnnc add 
ret^injscfl alcoholic sautooin (KeMt). — 8h Sjinloulu dit^^i-lvtrs in bJbT 
vitrioL qiiicJfcly and without eidouiutiouT and ia prL-cijiLlntcd iiiibIEi^ 
by water. The sol u I inn tnms ycllnw on slnndiii^; th^n rirtj,Tit"i 
y^Mowiflh red colour (red, nccordin^ to Heldt), cxi- ; 
snrfaoe dowuwariia, and if ttic acid can absorb water, 
red and brown-red rcftiniiu* tiocks, te^")ht-r with mmll'i^n'il *4Ji{i iljh. 
In a cloNCil vc'M^i-l, thv eohitlou ao.}uin.-s a darh brown ndmir, vt-J^ 

eriX*J]niflted l}y wfttor in red or brown fleets. Wlu.'n the uni 
eatcd with oil frf" vitriol, the sumi: (effects are |iro<lucod. f^IJ 
carhnuiflfttion and ecparation of sulphnrons ^cid fTn*mi 

Vo i\'i\}\iffttrt[ *-ld n]>pAn lo hr fonaod bf tJju hlion uf uil •.\f Tilrb>J chi 

(Udao, Oil of iHtriol diluted with an r^innl 'unuility of 
resiniees nan torn t» when hented withil f Tronmisdorff > ; dilute 
m'id digeNtrtl nilli i^aiitoiiiii, for tmnie limM fnnnH ;a \id|aw oil, nil 
that pnwhierd |>^- hydrochloric add (Keldl). — XJi^tntALrrie 
an. fit, I'li nmniM^ aiwtoiiiu when Uuit^d with il for soow ^sp^ 
(TroEmii»<L>Hr)> Wvm Conceniratod hydroi:Klonc acid diflw^n« ■! 
luiiir r('»dify ihiiii ^\ntr.'r, and itn a><.>]rri^ de|H.iHLH iinaltLTtd aaatijwni 
ikTliT lonp^r dJfr<'Atii>]iH however* the sohilion dcpt^nitA yellow oiUkw 
which ttiklitliry f<< » r>'d-hMwii rr^in, refill iTiixcd wUh iiualterod MAlcn 
^ IbiT decauteii hyitniclit'iric lU'jd, ualvr tlirf>vr9 down wlut« A>^ 



and IIji- tfoliition l^ltoreLl thei^from does nnt contain any Biigar (Ko]<lt> 
HyttrooMofio arid ga» pnascd into alfljhi:^io mnJjiniii, doet not form eilberM TMin or 
a i?ompouiid ftbiT. 

Tf, nJW*r;|iii^toKonmariii (A', J. Phurm. 38, 61), ajiiilnnin be bfdle-d 
^rith dHiilL- eiilnhiiric add, ccintsiining ^ of ile weight of oil rtf vitriol, 
tho boiling lieiug- continiiod for a time varying ffnm four hours to a 
d;^j« n i^uantity ijf rcr^iu ^KoBuirLntt'a ji/?£/r>nfVe£trf) is flepar&ted, amaunt- 
iiig U' betwefiir 84 and 00 lift ixriit. of ilit- Baiitonin, nlillfiL sh^tii-, or 
»t l(?Hi*l a brniv n!t|ijihli^ of redndiig- Jiri alkiiline cupric auliitiou, itmiiiuB 
dJAfi^lvfid. Kosiuaiiti su^g^flTfl tbc cquiitiun: 

Tlie rnrmation of rnsin ih moro pmbfihly due to aasumption of water, 
aJQce sacitonin, -Khtdi Bublimes without altcraiioQ, con Gcarc«ly be & 
^Incosidc (Er.), 

10. Santoiim di^^olvee in cold FandD^ nitrk acid: jatbe mot^e diltite 
ucid ody wlirjii liL'ur.eil, and is prtdpitaled for ib-^ mofit |iart imal- 
lered tiTi dihirin^ or cotiliTig- the ftolntion ^TKunnifjdorff^ Heldt). By 
t<»Dlioued di^efcti(,ku with Htrotig nitric ac^d^ ilia converted into an 
^morpbri;]?, atickyi bitter njaAfl* whioli u:inai^i:5 when tbe Hquor ia 
evaporaltJ or ia prt'dpitatod by water, aa a white cfjaguluro. Thia 

miaait Crctr £n>in ni1rtj^i-D, iiivi^ipiEjible frum itt nlcobolic iwlutiun br iieulnJ lu.H.-late 
cJ lebl f not prixipitatjle hy atuuiuiuih:id liiloriilD uf coldiaji- Uv tho coatiuued 

action at nitric acid, a bitter, amnrpboufi mass in fi:TTni?dj (^asily s^kluble 
iii waiter and predpitable L>y basii; aeutate of It'ud, and iinally succinic 
odd, with t'vobition of Lydrocyanic acid (iJeldt)h The hitter yellot^ 
aolutJLiik fumted, with evolution of iiibroud gars by boiliii^ £anti>ni]i 
with nitric acid, dtrpoeitA irhile Qoeki4 whun mi\ed with wati:r, anil 
contains osali*^ a^^d (Tifiinrnftdorff). SanloQin ia oiidiHid b^r nitric poid In 
4?rjitiiJli)i8bIp risntitofti, wliicih j« itiflDliiblp in nuli-r, f^iit di^hilvM in iiliuliuJ^ md 
QuLlawilh alkalis iPhijiuu,*/. Pkafn. d Jiivera. Ifi. 112, nnd 213 : PAarm. Tlerlp^. 
8, 683, — 11- PntrumtjarmtP oj juitnsh, rillu^T dirtsulved In |mrc walj?r, or 
mixed witli sii(j>imric adfl, 'Wb not alter mintcinin, even ottbo boiling 
boat, uot even in alooholic eolnCii'n (JJddt). — 13. From & misture of 
cAniToiit^ of jp'tifffh and sulpljuiic acid, ttantrniin, after long boihug, 
i-cdntt.»B u *<iiiiill nuanlity of cbmiiiji; oxide, la a solution of bautouin 
in oil uf vitriol* biclm^inal^ of [tfitju^ii iiroduoes a brisk evoluiion of 
<;0Lrtionic acid* wbichi howeveri aoou ceaseB. Santciutn takes firi^wlieii 
lirKtcd witb dry dironjic add (Ik'ldt). Whrn biclixoiuttl;'! of potaaU 
is adde'd ti> a solution of santonin in oil of ^itTiol, yeUow-tn^own aoocB 
uri! formt:d at liridi tb(; liq^u'd afterwaidH abt^unjJitg a ydlow-gi'i7L'U, 
and finally \\n ememld-yreen i:!oloiir(WJttrt1ein» Phar^n. Viet-tr^. 6, 274). 
— 13. Santonin heatt'd with rf;^ ^pmj-jcfe ij/Vfa//, dotonateB, and ^voh off 
tt pijnpL'nt vnpt>ur, wliidi uondeneefl to a misturc of rt'^in lUid tinaUered 
fcanU^nin. t^aiit'^nm Je nijt altrrod by tU^i'fitioh with peroxide rif iL-ad 
^ad diliiti? ftiilplnuie add (HrldL). — 14. When it iadiopp^-d inlo luelting' 
iittdratt >tf jmtafh^ llic min^H atifiunies a redctlc^ur^ lieeoiniuf;;' darker an 
the Li^t iiioreaaea, and givefi otf a large quantity of indiLmntoble gae, 
probably hydrogen. The moss aupcr&ntimited ^vjili dilulL' Bidpliimo 
aiTid, yields a larg-i: i^uantity of rc&in or uoaltrrcd Bitntouin, aikd a dis- 
Ullntir e<tntai!ii[ig' fornuLV propil]ni[^, ajjd perliaps altw acetic add 
(Banfi &Chiozza, /Iwn, Pharm. 91, 112; J.}'r. Chfia, 64, SftZJn 

ComtnfKtliom. Sa&tuoJii diaaolrcs in 4iQ0O to 5|0(K> pta. of cold, &Qd 



in 250 pta. fif IjoiTiog- iraffr (TminmBilji'Ff). Iq Jiliit^ mtverat odri* 
does not diriaolve moi-c Atmnilarktly tliuii iu pure ^titcr. Fur iu Klaiit 

Id crniceiilrfttiHl ocidfi. ft.'e [pfi- 252, 253. 

?5u[LKiiim iiuUi^e wilL bti»f>^ without elLmmAtir>n cf irat^^Jr, 
(1,ccompii»oe alkalsTK^ caib'mali?»^i tUe carbonic ackt uiit hcin^ cxpello 
but reiiuiiuii:^ to form mi alkuliae liicarbtaiUe (Beldt) ; at the buLUi 
heftt it iRgiv.Mi f»fr(HauU, J. /jr. TArrn. G2» 315), 

The hot mxturiiti'd aqutv>us solutiiiiiof sunloamdo^Brnl predpitn 
tiny molullic salt ^TroirniiJiilorlij. Thp compoutide of eautonjii with the 
iblkolm ftTkd aUftiUni? entth^ am eoliiblcr In wa.ter; Uio^i^ with ulfa 
iHel*llk' 0!udE"s are inaoluLlL'. Those aiiiipuiiiulB arc not a!t(^n?d 
puiilight, or by tin* t^ibotik' lu^hl iif Iho iiir, Iml t}ii*y drrompone fi 
the nioBt part whf?ri IhiiNmI with w!%l<?rornk'ii1kol (TrLinmindoifT, HdH 
Wlitin niixod wilh irLinoral acids, they «ooJi yiold tryi^tiila of ftantoiiifi.' 
Acetic ftoid dt'ci.*mp"*3cs Ihcm with icrtfl facility, hij a dihite srilu- 
lionorLiLfjpiilutniuiEi-oomjMJtmilof BaiiloniJi, miAud ia the rold will t ]«^>ti^H 
ii<rid,doe« not i|i'|ni»i1 rt:iii(4]iiiii lilt nfti-r pnvefal Javs fTnimnmiinrff). JH 
If, whi^ii sanioTiiii is riiswilv<?d in n^iiemia albalia nr Jilkniine oartlifi,*" 
aiaall qaautiti' of alcohol be addod to Iho HolutJtm. b brij^^tt r^rmiae- , 
rcO colour la produifd, which ifradunlly dinap^^eari^ in pixiporlioci t^M 
i^oiubiiiutiou ^x^ i>iu wichuut aiiditkni uf hIl^jiIicjI^ tliis d^hfratiim duc^l 
not take placu (TnimniHdorff). WhtJM Knatonki is fitsr^d witb riiHAlHta^l 
oxJd«M^ thi> masa likowi^o assomean rr<d (^r^lonr, but t>c^^mee cvtlnnrlo^H 
ou ftdditiojj of wator(lloldt). Jii^iLtitonin whit'h haa bcvjmir yolloirl^fW 
expoem-e to h^ht, formfl* whta bi\m|,'lil ui conUt't witli nfkahs mU 
Alnjhol, pure yclhrw tinlutluiiN ftv if cohjuih.-as Haitliniiii jh likpnti^^l 
pr<*fJ4>iit, purple-red 8<il Ml iuuK ; ihe yf^lhuv aobithias* also ^towly br^TMD^H 
eoloiirk^aei ua ^I[llldi]:l^^ Yellow emtinnin, ol>taiiiL-d in oi>luurlei^| 
tryttals by ro-tiytlollieadou from aknhol^ li^owifl*.' HflSUiiitrrt i>d'7 ^H 
ycH'W colnur \u tnutiict with alhaUrf ; but thctoLii^rhTifi iryslidSt vpii^H 
raTi.-d from (he alkalJai? sdatir^ii by bydiochhirji^ acid, hini rt;d fn ooi^H 
taci with ah-ohfil and pofasti-k>v (Tmnimsilorff, (Jddi). ^H 

SautoTii[j hcati^i] with idohcl lltuI *)t»Tiiont\r^ ai-ipiir^^ A fttint-jCV^I 
cohrtir, aodacidytieparafeaaiiiall i]iiaiitityof saatoain fmin thi'fiffnUa- V 
Utk boiliiig^ the Holutini], the dids^dved Mjiutouiii i^ prccipitatedt vitli V 
evolution of amaioaia (Tromadnrlf). No oompciEmrt of bfuitonio VLlh 1 
Ammonia lb foruiod under th*iiG cLTcnmutauoeg (Holdt). J 

PotaKivin-ecjapOiittd of Sanionrn. — Santonin does uot diteolr* IB W™^H 
potaah-k'y, but when boilod for fiomo lime with aqucrtuft cftrtxm&te i' S 
pot««h, c»r caUBlic |x>taah, it diflfitdvos, — ijiorc raaily, however. ^^B 
addition of iJcohoL The tiolntion in t-,nieitic iniijwli l>fconM« !urW4^B 
wh^ti evftpfjrflted, fpoiii B4*parjitiori of yellow oil -dTon«, ^hich BoHiifylJ^B 
ft Fioft amor|>houd ma^e aolubk^ in water and aicohob and aro rotonfl|^| 
by ftcidu inti> eanlonin and n potauh-ynlt ^Trotrimador^), ^H 

To ftrcpare tiie comtKHind, flantomn w botk-d with «(japo(is <J<^^*^H 
and carbnimte of [loLftfth, lill the tl^iI c^iionr prodiK'-nJ ai lir«t ha* **^B 
apjjcared; the HolnUon h evaporatpd to drynoBs a[37-^"i thi> '^*'*'.'5H 
ia boiled with alooiioL ; and ihti aulution a^io evaporated, ^ — 1 1 Ua v1^*^*^| 
delist iu^Cl'I it piin, Imviti^ a ntri>Et^alkAGne lui^le atn] tvaction » iiil^I'^^I 
a dark ivd niaaa ^bi-ii tiejilcd. atid kavrrt a larp- iptitriUiy of i-liatt^^jH 
when ij^itilriL It ia dro»U]|)otM'd by bf:iiliii;j;' wiih water, the «>hiU^H 
\jeldin^ irryHfulsof eanioidn. It dissnivea readily in wnlir, in ak^^t>4^| 
and in dilute, but D'M in concuatratod potaab-lcy ['I'l'urantHdorfV, Ilr!''^^! 



Feredi (if. J. Fkann. 1. 373) describei b frjiFjLlluitble rompoimd nf aarttoTtin and 
potojli. jklfv> n i:ampjund of Z 4t- wutoaiii wilh 1 at. puUub, baLU mjipLrcDLlj caa- 
tAiuing &w s&utonui (Bitl«r). 

SodrwTrt-criw/wwflrf. *-0!>tJiSned in the same mann&ras the pnlaflaiam- 
compound. Cry&t^tlliwesT by Dvaporu-tifiti of the alcnbnliu feplutioii, in 
Blender interlaced nocdlcR ; by apootaneoufl cvnjKirfttion of itn aqueous 
solution, ii) Urge, trrtns}:iareut. cobiirloss cij^t^iK Ijtibiipring lo tlie 
rif^t prismatic sjflUin {Fig. S,1)h: /^ 111^^ 55' {ab*.)» 1^0" 32' (™if ,) s 
ti: n overt = IIS" SW (mIl-.)[ t: / = 109" 2' (obi.), 107" 51' (ado.) ► 
■ : i over I = U2" 17' (.bB.) !«'■ <* = 99' ^7' (obn,)- Cleavable paralJel 
tof(Woisfi, H'iffn. Akad. Ber. 37> 377). N^t altered by sunlight. 
Has au alkalbe reactii^n. At 100', it giTca off 17'5° p, o. water 
<7 ftt = \h\Mt p. e. HO), finil JLt a liig:ber U^mpe rat lire, 1 at. mare, forming 
a cflmiino-re^i inasa, wbieh exhibits a glaesy lustre when cold^ bcGomea 
moJRt and fl^lutinoue on eipnKurc to the air, aiid lotre its colour on 
»ddilion of wator, — The c<»m pound yields by tiry distitlfition a j'cllow- 
brown oil, which eolidifiee on cooliiig;, ajid dieaolveB with carnitue-red 
colour in altxibnliu polu^h (Qeldt). 


C^H"**^ 246 

NaO , ,.„. 31 

HO -., , » 



C»a^'H>'.Na04I0 ,.„ £8G 10000 .^.... 

Tte oTjfltiJa raulua 875 p. c- iv^du (Heldt), cute, a 6 Od p. c TioO. 

Barium'CQmpoxtnd. — Obtiiiaed by digesting bydrate fif baryta with 
alcoholic e:kti to uin, till the rod colour disappears, tlien tiUeringi eva- 
pomdnf^ to drynese at 37"6", exhausting with watf*r, and a^in 
evaporating. — Wiite, loosely coherent powder. Laving an alkaline 
t^ate iLikd reaction (Ileldt). 

at 120-. Heidi. 

C^TTT)" ^ EW-O 7£'23 m 

BbO ^ re* 3?-ia sa-oa 

aflo lao fi-ss „ 


(7'>H'»0<,DflO,EHO ... 3W6 lOO'OO 

i-c&mpofinti. — SanConin does not efpA cnrboiiu? u^id from UFboiiBt« 
«r luD0 (TnmmtrlorlT) - Hi? polUBium-compoimd of tAntomii piMvipiUlH Aatrgn^ 

•fflntioD of obloridf of cttlfiom- — Oblairiod like the burium-salt. The snlu- 
tion, vhon evaporated, yifide crystalline cruets^ which on drying, form 
white tnaflscH, bavinp- a eilky laatre, not altcrtd by esp'^siire to air 
conlmjijng i:arboriie acid, or U' sanli^ht. The compound has an 
*lkolitie tntito and roa*^fif)fi. When beatod, it lu^quirea a ruby-red 
oaVjur, und givea off a certaiu quantity of sautonin. Soluble in water 
uiid in alcohol (UoldtJ. 

C'H^O' „,„...„,.-. H.-H.. . S48 S603 

CaO „„ sa s-sa loss 


t?K»0*,CaO,EO,.. ass lOO'OO « 

Witk2 at. Saiitomnf — When hydrate oF lime is boiled with an 

256 ritlMAllY NUCLEUS 0"II«j 0KTGEV-NUCLEU8 (PE"0". 

alcoholic BolutioD of eanton^it, the liquid &v4pnrati<4, tlio rG>3J<1iii? 
Bolred iu wutcr» <^rbmiic acid ^»;fts paasod iiit/> lh<> liltrnlv tt« loup 
ciirhoiiato of liim^ \s thrrcLy flcparatcd* and thp li^mJ a^n fiJui 
Mild cvapjratcd, lou^ silky m/edlfh an' obtained, luiring^ji hli;^lil wltali 
rLjiirlimif ujid faintly hid irn^ bilti-r lastP, Tic**!.' rryHlaLs iliftHiiKr 
wuUt azu7 ill diliiti^ iih'iiln*!, leea fmoly in strong nk'-ilnd, and &f4 
dccoiopoecd by boiling willi wntcr tTrocunied^^rff). Thcec (wwUt* 
flppCfli" to bo idttitioftl with the calcium -compound of Sftnt-mui, analysMl 
by LaiibeiibcIiiiiT {Ann. Pfiann. 1). 20^), wliti found iu il .ft-Ol' JL c-t 
r*>m!Bj>rindirig in*n.rlv to Ibo fonuala 2C"ll'*O,Ca0, which reooirwi 
5'39 p. t. CaO(nefdl). 

JToffiuwam'Comjiouml. "^ Thi^ aqucnus Rolution rtf the potvuduni- 
eojiipriiJEid nf t^antiinirk doi^t^ not pn!Hpitat4^ fliilphjito of in[ij*rio»U- 
Sautoniu lioib-d with ma^niutiiu und aloofiol aoquirys a fuinl n*d rt^I'xir. 
Un ovapi^ratJii^ nud cKh^ur'tiii^ tht^ rr^iiluo with waters B solulioi; ;# 
r'btaiiDudf fri:>ni ^lildi acids |irccl|>it»to eantoaiD. 

AivniiHivm-compounft. — Fiom Iho aqueooe solution of tho pLitaeeiuin- 
aalti Bulpliatc of ribimina tbi'owe down a whjli^ |ire{^i)iitiiU'» wkicli di*- 
solree in i-xct^Af* of tht^ prodpiUnU Tbe bitter eolniinn boixiim^ luibid 
when beatt'd, fiMm Eepamtion erf aluiiiii]}! und Kiiiitur^in.^Th^ ooo- 
pnund formH white Hockd, which melt wiiht^ut rcdiloniug whoa h««td 
Soluble m ahuhol (TmnniitdijrlTj, 

The polafiniiim-uonipMuiid tiirowB down from uronic sali^ n Trilow 
procipitatc ; fromcliviuictiiifff, a graea procSpitaio fHfblt).-^Fn'iu » 
fttroiij* flolutioo of sidjihale of zinc, it prn'ii>iiat(>j* ;vhilr" tlcK-ks* ttfakft 
diHSoIvy readily in watvr, are decom|ms*?d by boilinp^ wiib M, iitid ndt 
to a ri'd Tiiaas whou heated, Solublo hi aluoliul (Tr<^nini^orfT). 

Lead'Compffuml. — Fnmi the ■^iiipiins flobition /if ihfl pnliwdliini* 
ciim|»>iuid, neutral a^t^tato of l^ucf tLrowa down wbilc Hix^s, whudl 
oryetalliee from wLitor or alcohol jii ni^tidle^ hariu^ a miky hvtn 
{ TrommH Ji^rff), Whcu a hot aciucona aidiilii^n vi ticuUnl MVia\'- J 
li>ad ift ruk\cd witli a tioiUrt;^ alu* iljoiic isulutiou of Aanfnriin, a^d llir 
nitt^red 1li|uid \ti kc-ji( al a t^ni[)«*nil n re Ix^lwoea 4i.r unrE rift', ii dr^KriH)^ 
nodules ovL&iating of small n4?odlt-fchu|ifld crybtals huvLu^ a pi^w^fl 
lustre i after pinh^ntced wasbiufr,^, tbcy coulain 33"7 |>. f,',htid- oxide, <J>4 
dtiOfTirnpi.ifie paitially whcH rccryHtivlbsed fnun alcob'd. The aauifrB 
>iJintfniiTi-(>nn|KHiiKl, ccinlaimii^' ;U-lrt p. i:. PbO (mli-. for <»'ll>M*.|'Sil mW 
31'ffi p. i^A w obtaiiitd by pr»?cipiiaiing k sohifioix of m-uind mvtiiUr nlH 
h>ud wilh PATjtonin, waAliin^ the preci[iitHti% and dryb^f it nl ]<i^'-l 
Wlicxi b<'at<id, it naduinc^e a tannine c*loiirniid ^ivc^s off walortUrWt^ ■ 
It iH decomposed by proK'ng<'il boibnp with waiter. When lKiiW*^w I 
eKceaa of m^nlrul jtceLitf of liW, it dissidvcn, with furraation of bd»e ■ 
ttcotalc of 1t*ad (Trommfidorff). H 

Tho potanfliuiQ' com pound f»f tiftiitoijin f«nni* with firnfuti nn^**4W»i ■ 
white procipitJitiT ; with fh-n'r t-hforidc^ yvlli.>w flpclsw wlu<:h diiiiJf* ■ I 
t>KCi?aH of l\ic irou-aalt, and ia alcohol ; the alcoholic aulutiun dcipo^'* J 
llocka of ferric oxide when )ientod (TntTniJisdiirff). ^M 

Ctippcr-ri/mjHjvntl, -^ Precijatated from » con ecu Ira I fd Bolufi^fi rf* ■ 

itotaAHinni-Kult by <'i]pri<^ i^u]plj^I<^\ iu |riklc-bl 111.1 f]i>i.liH* HhiiJjiliw^ H 
Li w»t<?i' nrid in aloohot, aijd ftre clGUoni^kiHud bj^ boiling ihv nJai>' H 
(Tn'minadoriT). I 



JHercuroM compou'ui. — Mett^urcme uitrate foriua with ttjo potaeeJum- 
compound nf tiniit-oam & white (irf^cipitate) wbjcK when bojle^l witli 

IK ouliihle in alcohol (Tniiitmmlorff). The whito (ir^'ipitale |»ri)riDeeil 
on mixing mercuruiw nitmte and tUi? soditiMi-co»i(»<>uiid of eririfuuiJ>. is 
modoroiUt ioRiiLubic in wftt'^ro.ud alcohol, aod not decompoaed hy boiha^ 
watcj C^, Br, Arch. lOOt M7> 

Marcunc compfi^nd. — A dilute solution of the potassiiim-oinipuind 
IB not precipitated by mcrouric ohk<rid<.-i but in ai3i.m<.vnlratcd enlution 
D wliite precipitatt^ ie fonned, very aolublu in whIct and izi alc<flictl, and 
decouiiwflcJ by prt>lon^'d Luilhig- of ila aolatiuii (TromiQHdorfF). 

SUnf -compound. — The potaaaiiim -com pound throwe dovnx from 
nitrate of eilror a wliitt prt'cipitateT F<>lul.>le in water nud in alcohol. 
Thi> aquouua acilutioa, when heated, depusila oxide of fiilvor (TrnirLitis- 

SantoDin <lisaolvi*fl et 17"5^ in 43 pt*. nlca/iol of Bp, ^. O'Sltf; at 

irO* ill 12 ptfl,; ateaMn 2'7pt8. In nkoliol uf apgr. 0D28 \t die- 

m>lveB al IJ-i' in 28tJ \ti»., and at 83'fl° in lU i^ta, (TufiriiartdorlTy Tha 

•filnlUin at yMlTw i^iiTitomn in alcohol hpcomt>a ci)lomTfKa whpn ei- 

dtided from the air, tind depoiiits eobiirh-sa santonin, whicliT however, 

^xdibitH the reaction of yollow sriiitonin with jjotuHh tiTid alcohol 

(p> 2M) (TroQinisilorff, Ilcldt), — Saiiloniii dissolvcH in 72 pts- of cold 

and 12 jAfl. r>f hoilmg- cfh^ (TrommsdnriT). — It disn^tlvcn hi 4"35 |itH. of 

f*torn/^?rm. SaiitoaJh wiiic^h hjiB henimo yolh^w by exju^nure to liphl, 

diftsoivoe more abundantly, viz, in 3 ptft. nf diloroforni, and Iho solu- 

tJoiij whkh Is yt'll-jw at firrttf hooffm<.^fl cuburicsa in time, and if then 

iprttuled al a cum para 1 ivcly low temjrcratnrF, de|»(sits co!oqi1i?hh 

*talfi, whfi>*!W, if ovapm-nitpd by liftar, it y'lvUU y4"llow crystiOa 

?ldinip-.'rL, N. Br. Arch. \m. 151), 

Santonin dieaoivofi eaeily in acttfciicid(\\me)i the acid of BP' gr. X'075 

iJe9->lTes ill even in thiiLuldi weaker acid only when warmed (TrommB- 

d->rff). Uotici^iitmlffl »i|necutt tarfani: and di»stjlvea only traoes of 

tiiiloniji (Ri<'p*l, ?r. fir. ArrA. 58, 277). *— Santonin disHolves in witiafte 

m'fti (.\lai*i), in fi'<jnlly warmt'd oi! of turp<?ntini? (KalilerJ, Acooi'ding 

th Abxi* and Kiihlor, it in iUHolublo ^n Jlced oils; but acoordinpj to 

Tr)mtjjpiJorfI, it disBolven abundantly in warm olive nil, cryetnliieiTig 

<Hit ftjr the in'>sl part rm coijlin>^, ajid unilea in all pn>pf>rCi(inB with hut 

*^iv<so:l. — Iit/iLSifR of tjntii at\i\ed to a hot arjlicouH si>lution of Banlonin, 

' rows down, on oooiin^f. yoUow floeJcs eohible in alcohol (Tronims- 

c»ci='n^*0' = c»Gi"n'*o",o*. 

Sanjiinin in dinnolvcil in a warm niklure of hydrochloric acid wUh 

* fcnulJ quantity of aIcoLoI, und flinalJ crystals of chhirate of j^olabh 

^^ 4idUeJ, tilt: hiiuid Ixnn^ fre^menlly atirred and kept wanu. After 

^^jc liuje, tbu vliulc of Lbu omoi\>dLiutijmu separates on the surfacu 

Vol, xyi. 1 


tLB a white atnf>rphuiifl uiaHfl, which must U^ waabed for Bome time with 
water, and dissfilved in Imt ahftolult- aEc^liol. Th(* Rf>kifion, «h«i 
abandoned to spontaDcoiiB evapomticm. yielclH \thilf tm^edlQn^ an adili- 
lionskl quantity of which mt^y lie obtaiued frotij ths mothcr-h-iu'^. 

Tho BUTUD BoliLtion i^vDpaHtcd hf liE^al, d^poffita del orange^rcd rcein, id^utiiCk] vUll 
that vbifh IB produced bj chLorine in > boE aJtoholic volution oi nnlotiia. ^^m 

Properties. Wl]itc,ahinin^, deJioit»^ nr?p(lleR, notakerod byeipwrw ' 
to daylight or to Iho iilr. Grnlos bttwpon the teetli. Melle uboH 
heated to a ^diowtiih'iiqmdk which ^cjhdillcs a^m on cooling- InodCff- 
oQEi and ti^t<^lctm \i4 Uic aoUd btate, but vorj bitter when mwolvc^l is 
elIcoIio] (?^eutral). 

at 100°. »»■. 

30 160 5M4 ....H^ «-fl6 

A CI ™ 71 MM Sl-M 

laH. IS 5€S ,.-_ 6«> 

6 4fi I5M - 35-71 

C^PHi'O* 316 ...™ lOOOO lOoOO 

Dicornp/fsili&ns. Cbloroeantonin, heated abore its indtuig pt^L >* 
decomposedj with evolution of bydrochli^nc acid, — When cxpooed to 
ftiiiiiffhu even 'in an ittjjKit^pht^rr vl bjdrugeij, it tuma red* snd aflffr* 
wards hmwii^ by aupei'tiuia] remnalion, hui not aci aiiickly ma SftntMiiiL 
Hydr^^chl'jHc ACid ia set free at the aame time, AleohLJ removes IruB 
tho coloured product i\vi brown cruetj and leaves while cr^-etolA, A^ 
moftia-tfos doert not act on chlomsaTitonin moiatCTicd with ali^f^i cc <• 
th<T hot ak^huLic Ei>lultuji. — ' ChlorusaiitLtuia diBt>i^lvi.-a in okuhclk 
jwtash, rrirmickg an orLUigc-rLHl hijiiid. whic^h, oti evnf>oTiktioTi. jfdh 
orange-rod dr^jfje of a potash -co in pound, becoming indi^i»-Uisp «rb«B 
heated fur a lou^or timo. Jf the potaali bo r<<moved by aulptiuric *aA, 
Mod tha exccBM oi that acid by carbonate of baryta, the mtrnio tbc* 
evaporated over the watcr-balh, and the dry rrsJdu^ exbaunlnl vilb 
nbaolute alcohol, a red titrate is oblamed, whidi h-AV^^s a red fviB 
when evaporated. Tliia reein diamdvefl in alcolial ant) in <tb«r, ii 

tircci pita tod milkj by watur, and cakea together when the twW 
iijuia ia heated. 

GhlniijenLilotdu la litaoluble in tcaiar, but djHaolves easily in ^aaU 
ftnd in fthfr. Tlie alcoholie aoliition is precipitated b3r water, uxl afiv* 
wokrdB bocomes dear, yielding^ net- die- shaped cry^tala at the M>i 


Ifromiuc iH dropfif^d gradually iJito a cooled alt-ohi^lic itojqtk* 

Kixnti^iiiJi. Hitil till- liipiid in Ic^h tit evaporate ; (l th^n dnjKiaiu an 

biMWii ri'sin iind crv'stals. 

Whit4? ciyel4ilpi, r«.»«eMibhng c[doroflantotiin, n^fxlonnin, Tt*l 
Thr crysTftljs drkd rtvcr nil i-f vitri-d, pradiiiilly turn yrlliT* 

tJ»f!i» n>d wheii rxjmnril lo fiiudiylif, g^iving iiff h jd r^'bh niiit' *i'ii •' 

aaiue liinu. U \hvy Hiill rttain u U%ux; of alcohol, liny drtraDfO*! 

SANTALIC ACID. ^^^^ 360 

eTen when kept in the dark, bcixuning covered witli a dark, purple-red 
criifli, soJ libit [n itlt-nhol. — They inrn rod -brown even at 10€°, nnd melt, 
wb^Q heated, to a cbcny-rod lii^uid, wbioh does not recryBlallisp on 
cooling. — Thej difisolvt iu alcoholic potaah, forming a cherry-red 
111] 111 d, 

Dromcsnntoum diaBc>U-as with difficulty in hjater, more readily iu 
boiling alcohol .lad in erhrr. 

Saotalic Acldn 

pKLLETtEfi. J, F/ii/8. 79, 368 ; Bull. Phoita. 6, 431. — -4nn_ CAim. Pftyi- 

51, 193 ; Ann. ^Phar>n. d, 48 ; Sfhw. 67, 88. 
VoGETh Ann. Phartit. G, 38. 
BoLLsr. Ann. Fh<irm. 6:2, 150; ahsU. Pharm^ Cenir^'[f^i7t fiflO; J-jt. 

CAm, 4n, 510. 
L. TVLeier. iV. Jfr, ^^A, 55, 285 and 56, 41; absir. PAarm, Cwft*- 

1819, [>T; CAr^iT*. fioj. 1849, 130; -irm. i'Annn. 72, 3£(>. 
WETEnsiAKs k irirFELV. /tjir*. PArxrv'i. 74t ^^6 i nbatr. Pharm. Centr. 

18:fU, 7y7; CArwi. Guj. Ift50, 3i>3. 

SHKdaT-fBfi. Sfintaii*. The colonring matler of red sanilal-wood, 

Ptcroea'^puJi sai't/ifinup HTkd P/. iiidiijf/^ {/tmnllt^rh. *iii, J^A^orAcni. 12.) — 
For Prrioat'r n plnli'inrutd, ^liLiTi arc not cotidrmed Kv Bollcy, sw £irr- arfrif. 16, 40i 
J. f-r. t'A^w. 32, liEf. — M^iCP fuEiiid in BrkEidal-wood, bfnidm aantnlio ninii. tira 
dLIT'rTr-iit biH[ii>v, u^iirh Ikp iLi'Signjitcfi ml ^Snnf'iSi-' arute, Siinf/i/ftif^ fifintaltii^B^ 
Ra^alufiiit. nrtiE fiantalotUde ; bur the i^pjiraU' ciiflloiuvi and ihi.' piirii; uf tbeie 
bt>dir<» fipjJDAT UuublXuI. Wc'verutMLu & Uuurly wcru uot ubln tu [Luti Uoyi^r'e ouuUilio 

Prepttrtiti>yiv. Rasped Bondal-wood is cshauBtcd with oJcobol ^ tiwj 
M)luti'^n is evapi ►rated; the rf ainons residue is boiled with water 
rrdie^olved in aloohul ; the tincture iu prt^<:i()i(,jilt?d witb uit alcoholic 
aohTtl'Vi it^ nontrdi acetate of lend ; and the dark violet precipitate is 
eolleclei, boiled rcneatodly wjtb iikxhbol of 80 p. c, and derompoec'd, 
either with alctibol ccintainiji^ Bullkhuhc acid, or by treatment with 
hyduienlpliHric acid. The Hanlaltc acid if* obtained by evaporating 
the finlution (Meit-r), Thr: pmdin;t is purified fn?m mineral ftalta by 
tniiing ibe alcoholic eolution wilb a fimall i^nnnflty of hydrochloric 
fccid, prei?jpitatin^ with water, and veeryetalhsing from aleohol 
(IVcyt-rmann h ILiifTdy). Thp cilienral or ulci.licihc I'llmcL nifiv aJ» Ui bi- 
htuitifdbv bulling irit h wAlcr, untAllf acifilhtn rcEDUuiaf (Mdrr). Pfllelicr'euuidiil- 
nrd ifl ohUiiicJ \,v cvip'>mtJi]tf the oJcoUolit? iinelurc, Ballej' eihuuBt* with nJoohol^ 
iliiAiU aS thr ^ar^r port of tli« ^i-ohoL, i.iii] proiMpilntPA Iho mloiiring matter with 
»abcr. Or h^ piFimipIs with lidiiTe pol"wli, prcoipiinT/'* ^ilh liyri ntcli loric npid, dj*- 
aalm th* wmdiftl pprtTipiIftTe in tlmhnl, and rriipivipicatGi wiiJi wslar. 

Prvpa-tita. Very eniaU, inJcr*>BcopIc prianiB of a fine red colour, 
witboni UkLi? or rtraelL Melta at 104^ Fenuanent in ibe wr. Haa 
Jtu acid reaction (Mt-iorj- 


,..^. ISO .„, 

1* .„, 

65 AS 



14 H 

,H.. 5^46 .... 9&n 

... 80^*6 ... te^e 

„. 0S8ft 

10 O „ 

80 .... 

„. 28^ 


271 ..„ 


_„ lOCKK) ,-.. lOO-OO 

.„. 10000 


BoUey luialjrfiad iiui|&lic ftdid («)» pncipJUtcd from tbo alkalme nluUoa hj 
hjtirochlopic Dfid, i^nd (bj from the jUpohobi? tolutkun bjr niet. Id impQtv ■■nl'laff 
lu'id, PellcLiiT founrl 7*-^ p- c- 0,, 64 H., raid Ifl-S O. 

DoGOi/tposi/ioof. 1. WbcQ Adaf^rf Qbore ita mcUuig pointy it »wel1i 

up, takes fire> mid burns w^ilh a briglit wliiie flame and ap<.' i'^' 
odfmr (Meiei). ^ — 2. A mixture nf 2 pi a. of a omnx^Titratcd ulnl I 
HolLition oF (fiiittalir aciil mid 1 pt. strong nitric ikcid, uwumefl a brjwu 
colfflir whea Lwiltd, bat dees not give off any njcJ fames, even wb« 
cvaporftt^jd. Water eojiftrntcfi fiom the residue ^ yt'!low»tiiMin» 
|riiwdcT, soluble in nlcijhol ; ilie acid fi]trntf*» neulraliaed wIU) ULfk>ou&tV 
of baiytu, ^leldfi iijiratt! of btiryta ikud yr>iliiw crysl^Uti iif » dcJi- 
r|ncsc('iit baTyla-fiall(M(;Lpr). PelWi« ■ *AndjJ^rpdbriflMTOro-Ddhy«*i tJ 
itHttc qmiikLj hj lii^t iiJrnoiicid» intOb yt^lluiv bitrt^ nvun, iliudWi^ Artiflc&l Mu*. 
mill « ldT|-e qiLantii) of ouUu Aoid. — S. TIte fioUitioD of tia&tiilic acaJ Ic oJ 
t/ Wfr/f^f blac];L-iiH whoii hent^d; wutcr tltrow^ d^^wn Fr>im it ft blndli 
ftmoqjhoiiB mjtsH, which diBaolvca iu boiliuj*- potaaU-lfj, ia un-oli'iUkJ 
by acida, and is ruauK'ed by alcohol iulo nikiitulit; add, nlticu <lj>«nlvai 
and ik remdue of {'hj^ruikal. Alrobkilic vaLtalic acid is imt uTrorud bv 
bodiiig with dilute icidn (M(?ior), — 4. Tho add niiifd with uIc<rLobe 
nitrote t>f aiiivr turas blown on boilij;£:T and dopiieils a brijwii poviltf 
(Meier), — o, When sftnEiiUc acid is fii|>t for fH^vcriJ dnvs at liJO" b 
t? intact with fttrgog- aqueous atfimiimu^ a.ud tjdudt'd fruin tlip ur, ii 
Ukhf'h up nniiiioniEL, whiHi it dor^a not gjve up t^ acids, or vnhci^ hr^ii^ 
wilh liydrttto (if lime*, but only wbcn in(.>lt^ with stitJra of ]iota^ 
(Schiitzenborgor, Zeitech\ Vhept. Pharyn, 4, Co]. 

Coiibinati&ns. Santalic acid does not dieeol;rtj in teatrr either ci'lJ 
or boiliog. It diBsi>lvcs iit oil of vitn'oi with dark Tq4 coIvoti »I(4 is 
lirccipitfttod by water (Mder). 

SaiiLilkr acid ueuliuVi^'H boAes, and nnitcH with tliv^nu ftniiaf 
imoryfttnlliAaMt'^a//^ ; tfiuac whrcdi an- soluble hav^aall^hilv utiringcfrt 
taeto. The .icid dij^solvi^i^ i-ciidily iu ariut^UH arniriouio, juul Jitaf -y 
sutationa of the fixed alkalis, lie L^olutJuu boilt^d witL motalli^^ < 
t'ji\m red lokco, the goIput of vsUvJh ia itul extr«ctL-il hj hl l . 


Tht* Bolution of Hantallr acid in aqnetiua amfAonia U i-Irilii-n^l. ^ '■ 
IcftVLSkj, when ovaporuted, a rebiduc; fruif From auiinoiiuv (Mi jrr^ 

StttitaiaU of Potash, — Obtnined by nuul rat initio: tho odd vitb pott^ 
\^r^■. Aniorplioiifi, dark vwki nutate, Ftmioiicni ia tho Mr. U4b- 
MMVua L-^ii^ily iu wiiti^r, with line violet eulour. chajigin^ tu nd M 
dlluliori. It ia apariiigly auluble in abmilute alcohol. 

Satttilhttii f]/ .*ff>r/d._-S^para.tfft gs a da[1[ viok<t fjowdif OQ 
ieiug a eouccittniled alcoholie ^olulioii of nautalio AOld wilJi 



Boila, Tt l» not i^rystaJlisable, dissolves easily tu water, butisin^iibte 

Sttntaltiit of Biinjtn.^- hw ali'i.hbolic Si^Iiilion fif saTjtalii.: ftoM iloea 
no! precif>iuiri? cbloiiile of ba-riiim, but on saturating it ivith baiyta- 
waler^ a violet-blue pdwder is oblaJuoil, uparliiglj Eioliiblo in cold 
water, mort cainly in boibng \TJitur, iiiHoluble in itltobiJ and etlier 
(Meier). — To pre par<; llie ball, aantalale of aiNmoiiia is pri.'cipitattd 
Wilh dilfirii]^ of barium, aTid tbe dark yiolot crytitalliiio aalt va wat^bed 
ont of contact with tbe air (WoyennaiiQ & Huifely). 



k llJillLlj. 


1800 .,. 

13-0 .« 

.,™h^..™ 72-0 ,., 
76-5 ... 

„.. SS-7 

«.. a-8 
.-, ail 

,... 2K'4 





311'5 .., 

.,„ 1000 


Tn tlie mkulniii:^ it is Buumed tliat the biiryr« remfuned KAfr tha i^mibufltion lu 

Santatate of Lttne. — Frocipitalod bj lime-water froro the alcobolio 
BolulioD of tbe acid. Dark, vlolot uKiflS^ ooarly inaolublo in water. 

The O'rapouude of santalic acid with mG^nc^a, a/ttaiifia, tiftc-<txid6i 
ttannovjtt Jhrotts. fert'iCj aud fyupric ojrides, uro oblaiuijd from tbe pfitaBh- 
H&lt \fj doable deenm position, n8 violet predpitaldi^ iosolublo in water, 
aJoohol^ a>id ether (Mei<>r). 

SnrthdiiU uf KriT^l. — Obtiiiiied liy pninpitatbig aloolmlic BanialiC 
acid with noiuml uloobolic afieTai.e nf load» washiogthe precipitate with 
•icohoE, aoddr^nug-it at 100° (Weyenuann & Llafl'ely). 

& UaiYAy. 

80 iBO-0 aes asis 

14 H ^ , _ 14'0 S'8 280 

10 O ...„ ' 8041 ,., 16.B 16'30 

a PbO Ssa-i 44'G 4i-V5 

C»II^*G"^3PbO 4973 lOOO ItWOO 

f^oflc? aittljaed » l(«4-9iJt cauTAismg ftoin S1-3S t<t 3318 p. a lead-oiid^i 

StaUalaie i>f Sileer- — Thrown down by the potaah-salt from nitrate 
of silver as a browD preoipitnt** (Meior). 

SanlAlii^ acid disaolye&, with blood-red colour and in all proportiona, 
in Bl*<.»lule nicohol nod iu spint «f 80 p. c. ; ia spirit of 60 p. c- only 
whea wflnupd (Maer). It disj^olvc* readily in acetk acid, and m 
rrocipiuted from the coneentrated solution by water (PelJetier, 

Sf^fitalic acid is solublo in eftier. Tbo solution is not red^ like the 
iJcobolic hut yellow (accordinjj;- to Mdcr, it doca not redden btmue); 
irLieii [juitJily evaporated In vacu^i, it oftea leaves the add ipdte 
Jijkittr, and when evepoBiii^u^oiitact with the oir, of a l^ne red colour 


(Pellelier)- — TtiJiHSdlvPH iti certain voiatiln oils (ra., the o3ii of 
motn ciDnamon, bitter almond, clove, and rnflc), in others only 
qui! in others (vb.., tnrt>ontine, aniBo, and lemon) not at aU 
Meicrjn It diBflijIvcB with difHcully in Iho die of Un^eed^ cJ 
rope, not la oiJ ot alaioti'la (Meier)- 


N. Phil. 

Ann. Fhann. y8, 170; abstr, Chr-ra^ >5oc, Qu, J, ft, 226i 
Mag. J^ 12, 59 5 J". /ir. CAa*. fl«, 36; JV. /, Pharm. 30, 

For/jio/mn rtm? Prepnrntian. A. From Datindn. 1_ Diit!«dn i« 
bmled wiUi dilute Hiilpburic acid, acid the datiAcetm^ wliich flcpuitM 
after tome miautea, ia eollooled: 

2. By boi]i:ig difttisdn wIlli pottiah, nnd procipituliriE- with an nci<l.- 
B. From iJie mvlha^'ft'ffviir^ til/toitttd in t/ir j:rrjMir'jti"n «/' Juri/fcjjt. — THrw 
liqnora arc (kreci|»ituted with Irasio iuTt:kIi.M'r lend: rlin ;< 
decnmp'^iSGil in]d*:?r water hy liydmnulphurjc acid; and fhc - 
filCralL* ifi Iwjilfd wifli dilulo Biilphnric aiiid ; a I'oein tlifn s. | .r ,: 
thu lH»(t*m, flnd the liquid dccnotod therefrom yields diLid-'H lu 

^flu■ther boilin;*:- The pruduct is purified by enlulicm in alcohol ud 
prei:i[iitation by waiter. 

Pmprrim. Nearly (r]lf>urh'Stt iieedlea, whieh inidt whi^n hL<«Ii^ 

andeoliOlfy in tho crystalline fortn on co4>Uug, Ta&kdeea, 


M 100' 





CHWO"" -. KM „.. lOOtt) 

, aa-u 

, 10(H)0 

Dteorapoti'tiotis. 1. DatiHOi^tiii very eantioufily bi*ati*d, rirtdi 
rstallioe Rubliinatc, ^vliieli IiisCi'B sweet \kdien n>-crv«ta1[u^ fi™> 
I'lncr. — 2. When heated it twrv^*, without any ndour *A bumi «n<tf-. 
— 3, Cold niVnV<in'/Oi-'iJv*irlfl it, wilh ri&euf k-mi-Tatiin; toidtv^th 
nf limwn va|H^>Liid, iril^i a n-fiiii, which iIk'ii da^^i-lvrH l<i a dark 
liijuid, and wln-n ttnilrd :intl <'va|»iniird. lenvea pjoric a^id. S'n f^id 
add i« pmdnc(»d in tliis roactimi, Daiifltviin b-jili-d wiih djliJl«i 
ncid, yidda uitTtiHabcylJo acid. — 4, With ij-jrlrin;- hifdnif4 (/ ji 
HUinircs an riraiJife-i:<ilu«r, and gires off hydrffpnin ITw 
li-eali'd with b_vdri.hHiinpic ntiJ, yii'liU « nVni apid milirylii: iod 
5. When (lisiilled wJTli birhnmntf ^f jtutmh anil ililiil?i unlphtirio, 
it'idh u vhitery dietillate, wluch ^njclla vi salicyh^tis add, *nd fcdd**! 


rrric sail a. 


CotMnationa. Datiscetin is nearly insoluble in waier^ It diefiolvea 
in ftqueoue aUcatis, and is precipitated by acide, 

Lead-comp^nd. Bv mixing an alcoholic solution of datiacetin with 
ELfiiitral acetate of lea^ a deep yellow precipitate is obtained, wblch 
may be washed with alcohol and water* 

80 « 18(H> 86-68 3610 

8 H S'O 1-63 IBS 

10 O „ 800 16-28 1689 

2 PbO 223* 45-46 4636 

0»H-PbK)" .». 401-4 10000 100-00 

DatiBcetJii dissolves easily in alcoholj and in nearly all proportions 
in ffther. 

Giticoaida of DtUiscetiit, 


Bracomkot. Ann. Chim. Pfi^. 3^277. 

SmtHOCsa, Ana Pharm. 93, 166 ; abstr. Chem. Soc. Qu. J. 9, S26 ; Iff, 
PhiL Mag. J. 12, 59 ; J. pr. Chem. 68, 36 ; N. J, Pharm. SO, 236. 

Oceurrmct. In the herb and roots of Datisca canruibiaa {Sattdbuck. 
TkiL, Fkytochewi. 3S), 

Pt^taraiion. The comminuted roots are eihaosted with wood- 
tpuit; the mother-liqaors are evaporated to a Byrup ; the resins contained 
in them are precipitated by addition of J volume hot water; and the 
decanted liquid is evaporated to the cryBtallising point. The impure 
datieciii thus obtained is purified by pressing it, mi^^ the alcoholic 
solution with water, and fUteiiug the liquid from the ream whicb is pre-* 
cipitated ou evaporation. The moUier-liijuorfl tum for tho prepu^ioD of 
ditiaoetiD (Stenhouse) . Bnoonnot obtaiDed ddlucm bj evaporatiiig thft deooction, 
or b; treitiiiB the extnct with ould water, and re-crjiwUBiDg the iiuoliibJe depouti 
from boiling water, 

properties. Colourless needles or laminte, having a silky lustre, soft 
mxtd translucent, like grape-sugar. YeUowiab, if rxot quits pun. Neutral. 

Needlet. mean. 

4A O ._ 252 64-08 B4-B7 

SiH™..- 22 .,.. 4-72 6-21 

24 192 41-20 4023 

C"H»0" _ 466 100-00 lOOiX* 

flom« of tb« qp«oiMnu of datiwm snalyied b; Stenhoiua, itUl coaUiiiod mIu 


Dtcomfotdtiom, 1. Datiecin mtltB at IBO", bumA when fuTtter 
hffdtd^ c-miCEiii^ an odour of biiriLt suj^ar, and Icavee charcoal, Ileiftlcd 
ill 4 ciinvnt i'i dij air, it j^iclds u einall ijuuntity of rrvslallini^ Mb- 
limalH. pmlmMy *UMsr-'rm. — 2. WIh.'ei Ixiilcil ^ilti iiilntj> «n^vrv <>i 
Jitfdrochtflric act'Jj and iiioro alowly hy Loilmg its aquctnifl at»ltitioil» it! 
I'^aoLvcd iitto dBliHcetiD and sugar : 

The sugar obtained from 100 iits. of daliadn rcduous as murli ciii 
niEidc Srom atkaLiiio soliition ns 37'^ to 4t'G pis. of m>m]Tioii vuj 
(calo 33'6 pU.) (Steidiousi;). — 3, j.ViVrir ric/'igTadnallj difl*>lvca<bti*ca 
fofmtiig & j't?ll<JW wiiutlfni, whifh, wWn flvnjmriiLcii, leavtis ninlii? 
iiioric nfidn, — -4 By boiliiipf witb wlroTjg^ p'fUt>h-l/^, it is di<ooru]>> 
m tbu Bn"i(? inifcurn'i' aa by aoida, — 5. It is not alt^i-ud by (xnitttel Willi 
yeiist iir cr/iul^'it, 

Dalieciij is tdig'htlj soluble in coUl. more abiuidriiillT in b<)t mtf^. 

^According- fn firafnimot, il dis^nlvT^s in r"? of tt'tr-ioi^ and is j.pj-rt- 
}iiUt4?d t>y wiitcr nnd by amnioQifl, but ie nrarly infoluldi' io by<irrH 
ddoric add (*i'i imp). With iV>Ji'n£, it forma a yollow compottoJ, 
Boliiblt* iij ciibl wftt^r{Br&connott, 

Di&tLScin forms with aqueous (tmtii'intfi And fbc /.rril a!i:vlitt diVp 
yellow huliilirjiit!, which tiw prt'cipilntod :iriil rli^cjildi-ih-i-d by JiniU.— ^ 
AaucouB dulitiiiin forme u-kb afitrnf iirid A^wrc aeetnte vf le^ui, u tight 
yellow ffolatiuoua procifiitftlo; with forric *alti*, a durk ^;tw-Mi i »itli 
cfipper-enlta a greenish ; and with st'intiic *'hloiiii<^ a '*t;ld yellMW |ifrd- 
jiitatt' (Sti^uhoimt). ^l " put pfcd|ixUfclDd Vj iiatiCvrt i^ guih fDnoouDol). w 
bj iKiUiLkiri ufyr/jj/ti i^tonhtrUAc). 

j^iitif^diL diritsoUrH otLriJly in ti(»1d oJmAo^, and in all fimportinw in 
boiling ale "hoi ; p] laiiiigly i»i rfA-r (St'^nhmisi'). It dye* fabric* bulJi 
morduiited and uiiiuoi'daiiit^d (UiacoiLnat). 

Pipitzahoic Acid. 

M. C. Weld. -4hn. /'Atfrm. 95, IflS; ibfttr. ^. ;*r. CW. fifi, i7li 
Photon, Cmlv. 1855, SOO, 

SiofAiaaeiJ. D(6CovcTod by Rio dc la Lozfl, in thf rofjl uklkd 
cfe/ 7^;'if.'u^"'ftr:t vhich« t^rordinjr to Eajiion dc la ^^ra, tvloujft K 
tbe synanihai^'uEJA [»hknt Diiincriiia Ilainbt/Liibi i>f ToltHx.^ (mn* (« 
r(T»'//j2. 873, [iiid iUT3> 

]t JA iiblJiinr-d in au impure atate^ b^' dry difitiUation of U>« tv 
better by exhjkn:itiou srllh alcohol and cTyetalliaati^n. uiidfiutiM 
rucrytstai ligation frunt absolute alcohob 

Propertia, Gold-cubiurcd tufts of fumiiijtr cj,snlblHv FmaietWU 
BOparatM in nmdl Bhiniii|^ [ablps lw'h>ti^nf5 Tn ibr oblitsue ynaattk 


tJip eijJ-fjice i" intlinpil Uj iJie ffrisinatic fncen at an an^le nf 94". Per- 
manent in the air. Melts at uh.iiit lOil^ to a red UriuicI, wlucb. an!id>ilc"S 
in iJic (^rjfltaLliiio fumn ni) c^otin^, aii<t eubLiaus at fk tempcraturo a 
little above it)0° in g-old-ycllow laminiE- 


DC ,. IBO .»-.- 7a'68 7804 to 7324 

90 H..„,.^ -H- » »-p... a-Ofl 7«4 ,.„ fil4) 

e o-.- .-,- 18 „-,-, i&as .„,_ aO'OB .... is-ae 



.. 10000 

10000 .... lOO-OO 

Otnnhi'iattnrui. Nearly idHrilnbU- in Tcuffr. — rTaitop with htigert 
forrrnng' aalrs. CtPinlic alktdii aiirt nlkaiinf. carhtmnlrM cnl<>nr tlio Bolu- 
tinoe 'if the ad4 pnrplc-red^ and fftrm shIIb easily flohiblu in wnter, 
ftloh*.'!, and cthcr^ whk'li ri'maJD aa vamleliea on evttporation, and ore 
dccfkmpi iwed iu alcoholic solution by carbf>mc acid, 

^aryfrt-m/^ — ilaryU'Water throwB down from the akot olio solu- 
tion of th(? acid, ditrk jrurfjle j^itiiid^ ttpaiiii^ly auluUe ta watiT aiid In 
^oolioL It is decoiapotKd Lty carlNiLic Acid in aloohulic anlntiou. 

Coppa-'Aalt. — Obtained by prccipituting the soda-salt with acetato 
of p.>p|K)r, dieaolviJi^ tEio preuipitalc in alcohol, prcoipiUiiu^ with 
WHter, wiu?hiiig> ALid diyin;^ o\'cr <*A t*f vitrioL — Dark ^ecnish biowiit 
non-cry Bla I lintr fnaai*, tJoritiiin fi'84 p. c bydrngeii^ and ll"12 jv i.\ 
copfior, and is thoi-etoTe C'^IP'CiiO'fciil^ Sfil E., ^idllStiCu). — MelU 
above HHJ°, dfpoailing cupri« oxide, while part of the acid sublimes. 
Soluble in alcoliol and in i^thpr. 

LMd'fait. Obtained by precipitating the soda-aalt with bMio 
aeet^^tc ul kW, and dii^soLvinf^ tho preuipitale in aEo>ho). Ctjntain« 
44-02 p. c load, and h therefore perhaps C"ll"i'bH>' (culc. 45'7 p- c 

Si/i'er~*iiU. ObtaineJ by pieci^wlating itjc soda-efilt with nitrate of 
Bilve^j as ttdiirk purpli- ptedpiLMtp, iiiiioluMe in water, snlublf in alcoliol 
md atk-r. Onntnina 2i*'35 p. c, silver (C*'H"'AeO" = 30'.J2p. a. Agj 

Tho acid diaaolvee easily in alcohol and &her^ and ie precipitated by 


IIctkb, O-WA ChciA. J. 2, \m.— CrfM, N. Entd. 4,42. 

VAi7QrELO k RoBKET. J. Phurni. G, 22fl; X. Tr. 1,365. 

J. &]iiWAK£. ^tiig.Pk^^T}n. 10, 1H3; 19, l(i8. 

B.imKSi]or<»T. iV. Br. Arch, 27, 93- 

U^WKi Jt Wcinii^NK, /'"y^> 16, 4fi t Jw*, i^im™ 32, 276. 

Pkbuxd. ,4n«, Pknnn, 3H, 278. 

Jul. McLiXft. JV'.iJr.JrrA.Ga, 1 ; P/^rF^. Cr-Jfr. 1850, GlS- 


Stork (LibeUf^ df i/su mtd. PuisutUfiE niipic. Wicii> 1771) \ re-diACOTCinl 
by Ilcyer in 1779, — Tht^ volatile acrid prinnplcH {\i\. 471) ace pw- 
tiKfjB ri'liLt^d lo Uie body from which aiiemoijip and aTiemonic ao4 u« 


O^^currmce mxd Fttrmftiion, Tho fresh herb nf ATirmcnf 
A, PuhaiiUa (lioyirr), and j4. n^jnorosn (Scliwara), of Jtfjnvncutta 
mtiltt^ R. Mtoaus (J> Sliillcr), ti.udli^ scekt^aiat (Erdxijuuii), yiddis bj 
dUttdatioEi with walcr, a clear dintillatc, havirig* ft sliaQi taat*', uid 
}*iuip'[iL, ti-jir-i'sritiiig ciJnur- This litjuid >'ieldt* lo ethrr jui acrid t»\ 
uliitli, acwrdiiig to r^chwai'z and Erdmann, doca not redden btmi;*, 
buL, liccordin^ to MliIIlTt Lna a e(rOTig iicid TeAotiL^n. It hasa g'oldcit' 
jcllow ci>k>ur, ia Ut"avict than wutcr, free fnun aulphur, Anii di:)Cnai- 
poecfl by keeping", oi in c^jitttct with waU?r or cUhjridc (.^f t^alduni, iiilfi 
unt'Tiiiinin /uid aiieiinniic uml (Erdmauii), Thi? wnct-r (liwlilled ovi^r th** 
aii^tnniiy planlT oepccially if couc^nl rated by cobobalioii, Utt^'wise 
deposit e, Jiftcr kcc|iirig for some w<x'Iifl or months, ciystiila of anemonin 
and white pidvonilont ancnionic acid, SL-ponible by iilcoW, which 4J»- 
nolvea otAy tlie cry^tiLls. Tbid treatrnvnt du^iivca the uaoiuomii cif iti 
acridity (Ueyfir, Scbworz). 

Piiiperftfs. Ct>loiirk]fiH, shining yiriflms holong;iiig tn tlic ri^hl 
prismntic nyfitem. Th*» cryetaU, which ari? mostly isibuliu', oihili 
all the fiicoe of Fi^» &3i with this diUcreuce, tbat Dcithor « oar 
truncfttc'f* eytnctrically the cdpea of (lie octahodroii a ; betwofu y 
J/ tlieru ie a ^irisuiA ; jlWj an ixjlahedron fi, situukHl in tho Kiuu* Amr« 
with /I and a, aUn ^rilh / andu. Th& more ftimjile crysUdft oxhiUt naij 
the facea ^ r",/>, and w. — j« : w = 14^'* 30' (nearly} ; «i: y = 130" 
J>;* = 115'*19';p:a = 157° l3';/»:a= ISti' Sr i ^ : fl = UC" ]f I 
^!ff = 153M3'; a; /e^lSO" 15'. Tlie ^faw iti &l]-talc<i piu»lWlD- 
(Graihch & l.ang, ffVr^J. Akad. Brr. 27,00), Different fnun ibrv 
ar*' Iho orytiliila obtained by T-'mnkenhoiin (iV. Br. ArtK S3» ^-- 
1. VtiJMX Puhfitiflo pratenm. Short rhomble |*riains ^ (/i^. 53), Itavinff 
their iatctal od^'a truncated \jy p and m. licnniinaH^d at thr tnphy 
I and u. Subordinate arc two octahedn^ne, the h^wer U^ing Qui 
whew© i:*dg<^i4 ari* Hymmrtrii-Jilly iruiicali'd by (', f^y; idso n (ratn'»lj«i 
between y and m, Cloavagi^planea fULrullel to m und »: at ■ = 
113° 15'; itp^ 1S0° 31'-^ — '2. Ftora Auemcne ofmoi^iMi. LuD.]; )mUM> 
vilh prcdnnnaating fac^a m, y; al^o u> a truncating Uux botwvca* 
n», arn>thcrbtlwetn y and tn, aud lasUy. thv tud'facc^ I. 

lli.'avier than water. Very friiible. InoduruuM. tii tltc* mM 
it han Utile more than a fatly to^te, bnt ia The molroi) stato lU 
ia intensely l^itin^ and burning, and leaves a rmmbne^ an Uw totfvt 
for several daya (Heycr, lt*>bort). It ia an acrid pobon. — ^eatm^ 
veg-etablc colours (rohling). 


ft) C 

U H 

12 O 

,„ II . 



,. 430 

,. 41-01 




CWHiKJ" sas locrto ..-.,.„ looDo ^.„. M&ca 



The diflOTopATtaiea of tLeir 

Dtcofvpoeilions. 1. Anpoinniu softtiiB at 15^^ gi^ng off wntor and 
a very fmngent vopouri the yollow i^siJue dccoitipoBcs abovo 3^)0^, 
with epfianiti'JTi oF cliarcoal (Pehling;). — Accciniiot ut iMriicr nbfler¥»t.ipnH- 
ftanrjfjuiu is voFiitilff. — B.v drj difitrllikliui}, ii vit'ldp ■ li]U|jid i^ALery iJiBtilLalts 
hATine a pepptry tavlr^ alfo a ^vtfH^^ DiuprrcmunricBiibLipiala, Hlublt^ m dcuhul, mid 
■ Kdiduo of uliarcDnt (Htrrfrk ■ \^1ifD it ia licut c* J in a eUvfl tube, the ^ri? port 
roUtiUNY iiiid4Comj>udCHi. Biii «>iiiJonH?ii1u n ■olnlifririf; oiE. a «mall quantiL^ of Urown 

fwin mnoiningtwiiinri (VnuLiodliTij. — 2. Whpii Jield in a lurnp-liaTne, it 
biime Jiway Gtmi}»lclely, williri bright ti«mi' (Hcycr), It diastflvcn wilh- 
ootde^i>trij>>aitior» ju mM oil <j(' vitrwl (Lijwi^ i!t \\ L'iUuutiirO, the solu- 
tion ijot blauki'Jiiiig', fVf[i ttfU'r many cbiyw (Mlilkr), A-!ti)rdiug to 
Fpliling. U in partimiiwd hj nil rif vitriol. —4. When (iliJckly healed in 
chlonne gaa, it jL!;i'-'nB off alir^ quantity of hydrix'hUirie nciJ, «inl fi>noa 
a yellow volatiitMHl { I'Vhliu^). — 5. Slmii^ fiydri^cJilon'c add couverta 
it into flm-jntminit auM iL^w\^ ^ Wddaiimu), — 6, Utval.uU with tiitric 
acul, it fumiH nxulio itcM (TiOiling). — 7, fTL-jitud witlt peroxide of 
maiiffnnar and tufjthunc add, it yields frtrmio acid (Fohlliig). 

ft. It diseolvcfl ^vithout doGompositioji in oniieoua tiihtltn and in 
htnjt^'tcata (Fehlint^); acc^^(lil^fi■ to Lowig it wddtnjiuii, however, 
It takes up at Ilie suinc timu 2 at- watei^i ati<l Is [;ijnvtrted hito their 

<b. Accordmt] to hotriif ^ Weldtiturm, — AMicn jincmonin is boiled with 
ejtocAa of coucerit rated baryta- water, red flixks of basic auemojiiuate 
rf t>aTjta aredepo*it*'d, whith disRolvn with yellow colour no atldition 
of a large uuaiiiity uf aiiomuiiiri. If the basic nail is converted into 
n neiitrut eult by pi^ein^ carbonic nuid iuto the li^juid, the neutral salt 

Eredi'i tilted by otutral (tcetate of lead* the lead-salt decomposed by 
yilrimiiliiharic itdd, aud the liUriLte eva|ioTated, aiiemoniTi remains ae 
an amorphfjiiK, britth-, tniOKhici'iit brown lua^ti, wliinh rnelt^ at 100*, 
disfi'dvefl eaeiiy in water, tjparingly in alcoholi and not at all iu ether. 
This aoid> aocor<iinK to I^wi^' h Weidm&nn, ia CT1"U\ containa 
43 p. c- C. and ol II^i and forms with!^^ bi'own amorphous ealtSi 
of which thf.' lead-, ^Jtrciirj-, and siiver-ealte are iiw.dublc iu water. 

ft. Accfi^fiftyto Ftlilini/. Auemonin diet^olvcg in amieous alkalis, with 
yellow colour, neuiralisii];^ them compltttly, and tiic tfolutioos, when 
evaporated, lea vu a brown roasM. fnim which acids sepantte a j'clh»v 
gum <»ftsily suhible in water. — When arK^imniiii m disholvini in imrytu- 
w»ter» ixnd eurbfinie acid is paSRcd into the fllighily alkalmL' Mi|n^dT a 
soaull <:|uaiility of or^nic enbfitanco le preci(»ituted together with iho 
carbonate of baryta. This organic enbetancc, which ruuaina in eelu- 
tion aft^T the preeipiUle has bi:t^n diftm^lved in acetic acid, and tlie 
baryta ja-edjiitated by mdphiiric acJd, is yelhiw, tTyntalliae, and does 
not precipitate ammoniaeal aolutiona of lead- or silver-salts. —-The 
lutjon of anemonin in baryta- wait r, when freed from carbonate of 
ta and cAceeB of mrbonic acid, and then ml^cd with neutral 
icetate of leu-l, yh-lda a light yellow prt-cipilntc, which contains 
26-64 fx c. ('-, 3-19 n., IG'42 0., and fi4-7n PlO„ agreeing nearly with 
the formula CIlH)*. The <^nantity of Ihfa precipitate amoiiotB to 
scarcely j\ of iho anemomn employed; heuce toe acid cannot be 
formed from aiitmonin by simple aseumption of water (FehlingV ; 

li X -: ^** 

'-^ : ^ — :^Ti !**• 

■i --*- ^fc - - J-1 «-7> 

^T>|ifft|^j; AoL 

r r :v . 

:* ; ^ - ..„ in . 

_ »■« 

^... 4 57 


luir A£ add mctivL 

i>""H:'*-"'- _ x« _ ix-x lOMU 

I>^* =.- ; L-i^ -.r^ -z. i.-'zr:r :: j- L'.^e ^Si*. not even m ifilBt^ 

It m..u^ wiii l-iw^ irz^-f «;^ .KAS^::£-mi It diasobei ^ 
pel'tvk-it^, «r.;h tcH- v o.!.^*. :;ir:^^ ;r v^ wh^n beAied (QeTrr> 

Ibe add iurlf aa*ttmi;^g aa vn:if^;elkv o^Luor; tlie JcA)' 



lit^oid ifi dccolonaed by liydrcchloric odd, with precipitation of yellow 
fifickti; the omngj'-yefhjw pnwdrr retains iilkali, eveK after it li&s be<?n 
aevoral timee washed with wattr, wbich rendara it paler. — Bnrtfta and 
limf-icater colooT aaetnoEuc ocid of a p&lor yellow thim the alkalis 

Ancmonic acid dnea not dissolve in alcofiol ot ether, oil of katnder, or 
ptUai'oil (Heyer, JiVliliii^). 

Primary N^cletis, CTP*. 

Waltok. ^, ^fln. Cfttm. Ph*,s. 1, 501; J. pr. CAwn. 24, 232i -47in. 
J^arm. 3ft, 349 ;— .V, Ar\nX'hwi. Phfja, 8, 351 ; J^. pr, CAtrn. 30»a67l 
^»ji. Pharm. 48, 35. 

The DHac tVJrin wid giseiA bj Lewi (7, tTAj'n». wrfJ. 1951h 232; Prperf. 
lOOi 360}} tv bflutra] hilli^r uueiUn oUUiinfil frcni tlie fniit of SiimiLa Ced^on% 
flpvnn^lj Bolubia id oold^ inlsHt in. boiline naLtTi ftnd ui nl^ohcl, Tht- suluUbcn may 
be 0tErAL^«<l b^ uloohol from tJie fruit nflflr it hfl« buep 5«ed fram fnt bv ellipr. 

Thf rnUlilf oil of JuHipern -cir^niaim ( ilrgiman Cf^rene- or Juii4pf^oii) it a 
mrthlTp of r-»drpnp luid Mdnr^cainphor. It romiB a white, Boft, ciygtallinp idbu, 
AiWr drbTLlmiiuEL, it ■alidiflra at £70*, its lempvniriJTT tboii risiji^ Id S2'; oa 
diatilliDg il, ibv greater part gon orer fit abiiul 2tJS°, vfliibt a purtiua reim^DB 
■iK'rod bj the beat. 

Wteo oil fA cedar, prcvinTjaly distilled and solidi5cd» is subjected 
tti prewBurc, wjlnl eedur-cumpbor remiiinH lx?hind, whilsl a 8oliition of 
Uiftt GUbstadce in codreiie runs olT, Tlie laity r rppenlfdly aabjected 
in> fr&ctioDal di^tUlalioD, yields cckIi'cdc boiling between 26-1"^ and 2GS'' 
AS tbe lirst portion of the diatiliato, TUia liiiuid is puritiud by repeated 
<liatillatii.riL over potaasiuic, till the metail in no Icng'Gr taiTdfihod 
by it 

Wlien anliydrauR phosphoric acid is added hy small portions to 
ccdar-comphor C'ii'^, pieat boat ifl evolved, and » black vtseidoil is 
tfbt&iutd, with ydl<)W oil-dropH flontins" upon it» On difltillinj^ this 
ptudactr cedreue paeees over, and may h& purified by dletilUiit^ it oqqo 
or twice over judijdroua phospboric aeidj then rejJtutedly over 

Properties. Mnurlcae oil of ep. pfr, 0'9S4 at 14"5°j and Wling &t 
237*- lias n jiectJiar aromatic odour, different from that of cedar- 
camphor; its taetc is at Crat faintly, afterwards atrongly pe[i>cry, 
Vaixmr-deiifljly = 79* 

0. h. 

ao . 

£i B 

„« U .. 

_ 882a .. 
.... 1177 -. 

.- Uiii 




H-ffrt . ..^ 

.- U .-,. 


. ee-Bi 

Cfidrezke-vapcnir .... 





jr. Jm. Ok^ /V- 1. ^sdiS, am. 

Obtained by expreamp tbe crw^ cw» <lirtflM «ArH)0 (p. 
aud purified bj repealed ciytalliMtinw from alooloL 

WblcttlkjiieeidkB, wllkll■Kllat74^ Boiliii; pivnt 3$2\ 
» pecolar anKsalic odour, and faist taate. Vapoor-denratj = ^'4. 

i a leo » tt^e „ n-o c^aow ao ^ i^woe 

ipMMfinet»&?t^tfdl {Tfititi 4,1&4)i W«ll«r f-*« lb- lorau^ C*IPO>. 

^TwvnpiTvdtfni. With ^ c/ vt'irioL it toniA browD, ani] dtfpottit^ k 
yeTlrrw oil, wkbool fdnntD^ & conjti^lMj acid. — AnJij/dnmji jtin-y' > 

an arofratic "il. difficult i-i ohtAin pwrp. 

It ie Tic-orij- iosoiublv iu tetitfr^ but disdoJwe loadilj \\\ okokci^ nxhr 
hot or ccld. 


SotSEmjUi & CAriTAiyE. J, Phana. 2C, 7d ; j4 nfk /^Aflrm, 55. SiS. 

WLoa culrt'be, the frait cf Pm*r Cub<lM [UinJh%rA vi,',.. i»^*or*'* 
51)t IB d]9tillo*i wilb waUr^ Et volatili^ oil, tn^M uil or twnurt of o^ 
|«aftcft ">vcr, from whicb, on koe^iiiii^ aid couliiig, <:4riijihnr oi coh^ 
iwparates, wliik cubf-U<iie riMiminr^ In wjliiiion. 

If the oil f>f cnlx'b* m roctifieJ *jver bnuc, thon detkvdm1«^ H 
loftvinj^ it in ccnlof t with diloridc ci r4ildiim for acvrtAl dnyt, «t 1*^ 
— i5', fkO'i eiibjcclcd to frftL'tional difclillntlnii, water ^ase<^e otpf «iik 
tho 'til, If'in^ iFRtbobi.y fornii-d by dL'Cij[U[>iiaiti<>u ^^f Utv ("anipbc W 
€iibrlM, Tbi.* HrHl iwrlflh pnri of tbt* Ji^lJlliile. AfC^^r hpin^ ifUB 
drtoil liy dib>ndc of cnlcitim. is loaa rittdd tlian tbt- trrudo oiJ, !»»■ 
doriMity of O'SIO, and tbo oomparbon C"I1* (Soubciran Jt CapHtiilK<J 

30 C - 

fi-tH . ... 

i«o .,._ aaaa 

.,. M UT7 

_.„ — fi7 M 

C^H* „ 

JO* „,. 

..»,... ^ W u 



^^H Camphor of Cubebs. 

C"'I1"0" = C"U^H'0'. I 

TtacHftMACnETt L Brooke- PhU. Aaii. £, 450, I 

AIcLLE^. A»n. PhiiTvi. :?, 90. I 

Sell & Blakchet, An;t. Pharm^ *Jh 2y4, I 

AVDfcKLEB. Ift^ert. 15, 3J6 i Ann. Pkarm. 8, 203. " 
AuDEJtGiBB. J. Pflann. 27, 278 ; ifw. ecienl. 4, S^O. 

Sytlf^ttd m of Cubi-U^ n^AroTt of Cvhehftif. Spo p, 270, — Obtaine<J by 
tooling oil of cubebs, piessiug tliu solid matter wlilcli fiepiiraLes, ai^d 
retiryBtallisiri^ it from al(«>hol (Mliller); better from etlior-alt^jbol 
(Blau€h4>C & St>i1.) 

Colourlcee, tratispareiit crystalfl of tln^ right priamfttic sjBtemi 
hflring a vilreoiie lustre. Fi*]. GO^ without the email facea between t 
dud H- ItUombic ootjUjedroii a, hitvirig its aouLer UttTol i^dgeB tnm- 
tatoiibj^; ihf priMJJ H with iIk- tiid-fHtc*i m aiifi ; ; al»o a prism 7i* 
betweeu i and w. n : a in front = U5° 4«' (Brooke), IJa" 0" 
(KoJjcll)iat aovor,v= 115" 4a'(Br.)i Mh" ■JO' (Kob,); a: a over u 
= 74" 5G'(Br0i lb' U (KobOi uii = IhV O'(Br0iu":^= 165° 0' 
(Br.) Ck'uvflble parallel to m (Kubell, Rfpcri. 45, 351)- — Mdta 
MweeD (y%'7° nnd 70° (Wmfk!r?T), at ti9' (Auborgier) lo a limpid oil, 
whitrh solidiRes in the cr-yataliiue form en c^oolitig- Sp, gr, at tho 
uiL-ltiofcT point, 0'026 {Aubcrgirr). Boils bulwccu 150^ and 155" 
(Wiotkler), ot 150'^ (Aubcrgjnr), and eubUmcs in small quantities, or 
iljsdis over withciut nlriralinii \\\ Iwrgp fpiBnliLi<!H (Blrttirlii*l & Sell, 
MuUor). — Srnellfi slightly of cubebs ^ tastes slightly burning at first, 
afterwards cooling, NeutiaL — Lffivcrotatary;[a]V— 66-7*(Aubergior), 

Blani?he( AubtrgiiT' 

80 ISO ftros ..H,.., eo« re-M I 

BS H ..„ ac 11-71 11-3 ii-a* 

2 , Ifl 731 8'1 ll'Bl 

CPE:",aHO %%2 loooo , loo-o loo-oo 

Ammlmg to Blanuhtft & Sell, 11 ihC^H^O; mMOrding to AiibtrgiflF, C«S^i. 

Dfcompoiitiong. Bg dif filiation r (p. ST^i). — It takes fire when held in 
* flame, bnt doe^i* not continnc to brtrn when rcniorod/ — Wl^en tritui-ated 
*ith i'xiinti. it fonuB a thick brown liquid, — - Tn dihiiitj^ gm it meltfllo B 
t^loutiegq trqnid, whi<:h, if more ehloriue be puKsi-d intu it, lieconios liati 
*"id tnrlnd, afu^rwardft Hoar ngain, and Bolidilios tf> ft transparent, 
^^p^li, Tellow-browL, add inoss, — Otl of v'friol elowly tnme it brown. 
— Nitnc aad of Sp. ffi. 1"5 ccmverta it into & reein, with violent 
'^Volution cff nitric oxidt g.-Ls (Wiiickler). 

Immersed in builiNg v^nteTj it inelta withont disHotviiig, anil dirttfla 
*>ver slowly with the aqHemie vap<hur (Winrfeler, Miiller). It dot's not 
'iifteolve in Tw/W/-^/, aqueoiifl oirimonia, or dilute acetic odd. Claoial 
*<^tic acid shaken np with camphor <d cahebp diBriolvt;a it, and tbe 
*olutioiu oa addition of a hir^'^er quantity of the camphor, >-icl<Ja drops 
^t (h1, which do not Bclidlfy till the iicid ia ueiiLraliciod (Alulit^r)^ 


It di&8olvos rcftdily in aicafiol^ in ethfr^ and in oilSj both jLrfd 
vohlilf. Accordijig In BIaiicli<*t A Sell, it oryBlalliecB from Ihc elht 
^[lotiolic, but not Infm tlju alcohulig Bolutioii, 

Hydrocblorate of Cubebeoe. 

C»-B"C1» = C"IP*,2HtJL 
SoUBfLtOAif & C'apitainb, J, P/tarn. 26, 75. 
CampJifa de Cni^-. 

Wher hydrochloric ftcid g»fi h passed into voTftf ile ciil of cnbrbt, tfce 
gil lieaoinra turbid, nt^]|uir<»B a dark red-brf»wn cjilour^ and flolidlticji u> 
s cryBlaUiriO nififls, whiuli may bo puniiod by pirespiiro and rccryslaUl- 
snliou ft'>m alonhul, Tbe ijlaoli mothi^-r-lU^uor doefl not yieW imymt 
cryptttlw. even wln?JL ccolt'i] to — lO". 

Long, oUiigui- [>riFJiTLj!i, with riK^Iang'iilar baRfr, ^k ^. O'WIi 
Bnilmg point lai". La^vorotftlory i [a,'\j = 57-»^% — TaeleleM 


» c ^ ,.„«.. ISO .-..„ si-fi .„ e-t-a 

SG H se y-a 9-8 

a 01 - 71 2&^ S4-7 

o^'H'.aHCi W7 - b»o M-a 

Tbc vapour pQjjBti] ovor r<*d-liot riuicklirac do<?a not yield anyoi 
but a nnall quaMtitY i»f cry^tiillint' puMJuiat^, perim|i8 naphthnlin. 

U dihsulvLis ill iil*:oh\ii E^u n.buiidaut]yf tliHt tbe eulutiuii ^alicUCitM 

Aj^an^ to CtMm€ and Camphor of CtiUb9, 

1. Oa of Cubebs, 

Eof l}ie Littntmrt nUling ta (hi* oOi >Ad frr !(■ e&ntUi^^mt; wo pa^ 370- 

Cubele yield 2^1 p. c of volatile oil (Tronimsd'irfF) i 7-8 ^ 
OVintkla-); 107 p. tSloLTj : 1.1-6 f Wikinj^, JV'. Br, Arch, m, 30). 

TLt: oil, after r4^rtif)i::iii>.in. in ouluurlcHH and vi»<:idf tUL< loftt pui 
wfiidi pju:;si;4 ovc<r iu tEic fruoiionol djiitillatjon liaviug noarly lti> ci 
Biatenco of lnHtr. ^p. gr. U'DiitI at G'5" tWiuchbr), (H)2^ (j^tmbciraa 
Jt CapitaiMO; 0-92 (Zollpr)i *>02 !«> 0-080 (V^in Ikre, K Br. Ar^hAU 
ie}i 0-020 (Williama, Jnn, /^rtfra. 107, 242) ; at 0% it is l)»«4 i lU lOO' 
it to O-flM (Aiibtngier). — TIjc (frealer purtinu difctlU ovtT tn'twi^^n 
ifiO" aud SfiO", but Itavt'a a ooluuriHl u-flidue^ \n,i\\ in th:b difiiilUuHjn 
mid on fiuli«oi|iieiit roctiiicatioTJ (Soubeimu & Cajutaiiic). Il« odouf ^ 
sli^Ully iLri.tinulir., jiud its t^J^lc warming, lik^ tljat uf uimpluic 
pcm-rmmt. — Nuutral. — liWvor*tury; [a^;' for the oil drfeil iv 
cbbridoof culuium == 40-lti; for tlx! ttame cil, ofWr ii liaa beeii fi 


fmm tiip water which Fornift cin dislillfttinn (p. 970\ ft is 80*40* 
fSf»ub*"irftii & Cipilnii^p), Auboignc!" fumid for thi^ mnleciiliir rotatory 
power of the portion wJiiulidiwlilsiirfit [»]»■= 30"t>^°j For fho kstj vory 
viecid porti'^iiof the distillate, ftftereepttratiod of the camphnrcf catK-lffl 
which ioTHia ij.t 0^, [a]r = 2828°, — niucli wejiktr, ibeiefure, lljan that 
nf rjirn]i}»nr 'if fiilieha, wludi litter ha ia disjHiaud to rt'gflni uh the 
only optiually active oonsliliicut of the oil. 

Oil of euUsLie ir* otiotJiCt with wdinti becomes warm, irivce off 
yoHow and vii>let vapours, aii(3 ai.-qiurfB ri Ijrovni colour and viecid 
ctfQ&ielctK'C (AViijckli-T). NiCiic acitl dmjfl uut m?t. lh(j oJl <*;i fiiv, but 
Iie»rr4 it rttmii^Ij, and ronverta it into a rt^ain, with enpionfl evolution 
of nitrouH vapours. — WLun dropt into u large (]UHiiliiy <i( Mlafviti'io!^ 
it l^i>rn:is u r-id-bn^wn eolutioa, cootairiiu^ a coniii^itod Bulpho-acid 
(Ccrhfttdt, Coinjtt. vtnd. I7j 3U), llt'iitcu with od of ntiiol, it niAkea 
A loud uiid eouliuuefl bisMj^g ziiilht'^ nnd pvcisoff ttojlourk'Hh oil, whiob, 
aft<?r prwipitalion, exhibitrt a slight IjEvnraloi^' powtT ([^rjr = 5'S5), 
srut ie jjerbaps identical with culx^btne (Atiborgier.) — With hv:If(>mi\u 
<tf jiot'tflh and >id of vitriol, oil of coboUe aPBumo a grcL'tiiati ^jolour 
iZtlk-ry Wilh absolute acohoi, it ffrma a turbid mixture ; wilh27pte- 
alcoLol of ep. gr-, 0-87, lui opalescent inijttuni(Z<!llnr), 

2. Cubebin. 

O»00LA' J. t'hm. nie'd 10, G*i nbstr. J?p;w*. 50, 220; N. Br. Atxh, 

Steer, ff^yvi-f. 61, ft5 ; -Y_ Br. ArcL ^2, 197. -—Rfpert. 71, 119; jV.Bt, 

Jrc^A,34, 21)7- 
&or&uicA>i & CAPrr.uNE. J^. Pfiwm. 25, 365 ^ ^str. J^^^^ert. R7, 113 j 

JV, J^-.^rt-A.lS), 173; J^m,PWr/i, 31, IBOi /.pf- acm. 17^460, 
S<aDCK. N.RrjitTt. 1,213. 
Ekcelhardt. N. Rfjtert. S, 1. 

Oiecovcred hy Monheiia ; prepared pure by Soubcirau & Capitaine. 

Oc^T/TTf^cfi- Tn cnbeba^ the not perfectly ripe fruit of Piper Ctiheba 
{tl9}ulbuch riii., Phjtcchf^i), 81), Sepurutue from the ethcrcflJ oxtroot 
of cubebe on keeping (Schuck, Engelhardt), 

^eparatian. Frani cubcba, freed from volatile oil by distillation 
^lli watrr. then ]j[i.'Ssed aud diicdn The uuk'ba »re ciliiiiisled with 
J»oiling alcoliol^ the deiMJetimis ftreGVflpt}nLted \n an cxlrjiet; thisosirnct 
*i treated with caustie po tush, to removu pi>rlaiij enbtitauet'B Bolublo 
tlwreio \ lEid the tubeDiu which remains io washed with water 
**id panfied bj rejx-ated recrydlaHisation from alivshni (Soubeiraa & 
vapiiuiiLe). From the alt-tjljijlie tirK^tuiee, ;trtert»unidciit cuuccuU~jttion, 
Uwi cubobin cryBtalliecs no o^'oliTi^-', and may be piirilled by recry&talli- 
**iti>n, with help of animal charenitl (Steer). 

Scliuek etiipioyacubebHiiot previnusly frerd from volume oil adding 
i uf ihtiT weight of cpdck lime. — Munheim eshaiietja the uubv-'ba with 
^^ler. bc-fnn^ trouting them with alixjbul, lu whicli pri^o^ds, bcjwever, Uie 

ifOL. XVI. 1 


noiuii moxiA c*n». 

A portkv of tiM 
of aabtJtm prapwWifti 
e*a p*m boa needle ijuft J ' 

teaaloAflL orbvu btflitut. 

TM^ ^'tj WBordi^lotbe 




» _ 



^. ff™ ** 


^94, MdOTMlbMi 





UctucAriiim, the miUg- juice oF L<i*-tHca nVo^a {ffi«««^ »iii. PA^^^iy^^ 
^'"cr, ° pN-imrfd ftvtni limtiiPMium, j«- pugo a;e, juid U^Aiitu^h. 

nil. 6Sh 

PrrpoTfitiifa. Chopped latliicanum ih' ropoatedly exhansfi^d witb 
boJbg ahwlii)!, ami ihti tiiifiiirca are iilU're<l wliilo hntp The li-juid, 
»in cmiling, di>[)tkBJt8 uotluleB of liictncorin, coutnminutoi witli c^l-iuring 
nr.iUer aud bitftr piindplis from wliioh they maj bf purilH-d hy 
iv|A'alod cryatalliflftUtm from alcotol, willi help c( aniJAal diarcoal 

Ludwi^ treats llio IjicIiicaHiim with water, l>efofe eiliauelin^f it 
with almhol, and freGs ibe lactuct^nn from admixed bittor principle bj 
wft**bitig with wat«r. — The frceh miiky juice of iy/rri-rurrrirta dep-isitu, 
when iiiii.?fl ^^■it)i water, a white i;urdy idhpb, from wljitih alwihol 
exti-Etcls Iactuc<;rin, — Dry Iactuuiriiin:i yielda an much aa 53 p. a 

Projvrties. Slender, crloiirlpftB needles, united in Btelkte groapa, 
tupltiiig betwQPD 150" and 'iKKf to an amoqihcus mase, and Hohdifying 
to an amorphotiB traDsparoiit mass un cooling, loaelrcamof tar- 
bofuc ncid it voliitiljscs for the moet part undccom posed, SoztjIWb, 
leeS) iieutrtJ, and without actioD mi the auiinal urganiam (I^iidir). 


L a*u ..- 


ISO ... 

16 .„ 

-. Bi ei .. 
.«. loyi ... 

.... 728 .. 

.... 81-00 „- 
11-11 „, 

.... im ... 


.... eroa 
.... nil 
.... 7-51 

C"H>'0' ,.. 

lao ,„ 

.... IMMX) ... 

..,. lOO'OO ,., 

,... lOOW 

oUwr uia^TMA, Ludirig ft Ruit-blifill, ftmod from 1 to 6 p. & hut c&pbon, 
in ntjuffqueucp of inipurity of the hicL ai^eriD. 

IMcotnpo&tlTonB, Wben hentedt it partly creeps, nadeeompoeed, ap 


sidert iif the vphwd, and partly decomiKiWti, yicldiug a laigxr ([Uaa- 
of ai'etie aeiil (lA-nifir), When nnl>jet;ttti Ut dry diwlillaliim^ it first 

T(* off wiiite fumcft which coudetme to a tolourleBs ncid Itrjmd, tben 

vy, yellow Tapours- and a dark-cotourtd oil, whilo a timall quantity 

dtarcunl renLiLiiie<, No carbojiic acid or combustible gas iA evoltxd 

tht dt«jmp<JsiIion (Ludwij^). — L&etuceiiu diaboIv*.'s ijj oil iff t-iirio/, 

g a binwn inilnl.ii)n which cham when hcitled (L'l'lwi^r), — (t Is 

©red by c}'hr\hf gas {Li-'iioiry II<?ated ^vilh nrVnc ticifl uf ap. gr. 

diKHoIvcs, and leaver fu t"va[K>ration a yuUow rc'»*idiie, wbJeh is 

in aqueoutt aiikiuoaU^ and ta precipitated fixiiu the fetation by 

ir acid * Lndwig). 

Lvctueerin ta insoluble in icater. It is not altered by aqueoiiB or 
pot<Mh, and is not precipitated frcm its alcoholic eolutioiL by 

It 10 soluble in ui*:oftol, m cfAcr, and in oils boUj Jired and volaiiic 


X. Br. ArdL MA, X 
Lrvwic Jt Ekkatik. X .fl^. Artk. Ill, 1. 

1*1 n* Pi iMiilnriiiimM liifcMiitii i1 iiiili 1{ F^c/ 
**«f — *^, "■*< ■ ■ 1 * t*^Tr TTt*'*^g *** ' ' r'T i !" '**J-: and thorv«JdtK 
■iJlkT^iPwittooM wiUJto>|wJf aaii^japwawrii, whereby i^u^ 

•f kp—M asd lac t t g A- TU» nwdiw is Kik^l ii 
of water, aa kop aa the eilniU 
aMEM* tartty abumy iMAda ftanhai wlolo bcluTni 
ne autod aqwDoa eztncta, ovapant^^l tdl 
to Uf tbc w««kt of ^a hc to c ari wo <«i|Jojed, P^l^t^5 
to a giaBBkr aaaa^ wUA laaat be agpttattd fnim tv 
% iffiwMh tJ m hot waKj, aftJ nas/td with baifc aogttlgy 
Thap«ci|iiateiaTObedwTlblHitir&teT} hy^om^i^mk tM 
gm is paaaLJ tbic tW finate ; a^d lb« Bquid b agaa fitimdi •**P^ 
LAkd. mad Wt to itactf. Lactoda tbm crratalHMia oot after a«M 
a fiffiber qoaataj la <4<tant^ «i coac witt atiog Uw BwCJvr-to^ 
be pitraMlrrt«c97ata!^BtiiAhnab»tahnfacl, vith be^of 
cliaivoaL — fbe mo^et-hmon of tbe graoralar ««a, «ba 
fti3n BafaaUaccv ivedpttablebf balk aoeUt« of kail, tbnrfr« 
of lead, and rrafonted, yicid aa additional fmaotity of UcttCA 
al length notlung iniuuns bat naayttallinUft WtaaDpial&(b>^ 
'AEf«aa7«r). Thejk4dia abont-^p. aof the laiotq Mi 1att , orb> 
(Kpott^cO- — Wab ohaaata ptdrnised bctncarium with m «i» 
nature of aloobol and ^ oooontnted acetio acU i ail4fl a M* 
qnanlitj of vatrc, then ba^ aitetate of kad, as Inof aa a ^uj|W 
& tfapt«l)j |NTNliKvd ; aad vaahm this precj|ictatc with wrak aM* 
eoataioiti; aoetic add Tb^ filtrate, freed from toad by hjJuiifcifc'W' 
acid, tB avaootaud to dfyaaas at aboat 60^, aad ttn raridav ■ ^ 
hanatcd arjlh etber, from wbidi» <a evaporatknk, the Uctaria o^vtit 
Uko. It bt panfi^ hj aolDtioa id weak akiohoL oraimatkia. mm ^ 
^inlmiiin in ethi^r- ^Or ho pThAn>Gtfi ihp abnrv irmiii> with ahvM 
alcohol, M'vjiiirmlT^ iLiid trcaU with etb«r, nhkh tal«>a up the litf»^ 
LaJwigV by the ft>Dowta^ p ro o w a , obtained tactada, tu^iCbpr *w 
lua tactv^ oad: 

60 graauaea of Giidy ^mlvoneed laciocaniun an> tntomt^^^ ^^^ij" 
«qtia] fiaaatJty of dilute Hulpbarw add oontAiiung ^ uO ctf iil0»i 



400 gT^ alcohol of 84 p. c. is added t the liquid ie ehaten and filtered i 

the red dieb -yell fjw Hltrtik' agitated with cruml^led hydrntc of linie till 
A liltiTcd eaiiiiJe is nut reiidtitd liiilid, tilhi^r by bury ta- watt' r or by 
ox»Ih.U,' uf [totswli; the filtritli:! ilenili irised by animid diiiro>al ; tha 
greati-T pirt of tha nlcotiol distill*?*i off; and the n^nmiiLlng liquid 
evaponilGd. It tbeu di^f^^KitH n bruwiL ri^cid mass, ^hjcli muj bo 
wueLi'd with cold water and hcatt^d to boiUug with a largo i|uauuty of 
water. The litctuctrm. wliith theu eeiJtiratea in the fonu uf itHiu, la 
rernaviKt arid tlie ^rineoiiH t^ulutum In iLrj;hiriHt'd wllh liiiiiiiul dturo(.)al 
and ^vapcjrated, whoreapoii a mbtture of lactucin and latlucie add 
Ciyalalliflea out, to be separated by boiliu^' water, fmm which the 
tormcz cryetuiliHoa in &:alea> On evaporating the mother- liquora, 
loctudc iicid rtiuibiiLB, a» au aiuoiphoua Uglit-yellow loaee, which 
ay Btal 11808 after hm^ t^tacivliiig. 

Pmpertifs. r^actucm forms white scales hariog a pearly lustre, lite 
cnretalliaed bomtnc acid; m^Utiig to a colotu'k's^ luaes wbcii ht^at^ 
(Auber^ier, Ludwip), From very dil a to alcohol it crystal Urn; a ui rhombic 
tat>ica (Kromayer). ItH taatc is strongly aud purely bitter. Neutral. 

13 H 

7 O 




,. ffr-88 

^.. e'6s 


U -.„. . 













Luctucin ehars whoii hetitptl^ without eubliniiDg [Auborgier). — With 
oU of litrioi it tunifl browii (U'nla)i distiolveu ia cold oil cf vitriol* and 
biftdcena that liquid whta heated wiih it (LuJwigJ, The colourless 
AolnLioD. !f cautioiiflly hcatod, atwumea a fiae c:h(*rry-r<?d colour (Kro- 
iDAycr). — It is not altered by cold strong hydrocliloric acid^ but die- 
BolvQ9 iM it when hot, tho eolution uHBuaLiiig a rod eolonr, and ilcpomt- 
ing resin wbcii boiled (Krouiayev). — It is not nhered by nkt-ic uiid of 
in>,gr. r2i butij^ fee lui Bed by nitric acid of sp- gr. l-46(WalE), Strtmg 
nitric acid ditwnlvcs it wiliiout rahniuicjii (Kroiiiay4?r). Cavjttic iflknlU 
Slid iifn€-u'ater colour aipie<FUft Iflctucui wine-reel, the colour chong^iug 
ti> br<iwTi when the U<;|uid ie heated (Knmaycr)- — Lactucm trealod 
witb alkalie loeee iia bittcrneaa, which is not rcatored by acids fiVubcr- 
gwry — From an tdhdmc atpric miuCion it tlirowa down cuproiiB ojdde, 
and frrim nirniJf offlUtfr nuxeJ with cautttli; soda (not fr^in an acid or 
ftnuooaiacal ^Uvcr-sohitLon) it separalCH metallic silver (Liidwig). 

Lactaein is not altered by ivdinf-icalir,hyfan'icftceiait or fi^rochlorate^ 
or by accttxle o/ fetid^ either [jcutml or miiod with ammonia (Ludwig), 
It in not a coaju^t4?d sug'ur-compomid. 

LactucLu dissolves Iti fr<.jni fiO to 80 pta. colil, aTid in a BTnuller 
quuitity of boiling nfoter (WaU). It ia aearly inaolubla in cold water, 



loae Boliibli? In hfiilmg water thuo in etlcohot, and instAMe in <Cbr 

LiKtmic tiit'i. Pnrp^rnHan (p. ?77) ITiis a »tt\n\g and pcnUtcntlj 
hitler^ nnt Eour tRstt?, iiiid rctld^uB ItTmus, Tbt^ aqii^>ua ooliitiuatt 
ri?ddoiied by FhlkiLlts- It rcdace^ alkiUine ciipri^ solution &nd ujuo^H 
iiiiiGaJ Bilvi'i'-aitution at the boiling hent^ tIl^u^va down from [keul^^| 
acflut"? <if Icftd, ft white prcciiiitato 6t>hjl»lu iu I'.iceris (*r tUo lend-nli^ 
and frotti ferric JiceULe a whlLe prL-cipltaLc aulublQ in ftcetic add 

7^ot:/iicnprcnH. P«piinktioa fp^ 277). — TbelactacopJcrin rcin*iaili|f 
the mother- liquorfl is frv^^d frorn adnnxed laf^m'in and lajHncerin 
ether. — BroxFD, amorphane, very bitter masSf having th very 
add rcttOti'^u. S^dublo in water und alcohol, and Dot pr«<:ipita|«d 
biksio aci:faiii or \ct\d. Oontalne !iGfj'2 p. c- C., G'^^3 H., and 3C'35 0- 
cxfriL'api Hiding Ut the formuU C**n*\)", and in ihtit^fiire [«<*(hir<ni fnim 
lacluein by itefiinu|Jtion of water and oxygen (Kronmyer, I>i«B^;Unt(^ 


SALM-Hon^MAtt. P<Hjg. 100» 007 ; N. RtpvrL 6, 359,— /'ogy, lOT. 3JTi 

RoCBLEDEn. W'lOT. Jt^irf. B*r, 40, 37; CAm. C*»fr. 1«60, 4JJlj Jf- 
^^pffT/. U, 40(J J J. ^r. CAffm. 80, 173. 

Obtained from fraxin by iKiilinp witJi dilntc ncida. perhaps aim ty 
diy distiliati'ai. Sahu-UnrBlnmr hoals I pt. by weight uf fraun inili 
4 pta> by mcatiurc of dilute sulphoric acid contaiumir h^tf its TidomiF 
of oil 01 vitriol, whcrcopoQ fro^clia dcparatoa from the solution tft^ 
& fe'tr DjJnateB, 

Properiics. The yclTtiwUh crywtatfl of bydraW Trnxctin (■«« NIm) 
are cnnvertiKl, between lOfi' and U'O'. int^ while anhydrous fnv-'i" 
(Itochledor). — It rnollaal about 230°,withonl liirniuu; brown, an<J' ' 
tics in the cn'ittalliiie Tunn. ^Its tagtn ie v«ry tiTi^htlj utni'^'^^-'- 
li^odnruus, Ihe contVEilruUrd huL uipit'ons auIuliLm ua» an ^ 
reautiou (Salui-Eliii-HLmai). 

af ISO*. iriohlaia. 

» C .«-^...-^ IfiO M-EB M-lfl 

11 H.— ^>.,.«,...- IB -^ a-73 _ ao 

10 O ^ 1i9 Jt^QO ,..^„-, «>U 

C^H"«C>» UO - lOm© lOMO 

CSmfc'Mfi^'u- — With Wt\tfr^ — Ih/droud /Wrvfia. — . Onlov^ 
fyillowiah, ftcoonjin^ tn Roohl<>dorJ tr&QBpftreot li«ftdl««f Md flmJ^ 
kaian. ficni lolutioa in alcohfjlitsoiAntMtnooaliDs b ' 



rectangular, rhombic, ftnd Hix-aido J tublee ; by spontaneous evaporatiOTi, 
in larffrr tnblcs probably bcloa^iji^ to tbo rig-ht prisraatic system 
(Salm-IIorstnoflr'). — Btlow 100'' it t'ivee off l"3fi p. o. water (li "» ™ 
40& p, c- nO) (Ri-i(^hlt'(lLTj. 

Frasetin dirtriiilvi»rt in 10,000 ptfl, of cold, and in 33 ptB, of bofling 
uvft^r. — It disBolvcB in oil ofvitriai^ with brigbt yellow coIouTt find may 
be predpitalei from the aoUilion, aftor Jibition with Tvater, bj ammouJa* 
It disaolres witb yellow colour Eq warm htfdi-ovhltji-k ackl, and 
crysUillisefl out on nioliug'; witli mtric acid it funnH a dark vhlei aciltj- 
tion, charging: thniiigli garnet- and ri^ae-red to yellow, and ul lima tely 
becoming c^^lourlGsa (Salm-Horetmar). 

Its a-iucoua Hobition m colonrod yellow to orou^ by Gmmcnifz, also 
by alkaliuc carboaatea, and yields a brown prt^dpitate. The solution 
of frasetiu iufl(|ueoiifl sidfihiit of ammvnia is tuinei yt;llowby sniTiiimb, 
^— The h^'drattd of thpalkalino earrh» imirKTa'^d in asfhlutionof fraxetin 
become cuvfrod i-vith a red iO|>oeitj wliich, witli baiyfa anil atrootia, 
t>eCom<^ blact-pT^^<'i» with lime and maiptaiiz browniah. The car^ 
bonatet of the aVculbie earths colour the tiohttjun of fraxctia yoUow* 
and then throw down a |in!i'iji[l.-itt, exIiibitLEi^ a ^reen fltiorehct^mu!, 
and inaolubic in walpr. — Fraxctin ct>louTa atv^un^ of bart/ta and tu-ftnte 
q^ #*r<jnfra yellow, changing to greeu on ovap^jrutioTi j from acetaU of 
cadfuttf/i and acetate of hatl^ it throwa down lomou-ycllowprocipitatoB. 
Ita wrliitaoQ, niised with a very aiaall quantity of ft^trt'c hiidrochtoroi^ 
assumes ^ ilark grecnirih blue oolour; witli acttate ofsiivrr li fifima a 
black preoipitate, difftiring in appearance from motallic silver (Salm- 

Fraxf^tJn dbBoIvca in alcthot much more abntidantly than in water, 
4Uid j& aliijhtly 8i>lublc in warm ttfier (Salm-Iloratinar). 

Glueoade of Fytrretm. 

SaUM-nQRanUB, Fo0</. 97, 637 j further Poffff. 100, G07 \ N. R^teH, 

fi, ai>3;abslr.J./"-.CAnF», 71,350; ChcitK CWr, 1857, d*2,— Ajg. 

107,337jX;ir. Cfinri. 78,305; N, liepert, % SyC. 
SvoKlts- Chem. Sff^. Qi../. 1), 17; J. pr. Chem. 79, 115; iV. Rcpert. 9, 

398, — C'ftnn.^c. Qf. J. J2> 1^6; nhetr. AV^/i'j JnJirah. 1^59, 578- 
BocfUJ^DLit. P^.Ti/. 107, 331; X ;"'. CA^^. 78, 3G6.«WTct, Aka<L 

Brr. 4{), 37 ; Ch^. Ccntr-. 18G0, 4«1 ; J^. RepirU 9, 100» 

j^ttftta^L. GmpUn tAnn. Fkam. 34, S&li) Bomc yean Hgo obinrpd the fiiuj- 

moat prnpntx of umiinit Db(aiu«H Irimi a P|tccio of JVaji^iimu, but attributed the 
pniiaT^ lo nculiii^ — Fm«iu ww disco^^ed by SidiaUoretmBr— Kelltfr'a Frtuinim 
T^nwi, ^ 33B), obttinad fro™ Prct-tiiuw e^Ofhtvr in tbe B4JDe muiiiDru u3]i<xd from 
witffrw-Wk, mM *ho«Ti hj Roebleder A Wobwnrt ( B'rf*. Aknii. Ber. 10. 7li) and hy 
AtsuboUM {Aim. J'Aarpi til, HltS) to bo nttihing but mftTimto, — On Moiiolinni 
JViMfm-fji, HicpiirgaTiTH prinrLplP of ashkaK*, BftJ Pflorm. Tlffrtt^. 3, 433. It !■ 
lOHJtjrtiflirrM i_ »ae1 wu uut ubLatoid puiv> 

Ia tbe bark of JVaahuj $vjeiaor (Saha-Horatmax:), ol 

380 PrtlMART SVCLEUa i^W; OXTG£^-^UCLEV3 C"H»0»- 

Aesevlm Paoat anil Aa. /F^rpac/tManmh ua well fts in the bark of^Btid 
spccjofi of t^9«ame geat^Ttt (Salm-HorsUnar). J 

Prfpnr<Jti"n. A. Frtin Ifitr/K-cfifim>tt Inrk. — ^1. The bark a 
eihaimtt^l w)tb Al<xtlio1 of ^b° B. ; tlie Gttmtc ifi ptvcijMtntfx] «til 
]\T] sLln>}ii>[uT Hotutton of m'utrul octtalr! tjf li^iJ; and thr jkri^ijiilj 
IB wimhf'd vnih akf'hnl and di,'<Nim|ir~)M^ iiiidr^r wuf4>r by hydi 
enL]fburic acid- The* liqajd Blt(-rcd rrtim Ihe eulLittido of l^ad, 
cvnporatcd lo dtyTi(?eR iu vacuo ovt^r eulphuric acid; I he residue 8 
tritui'iitf^ with a email quantity of wattT at ^^ i tl^e solution of tani 
add iLurtliy oblftHK<i is iciHOved tj rapid filtraciou ; aoJ the cryut 
whicli rt'fTiiiin an- wartlipil with ico-cold water, aud dried in a vacat 
bt a tciup^i-acurL' below lOO" (^Rochlodier). 

2- The otyoXa] decoction of hoTRe-chesnul bark is miiod wilL 
annei^iw solution of a feme eah, which is added by nepanile pirtw»Ti^] 
tllL ttte Qocka ptr>diic«d in asampEeof th« hqmd ou flddttir>fi of amin^nil 
BOllle rapidly down, loaviug the supcriLal^ut li«|UJd of a pun} yell' 
colour, and strongtj fluon-ao^nt. The whole ia tlieii predpitatLnl 
iimmoula, dud ilm liquid filtered; one-fourth of thts filri^te \a uuk 
with a i^|UEiiifity of neutral aeelattr of lead auffitieiit to pniri|ifT*le I* 
whnle o/ it, tbtn with eiifficienl neotie or uitrie and to re-dijwj>1vi» tl 
prec'ipilate ; the romainm^ three-fonrtlis of lbe£]lrate are tikijvrji 
ffcciiiidated; and the two liquide nre mixed* Froin thu in'jd »kflu!ii 
UiuM prepared, contaiiiini^ ^vcetnle of lea^J. ammotiia thruwii down 
precipitate coitf^diiinir friixin, from which tlie fmxin inay \n} i.AtUaa 
in iLo cn'*tallieeii »ia.w, by diesolving it out with wtio *u'id, 
leaving the tiltratc at reet (Sloken). Thi' Clliai*- frrwd fmin Uk l-nA-voaiptu 
ot fntxin jitill cuntniiu ii;sralm (p. Itl) whir'h inAjbe prvcip^t^tcd b* bvoe 
uf h'ad] KnJ aDpunt^d from thii pFA^ipLtnta in thft ums maium ■> fikua &IB ll 
iHd-LVDipoiind (SlukeaV 

B, FrVm the bnrknfthf AsIt-tr^iFrajitttu txcMffr). — Tho docr^tkn 
of the hark ci>lleeted iu uijriu^ when ttio Iret is lu flowvT, and dried, if 
prtxTijiitnted with nt^ntml fta?tHie of lend ; llio liquid fillenni tl»en.dffBu 
is pTeoipitflted hy basic utt^tate of lead; ami the lail^T nn«cipit*rt 
prcf'H.'d aiul d'.'C'jEiipt.sed un^ler water hy hycirnrtidiJiurio add. 
pidfiliide oF l<j:ad ib lemoved ; the fillmle evafKfratcil to a flynif* i"'< 
the watcr-hafh ; and tin- tTys^tjils ^ fli"pjin*t*^ iifler 24 li"urs 
(ToUeeteil, wanhid wirh wiiter. aw I on;^ as the liquid whioh mmii 
exliiliil^i a whitiuli EuiUidity, ll)i>n wiih a vrnLtll quUhlity of tUoolioL 
puriticd by rucry«udLmk(ioit (Salm-Ilortitritur). 

Propirtifi^, Hydrati*d fraxiii forms tuflw of tippdl™, 
slander fonr-F^iilfrl pri»mn,haviti]^a daKzlhi^ trlulecj-tlonr. wiThal!n|EV| 
Mdphiir-yellnw (Sjdiri'HoraLuiar). From a liol unliirwlod aijIwCioa 
DhHiJiite fttc'ifiol, it wcparatefl i^iii eo--tlm>^ in oi^lotirletrt prystftls, re^^mU^ 
those rj HulpWi' of Kiiic* and not turnin^^ yi'liow when dry <to«l>" 
leili-r). InoiluroLjs, IhiH a ^li^hlly hitler and i;>HfLr»j^ijt EajiU<* !■ * 
V4.'ry dilute a<|Oeona or Lkleohnlu.* Briliifloii, i«r<|M'i'ird]y \t ll miilvtf* 
trwee tif amiuooia or fixed alkali* it exliihita Ly diivliifbl i biw <* 
hhiiflh'ifr^^rii tIiiiin'*?'"iYue, which diaoiipvarc on addition of fc^ 
(:^«lm-JI'ir^tniLi[. SloW), 

(JryHlalliw.^il fraxiii dried iu vacuo ftt Ujmpuraturca bulow lIC, *" 



retina I at. wator? Hmtwtiicli Las been dried between 110° and 113' 

coiUftiiio no water (RocUludcr), 

S4 C .,., .,„ 32* fil-oa 61'ia 

31 H .-.„- 81 „ 4-S8 S-e7 

85 O „ ESQ 4i-10 -.. 43-81 

C»H»Ny,HO „,. flaa .,„ lOlKJO lOtHJO 

Brinw™ 110" a™j liar 

fi4 ,. BZi 51-R6 

30 H ao 479 

&* O S73 «-BS 

.. 6161 
. 4'7fl 
., 4360 

CH**0» 6Ee imOO -.,. 100-00 

Thu formiilft uIduj? — Dot ttiL> fannulft O^^IT^O'' ibnnoriv propoac^ br Tt^ohl^ar 
[op C«n='0* h? Wunc {>. Clw.pUTi-1, 47a}>-agpraffl with the quMitiLiflHofmgaf 
oblAintd by the dfCfjinpoiiiUou of miflu. 

Decompo^thm. 1. Fraxia hetxtfd to 330°, g^iyCB off water, and 
mellH to a red liquid, wliidi mtluUn*.^a oji i^juliiig-, to an aiuor|"boua 
fluscre^I mnsB, a'tiiiibl'mg to n croniii-fvilourf^d |K>iA\lerT pi"oh;ibly fraxetin, 
when water w jiouitd upon it» ar^d disBolriiig' with yoUnwiab red 
colour in alkalino water (Kt^chlcdcr), Ori appljinR a pironger heat, if ritm 
off Ob odour of burnt sugar, to^clhi^r ti'ir h i^hltf? fuiuiH v-hjch i>oiic]cuBU tu ciyBliiUinii 
drcvpi, ^n^y lolublfl in w&ttir, and br-CdiniDg ti^IIow tnd fluonufc^t whm ihntcd 
witn Bt^ueonA nnunoriiB. If ihe heal bci continuod till iLOtlung but eharcohl ivrDoiiu 
■ brown inli yriluw (IrtjHJHiMs pmduPMl, whioh, whnt TinHslmuii with wn-iur, yjddi 
uyil&b, ipfuhjbW in wftivr, but sulubtt m nlcohol (Buhn-IlorBtmiir), — .2. Fra.xill 
dissolxTtJ ill wutor, is reaolv<?d by boiling wltli dilute acidfl into fraietin 
and crytftaUi^ablc eiigar* of which Hub^taiice fraxiii not quite pure 
(? bydiutcJ) yi^liie 54 p. c. (Eochlodtr). 

Tb* wJtuktdd quuitily Jop ftuhydiMo* frnxin U67'2 p. fl. * fot h^dntcd, Mi-ypP- 

ComirtH'iti'itiM. Froxin diflsolvca in l,tiOO pts. water itt H'*, easily in 
hot waUjr. — It \e tolnuicil aiilplinro'ellow by oil of vitrit'K alao iii 
at<ouH Buluiiuu by anifitoniti^ aijd by tbf Ajcc/ alLnffH or Mnline car- 
est: fJio crystals Hn* altJo coloiirt^d yellow by annnoniH ^^ (^alm- 
Horetmar). In 3-|iieoTiB snlutioa it C"i>!<'iurri nf^utral ov ba^c mi-riue of 
/wJ yt*Ilow, without procipitjiliou. With an aranioiiiftoal et^lutiou of 
neutral aix'titc *>{ load, it fonna a yollow precipitate ; and by digestion 
wilh hydrated lead-oxide, yellow crystiilDue sjjhtTUles. — It does not 
jirK'ipiiatf/crrnw itufpfitiU, but when added InRiihxthiattf firric tfi/nriiic, 
it firtft tv.'Ioura the liquid gi"oou, and tben fonurt a lemon-ydliw pieci- 
|iitatL'> ' — It doi>B not proJuoo jiny turbidity in eolulioa oJ cupric (tc^UiUf 
tarrar-fmctii, it fftlalin fSaim-IIorHtmar). 

It diw4i"lvtH* Hpariii>;ly in i^uld, easily in bctt alcofml, but is iusolublo 
In efW (Sulm-Hnrstmiirj. Arrording to Sloltes, r>ii t])(^ fjdifsr baud, it 
IB more aohible in ethor than ib»jcuUu, forming i\ Quorescont nobitidrj, 
fTDia which it may bo extracted by water, — It is precipitated on 
laumt! charcoal iiuincTBod in its aqueous aolutiou (Sulm-iioL'stiuar). 


(PN'H*' - C»>'H", IP. 

E, J. MiLtfl. Chfm. Soc. J. U, 1; Ann. Pharm. i25, 71; Ob*? 
Ccnfr, 1962, 700, 

Till. iLil, I5£, — Mtlli conQrma (ho fLH^nuU g!rciL by Sleahoonei wliicb. hovncr^ 
Wfl im\ lure aoti» tlic raecnt idvohIi 

in ToL Eiii- 

iDvDHli£>.daiu rcopHEtiEig it {Kr}m 


PrcparaUcns. The plant le exhanated with water contain 
Bulpbiiric acid i tho solaLian is ooQceutrtitcd i tho residue distilltMl v 
flodii-ley ; the dietilhtc evnporatcd to dryncaa, after bcinp acidTibtM 
witli hydixx^itui'ic aoJd{ tho ri^aiduc uLbied with put vr'ii lijilraio 
of potash; ftiid tht' al>g'hl.l^ moiflli^iieJ mixture distilled, whereupoa 
fttumonia cacapeti and ^partem passes over us on oil. It ia dcfa^dnl«d 
by proEon^'d beatjng with bodium m & currcut of hydmgcu (whicb ^H 
tWonljwtij of dehydrtmgitooinpicK'ljJ, and roctifietl ptfT M — lUO Ibv| 
spartiuin yield 2^ cub. cent, epaituin. 

It ciiiituuiii (aa found hj SieiihrtiiBOi xiiL, ISS), 76'S6 p. C- C^ *^ 
ll'*5 H., Bgrtieiog wilh the formida C^S'H* C«slo^ i«l 16J)- 

From its bchavLour to iodidi; of otliyli with which it fomia ctbjl' 
ftod biethyl'Bparlciiie. it appcara to bo a l<;rtinrj' diaraioe (C"£1*)"'N', u(« 
a ttnn|X)und cones ponding Lo 2 at. ainuijuift iu wbiili the gri>up oi 
BtomR CH^ pla^H the pait 4>f 6 at. hythu^^'U, aiid cotivcrtihhv fcj' 
fteaiimption of I at. C*H' niid 4 at. water, or lyf 2 aL C*U' ftod 4 »t 
wati>r, ijito conijiounds, oach of which oorreB|>onds to S at* h/dniod 
oxide of aiiLmam;im. 

Sparteine /orDieamorptoufi rcffinousBnlts with Aj/rfnixiii:, h^fttro^mnK, 
and ht/fli^chlon'c ticids, 

iodottJieaie ofSpariiint C'°S'U^.'2in,2Zbl is obtained on inixiQ^tbc 
eolutiotm of hydnc^date of epart^'ici tuni iuiiide of miC| ici elcudiir uociHeSt 
which nuickly turn browti whcr exposed to the air, Oontuiu 0J'99 
p. c, iodinij M*=' Ci'^'a f- r- ^^ 

Chlarozintaie of Sj^irut'ie. Beautiful wUto needles., sometimca hiK 
ftn inch longj moderiitt'ly Jisird andltiatroni*. 

Cftioroa'trata of Spctrtemc (liii. 153). CfjutoiuB 32*18 p. C goU Ik 
foimula C"N'II^2naAn01', requiring S^'S? p. c. An. 

Thi- platittum~9'itt \iViA the ci^mpoeitiOD given at uii. IM, L— Tbs 
oraf^poryfitaUiBL's in ii<!L'dlcfl. 

C«N»II" = C"N'H"Ct.'*n'),H'. 
Hills, ^nn. Pharwu 125, 7^ 

Wlieii a uiiitnrD of cquiO volumeA of ftp^rteine. iodidd of <tt yl^ 
alcohol ia healed to 100" for na houTi a wk-coloorad Uqijd ia uriDti 


whi<!h dopopjta cryRliila, These, when purifiodb^ waBhiTie'"witli rniti, 
atid reoystalliaalioii fn-nji wmui alcoljol coiiHist of bydrituJatoof etbyl- 
eparltfiDf. Thi?ir lu^ufmiy «*.>liitio[i is dtTnrnpjsed by aside of silver, 
yielding a fllrfnigly iilkaline Hohilioo of hifdrofed eth^l-spnrtiine. 

This cttkaUDf? solution heatodCo lOO'^ with rW/i^ j^ ^rAy and aloobol, 
yields bicthjl-Bpftrtoinc,wbicb ivmaina mixed with iodiiic,ou cruporftUng- 
the liquid. 

Ififtlrivdtite of Eth^i-^iartpiae crjafalbseB in long radiating needles, 
It tfl not decoiDpOBed bj boiling potnsh-loj- 


a* 204 _,.,. 89-39 ^ 39 BO 

a N ^.__.„H^ as 6'H> 

B9 H,.-^_ -.„ 33 ..„ 6-ia S13 

HI ,-.- 164 --,. ♦901 «■<» 

C»'i'^»tC*HVai- ' 618 100-00 .,>_.,., 

Hydriodatc of ethyl-spBiitine is decompneed hj vhhrxdc of tUva-t 
Willi funjiatiiHi nf bydiTjcblnnLte of ftliyl-aiKirLE^inp, wbidi cryptalliBpa 
in needles^ and f^rraiH a crj^JtalliHaLK'donble salt with chlariiitof tine. — 
Hjdr<>clilorale of t'tliyl-epiirftuio, njiteU ia the cold wtlh ti'M/tpriifc o^ 
p^tin^tinf fonna <:hluroplfirin/Jrte i\f cthtfi-aparlcine^ Ufi a acmi -cry stall in e 
precipiUtc, aolubJo in water, afcohiH) and eapecjaUy in liydrocbluric 

Onr oil of viMtl MiUi. 

C»*irH"a» ___^.___^ i77'0 ™„.- 7074 , 

aPt .„. iii7-t seac so-i? 

c»K'n"icn»)>aoci.2Pici» 67*1 iockw 


Mnxa. Am. Pharm. 125, 76. 

When an aqueouB aoliiiion of ethyl-Bpurtpine ib heated for Bome time 
to 100" in & PcaM tube, with nlcohul und iodide of etbyl» and the 
ootttents of lUe tube nro eubsoqutntly cvaiioratud in a strcftiD of hjdro- 
ftniphuric acid ^^s, hinlr'indt:iU of hicthfUparifiint rctniuoa, and may he 
obtttinod \u abort eryntida by cryntiilliputiim froin alcohol. Fi'iim tbiA 
compound, in tht' manner nlreacly dcscril^ed fore thy l-spart^'iini, maybe 
obtauu'd aipicoua bi/rtftitUparteinf^ and the hifdrvchlo}-alt and chlvrof/afinfife 
9f butk^lijKirtdnc. The laat-mentioned salt is pale yellow, acparatcsfrom 
weftkalu^bol ui radiating; cryblula, ift eaeily sohiUe in water, ttndiaonly 
partially pTctipitflttd by elber-alcobn]. It omtaiiiH 28-1)4 p, a- plat inum, 
liirrecliis approiiinatcly wilb the formula 0"N'H*(C*Il7.2HC],FtCP 



Cimicic Acid. 

CiJinjs. Ann^I^firm. Ill, 147; abstr, J, pr. Chaiu 81, 398; ZdLachT. 
Ch. PAornu 3, 165 ; Ctuim. Coiir. 1360, 6«J7- 

OccurmM. In llm grcyleaF-Lu^, Rhtij^asier pun efy w in i i , diiofijb 
a carilj of tht^ abdomen frumwhich tb<3 ammda ejiMSl ui oEFeufijrc liquid. 

Prtparatioa, Tbo ineccts killed by immcmiou La strone vJo^ol, 
loactbiiir odour when loft for several diye b au open TG««el &bJJ SUeJ 
wiUi alcrbol, Olid yield bi that liijiiH « hmwn rvain. Tbt* adhvnnf' 
alcohol js luft Ui i?i'a|jorate ; the inm-otfl ary oniehcd \\i % mortar, ul 
exli^uet&d with ether^ and the titbcroul solution m evnjHimtcd. Frcm 
the remmiib^ brown oil, which tioiiililioB lii the cMjId. a biiryfA-s^tt* 
pfDparL-d, which, whcD waalied with wuIlt and dilute aloJioI, jud 
detwiQiMfloJ bj hydrij(;blorJc acid, yifldn cimicic acid. The prt^Jact 
thus obLihied in washed wiih w^irm wntt'r, drk-d by chloride of Cftkdam, 
aud [oetly liltcred and ;;rykjtaiUaed from etbor, 

Prop^rtit^. C^lourleee needl^ arranged in Bt«llat« groQpe, milling 
at 43'@ — 44^2*'i aud exliibitiug Uie Hiimu temperature tvhon eclidifie^ 
Lig:ht(?r lliflii water. — Ilaa a rtry /uitit rancid odour. The aloobolic 
BolutioD hod oil add [^action. 

Z>rvJ ofrrr t^e ioattr^aih. ■»■», 

30 C ,.... lau 7fi-00 7*« 

as H aa ii-e? „ ii-7« 

« o sa la-aa u-is 

C^H»0'„» WO 

100-00 ._. lOlMW 

Be1t>iiE» to the olmo htua Not dvcompoEfiblQ b/ Hi^iDU^p hioUhh] of fncljiBiJ 
prwipiliLtiija ^xr, 4S)- 

Decompotitionfi. By <^rv tUxlt/ltiiion it yiehU a lai-f^'^ iinantilyof p«> 
and an oil which st^lidifice on cooling, and appeare t-^ c-flilAin a porlio* 
of lliP Yiiirtltcred ftciX With pruUifMrinttfi tyf jihorphtjrt*M It fi>iin» 
chloride of cimicvl. Hy fnmiig il, with fii/ilrare of jHftmK aod dtslillin^ 
the product with sulpbnrio ucid, a dmlillate is nhiaini-d contAlBbf 
ADctic acid, aud a residue iroiu which dri>p« of oil eeparal^i 

TnBo]nL>h" iu rf<iter, 

lyvQcitnicixm hav<j the coini>oeition C"I1"M0'. Thtfaolutkukaof bt 
allChlino RultR fnith like Roaj>wiil<}r, aud arc )ircci[ut»tod by conoSBlnl'd 
aokliona of bydraio ot jxitaah, hydrate of uoda, or O'lmmoti mIl TW 
alkaline dmicaleB fomi clear flolutionH wilb a mulII quantity of vrsM. 
but are rendered turbid by a large quantity. The c^liwr aalto l» 
Inftolabia in water and in fitcubol. ftud witb liio excdptieu of Ifao W' 
BAlti Mewieo iiiaolnble m tther. 

Ciifikait of FtAtuk,— A Bolntioa of dmicic idd in tUdtite tko^ 



is mixed wflh a eliffht oiccpa of hydrate of potash, and carbonic acid ia 
paMed into the BulatioD, tJU the alkahne rcactiou djsaj>|n^arb, after 
■which tlio hijuM ifi filu;ri<l mid evaporated- — Amorphous hjgroacupic 
iDa«8. MeltH when heated. 


t^B^o* ....- asfro aft-91 ,.„-«.H.> 

K.-,. 90S U-09 ..-..-.». 14W 

(FFTKO* « .,. E7S'3 


Cenicat^ of Soda. — Prom a solution of the acid in dilute aoda-lnj-, 
this salt ifi preciptated, on nddition of strongs a^jda-ley, in ^riLniilar 
mBHsea. whirh mny he jmrifiori b^ prcHBiire and solution in absolute 
alcobcl. Tho filtpflle, on cooling, depfieitd the greater part of the 
salt in thick tiateaT the rcet, on further cooUuf^, an a grartulnr jolly. — 
The salt, when dry, forme a white aoap. It ia pcnnonent in the ajr» 

at 100". Cuiuj. 

^ £S9 01 M 

. Ea e-73 SM 


100" 00 

Cimicaiv of Baiyta. Pn't^ipitatrd fiom tlie fiolution of tfie Boda-ealt 
in dilnle aleohol. by djinrido of barium, [ii whitP curdy CakeR, which 
are somewhat aoLuble in hot water, and hake together in drying. 




259^3 .... 

. „ 68-e ,.,.. 



O^fPTBaO* „ 

,.„ 307-6 .^. 

...... lOO'OO 


CiJiiKota of Lime. — Obtained like the baijta-ealtT which it re* 


C*H^O" __™ _.,„ Bsg - aaw 

Oa ..,. ,.,„ BO ,... r7a M..,- TS8 

t^Hs'OiiO' „ 359 lOCHW 

Cimicah of Lead. — Wliito fi'^rks^ wliich dry up to ayelhiwiah mass, 
not f OBiLle without decomposition. Somewhat aolublo iu etiier. 


...... 69-76 .«.. 

3035 — . 





... - 29'47 


lOO'OO ... . 

aimi(^f. nf SHvpr. Wliite flookfl, friable when diy, Bocomea di^- 
coU)ured on eipoau« to light, and black at a temperatuie bolow iCKr- 

t^lHPO* ..« 239 GS'SS , 

Ag loa aiii ai'*3 


Cimicic acid djHBolrea with difficnlty in absolute akoM, m tU 
portious iu aher, cry^laliiejug frum the taller aa it cools. 

Cimicate of Etbyl. 
C"H^- = CB'O,C"rP*0», 
Ci^nra. AroLPkarm. 141, 154. 

CiWncf^Afr. Cinuy/rwi^r, — Obtaiued bj beatmg cbloHde of dmcy] 
with aJcobol Tor k oujLEsiJc^r^bli? tiuio, urecifKlriLling xh& aotntioiL 
water, and drying over chloride at ca-lcium. 

Light jellow oil, ectlidifyiuff ftta few degrees below 0*. Ug\t\ 
tbau water, i^mclls stronj^*r thao the add- — Tanin bf>>wn whca 
Btionglj htated. Decomposed by alcoholic poCti^. Soluble iu oicuLW. 


B4 «.. ._.«-„ AM „_» TGia _„,.» 7C^1 

SE ff „.™« Sa ll'M ll-« 

4 0-^-, -^.^ -■ aa 31-i* ^ igu 

0«»0,C^^O" ™ Ma lOHW ^ lOCKlO 

Chloride of Cimicyl 

C^CIII^U* = C"C1H",0'. 
'jucins- ^tm. Pfiana. 114^ 154. 

Cimicic flcitJ in contact with pcotachlnride of phoRpfaonui^ gm^fM 
hydrotlxlorie acid gas, becomc^n wnmi, and iii convened into a (»loll^ 
leas lic|iiid- This, when trcttled wilh water, ^ivcs np chJor^phoHpbone 
aeid. while cld'>Hde of cinaicyl Teniiiiiis undiKsolved, 

Coloarlei4H oil, AiJtdifymg to a riun-oryt^ulliiii' eii&fs at ahmt \te 
Home tecnperatura ne i^itntdc acid, — It h uot pertvpiiMy uUei^ ^ 
wjiter, but is deirempout^d by polaj/h^Uif. Witb ak<M it tetioa cisuoc 

Soluble Intther. 





cj"ii"0" = c°ii"o^^ii*o*. 

Chkvmul. Ann. Chhn. fl2, 53, and 126 : Schw. 8, 221 and S72. 

O. L. Em>MAMif. J. pr. Ckept. £6^ 193; Ann. Fharm. 41, 391; for'. 

JaAr«i. 23» 479- 
F. Leclamc. 2>uwwss, Traiteth C^iink apjtfiquce atix arfn. 8. 107. 
0. Hkme. -7, pj'. Che^it. 75. ai8;abHtr_ rAen'. C-^wfr, 1859, 278; ffi^> 

CTfln,j>«r*, 1, 191, — In detail and with addiiioTjfl, Ann. I^tann. 100, 


jftfmadiH (Cterwrni). c*iy*Arfrtio/iiM? (Lcbltna) — Discovefcd by Ohevreal s 

obtALIlL^il puTfiby Erdma.iu], — PreiMor'n alatomcutj nupn'Un^ U (ffpr, frvjU_ 
18.40; abitr. J,pr. CApw^3^, 135) ivore aot cuQAnnf d bj Bulla; {Am. FJittttit. 62, 

0«7U7TCTice. In Irtg^wfindj ffJJ7^/a/fl2i//fm canipo'^ianum^ { JlftnVni^fi,vm^ 
J^Kyfodbrn. H] {QLevmiJ). Ti]fli?hi>iiuichuT fatiail in I^tTwonil jl r'r;k'iil4klUiio inau; 
6chikt2?uWgaT' & Par&f rmjiid in the *a\i in v^hicli ihc vitnh^l nu kejit. lunK iiwdlca 
yf hfftiiatoijLiiir — ifrai-^« r>litA!ji<-d bj ChoTreuJ fji*-. C^^™ ^tIj, £2fl) rroin Per- 
auabui>o vood (finm Cir*aipiiieo ec^iimfti). And BraAit-vnDd (frDm Cfsj^ t^ticaria, 
C- Suprm ujd T- "nj'i) ( H^itdbmcKt toe. eiU 9) nppoiLn (o b« Lmpuro hjcia&UiijJm, 
kAd, lUmrdiTia ^o ^'liiitponborgL'r A FarflJ, bchmvda like hannBrorf iin when hmtod 
wilb unfUi^nA. On Ihc iVkctiOTLi nf tha dpi'ootkin of Ppmiimhiir") uoa<l» vce Bofii- 
dnrCr (-4»ii, TAim. Phys. IS, 2Sa ^ P^rAirr. 35, 329) nnd FLcLicli [Zeitichr. Fhjf*. MitlA. 
10, «6)- 

JVcjiTira/MrB, From tho dry eomiiLDoul extnet of kgwood. The puT- 
veriBtil rstract ib mist' d with b lar^t* "lUnntLly of eand, drpiicheri with 
5 or 6 voIb. of othf^r (containing water : Tifiisf\ left to utand for eev&ra) 
days, aucJ frci]i[Qnily apituted, the eolulion thon domntod, and the 
idue Hcvcial limos fnibjcctcd tn the eamo IrcRfrHont. The brownirth 
ijw fiolutions are distilled (to recx^'ec the ether) till the reHidne has 
>TiirHynipy, whrn-ufn^Qitisiniied wilh wAt^^r, and !oft t4* cry wtiil lisa 
in n loosely corered vi'ssH, The crystalB, of whfch tht mothi-r-lrquor 
jrielde an additional quantity, are washed with cold water and preftscd 
(Erdmftnn)i they may hn obtained uoIourlcEs by recryBtallieatiou from 
watei coQtainJi]^ a amall quantity of nulpliurouB acid (Leblanc], bisul- 
phite of Binnimiia, cir bism|Jiiteof aotlii (ET<"ftBf?). 

BopMilJiig Eiie fDrnintioa cf crj^tuH. ko aIh th^ bohaviDiiT of h/BmHloTj-lin Uj 
irmtBT-— '1 Ibi vttnct of lo^ood jiddfl from It to £ ui- of crjDtaJB vt iiEmiiotylia 

pr<mcrtiti. The hydrated crystals become anhydrouH when lieated 
\iy lOrt* — 120*, but do not melt at that temperature, provided the water 
bo dmen off alowly (Erdmaan, Lebltuic). — Tneto, very mncli like that 
oC li4U(jric*3 1 'veiy persiatent i not at all bitter or aatrin^nt (Erdmann). 
Rotatorj power of the aqucuuii solution^ to the right ; \a\j about z^ 

niMAST XUCUflK^l"; OXIGK^:«UCLffCS C^aoQ". 

u n 
u o 






anwlHw«r4waviv,«kcli«H g wf id by 0*fluidt IIjb^bijNu ^ 
tn be j eMhI to 1wnai«n ia ih« hbb wntfr ■* wMntg %a l«nftaeBWV «rJ 

jtnarpftom 0<mdiia:gr&i. — X aoioiioa of ctytlaltSfl^d Ivcmftto^' 
ID Bi^Dcoua fajpMutpliite of ooda depoMta amorpboiM bicfiistaix;r1ui 
CootiA^- — Oil drof!^^ iatn a Bolutii^D of luemjitoiTlin in aqactjoi 

borax tC**^ bcJo«->^ or EA Bciueuiu buodic phcH|dia&«l JL COIIOCIltmE^Mt VJMtW 

BoluUi'D of cUoriiJe '»f eodrnm, fv of dhlcnife of pcitaHiua, chLtfUt t^ 

■mnoiuum, rrr frrrof^Didv of pcUHom, boi eio< of r«Aciiuteftf moA^ HilphaWc^ 
BTjdo, or oukLc q( |ftiUili), B]Di>r['(b:kiu^ ftfiTi^rii.^ mosses W »u'j.rinl' ' 
wbicK, OQ stirring tbe liquid, unite mio a ropy tuAse kavinjj; a At 
Lufitre. TkiiB ojnorphaut; hu^matoxvlin dk^r^Ives ri.-ii^it^' in I 
wab?r or alcnholt aud seytamt^.'s from tbe^ee artlations ou cH>lii]^ i « 
inlhe aiQorphfine state; l»iit on addllu>a 'jf a drop rif Lydrticldnric wil 
It LH dofiohiti-d in mostly' bihjdrated crjataU. The arTir>TT>liiJiH 
bwniat'jiyliii |iroci[iiiate-d l>y bieolpbiie of ammoQis from a soIatic>it ' 
borftx-hffimaloiyliii likcwiac diasalvee on boilji>y» and Rojianklcv 
cooling-, etiU in the atnorphoiiB etate; but if it bo di«SL-1ved 
mtitinudij dropfMng- bisuljibile of anxm*»0[3 into Hit* lirjnirL crjs' 
0/>riii hfpanite rjiit. Fleni^e it apppAre xhai hn'matoi^liii i^ia&>lr«« In 
tiiQ above atknlL[je li'iuidri in the amorpbouB atatr^ but ii recouTcrl«d 
into co'^talliiic hnjinaloiylio bj Irvc Hcidt^(]lcBse)i 

Dacompoeitiong, 1, £I]i9matoi<rlEn expoei?d to eu&Bhiao in AcbM^ 
glaad Ti^nael, aci^uirca a roddihb colour witbout peroeptiblc cbangvol 

crjia|>r»itifi[L 'Ihh ixilorution lihcwiMt; take plaoi; in a ratana 
(ErimAmi), — 2. Whun Afiiteil, it dpoirnixiacs, vjth<iiH nny traev iJ 
BiibliiiiatJuu, nr^l li^avcs a Inr^ oitanrity of ch:tnMLil (KribunTin).** 
3p In dry oj:ijf/fn--jiu, it ronuuds nnofieredf prvvidi'd liii* gikfi ii^ irw Ittm 
D4nii]Ciniu (fM'dimmii^ and from o£onc (Scli5jjbc'i]iV An a^iK-ouft >ola< 
tion i»f lieiiiittuxjtiii iW'» not become coburca in ox.ygvu gaa '~~ 
from ammoiiiu (tlrdjiianii). 

4. In co[i1n<l vfith moist, atron^'-ly oioniaed atr, it »oon aciqiiixc»< 

rmfty brown (>i[imr,lK"conicft moist, iii*d iK-li-inrews t« u1jr"wn it*m 
mnHii,w1iii-li lliru IxHromrh mnrf^ fiii^ob', li'gliti^r, JUid finnlty mlorirlr^J 
nw\ cN'niiiiiiM froi-Mixnlic aoi4l. — Aqnt-mm luemalosybn is doo<>m|«i*fd fs 
liko immiit^r wbon oz^-nii^i.-d nir m |HV*b^od Lbrnnv-b it. Mlttrrmic |ttp« 
Ai'jakf'tl in an ethereal nolution of ]iivnuiti?xyiin, arid eX|>oAi^i to mnTiiri 
mr, quiukly arfBumca a ^eddt^h yellow ciiUrur, elukiigin^ to bnnn>-co& 
but iilTiiiiihi't^y bceon;ee colourlees, aud aoinirvB an add UaM 

■dl* tduh Tielal).^!^!^ (Iw ivd ouLourtDfi impartvd t4 it bj oltnoUf MliLlff^ 
«UorlM VMi |i«niuii0UMi4 of pobMb, an «itfkbut«d bj Boatebaia Iv 



■r^iTo oicdiud. o%ygfu rxul.jjig in these compounds. — On llis olhorhnnd, pemtidD 
of TivilroiKii or ikutijjm:^ oil of turp^iiTine (liv, 2^7), in the eiilire ab^e^iec of 
alb&lin, docfl airt coToiir ni^ucuiip hiMttal^ijJitL immtKliBtcIj', and but fccblr on 
viiinduig^ ingpeov^p, Ibe pivspiicD of peroicLiJi.' of hjdrtigpn i« r4>vogntHibi4j in tho 
liquid, togGIhft^ wiTh uuiLtr^ii'il li^vimuoijlin^ tven slt-er lovniJ daji, hftoauic, 
Bc«>rding uj SthDnhdin, ilio fjijgfc. which is bcro po^iiiToly luMipe. ik nnL ublo to 
PiicJjae I]i0 tdinia[<iiy]in. — Tito bmwiL-jTd colontliuu wbicJi muiBt ar ujuwui 
lurnmEctiThri ooqqirvi in oiy^nTi friv fnim u'une Cbul coulutititti^ uiiiiufiriu F KrJ. iu 
the [Inrk, or idulS tnorc 4|uicl.lj wli^n c?i|)[in{'d [o liglit, u ?U|}pi»ed t« uiso froniQiida- 
tjon ■h.^curnpuuifi] bv llnj rormulion i^f pi^foudr? nf hrdri^goiL, ikltbougli tb? pi^roxidfl 
of bvdra^it I'atinot b*.^ iTUjgDLM.'d mui^Fw uJlifllis an kk»w\ne prpRpnL in ihitf 
niiriMioUs aa iu mAnt idlied plienomr-nip, cirdiiiDry oiygea ih reMtlteil irttu pTHititcIv 
aad iiegutivelv iiclira uiygcr, ibt fomitr of wbL^^n delonnLicA llu' fdncotion of 
IKiX'iide of bvdrugfii^ wlide lUc lalter ilDtCTrainn the oiidalion oC tlie bnnmLvijliu 
(SchOubcui, J. pr. Otem. 81, £57). 

5. ircpmaUiiyTin djfiflnlTPJ* ir aqinxJTiH ii*/rm(int\ first witb rosp-red, 
then wilh tiiie (unplts-rod colour ■ iind if its eolution ia evaporiilt^d with 
LS Vitiia coiitat^i of air ne potiBibli!, it cry^lQlliae^i for the most part 
imallered, kaviriff u dark red m tether- 1 iqitor. When exprtsed to ibe 
air, tlie amri]«>riJiiL'LLl F^olutii^n qiikkly abeorbn niypMif bi^comf'R dkrkr^r 
fn coluur^ finnlly Mack-rod, and xhcn cfizitalna hfi>^Tii, which may 
eftlier In? prc^cipitated from the nululbn hy fldtUi, or crystallist^i an aii 
auuuonia-eonipoimd hy cvihpcmtioEi (ErdniLUiii). — Formattoii of 
Wmuteiii : 

When liHrmnlniylin is heated to 100' for 43 liours with etrrrng 
aqueous amtiiftiiiti, iu a ve^nel whioh prwventa the nir fnim haviog 
scopes to it, tliL' Holution, vhich is viofet at Krst, gradTially bccomea 
TfclulJHli .vi.'llim-, liiit iinlikly frcf^ivcrs its riolt?! cokiur wlietj tin; tube ib 
openeii« no tbut ihe wfiili- pruducL omiUDt be obttiined iiticliungt'd, fnr 
inaly^iB. I( conlatiiF^ Ttitro^n, but not in the form of ammwiiii ; it ia 
Coktni'lesB, vt'i-y nlig-htly B'lluMy in watL-r, i«)htblo ia hydfochbric acid, 
preojpiliiblc in whit*- IJockf by ninmonia, snlublc in alcohol and ether> 
This Imdv h}mihMYf"riitatm(jmirk = C*Il'*0'",2Ml*(SchiiUonbergBr& 
Panilin, 'ifuW, Snr. Biili. IflttK 511). 

6. IlremAtoxylia ia but sli^btly coloured hy holtlik^ wttb potash-lqf 
which has been de-aerated ity b^vilixjg, Of with aqucoiia carbonate of 
■wJo, In a 8paec tillr^d witb hydrMgeu, and uy.\y be alaiodt wholly 
Itooveri'd fmm Ihe red 11^ aid (liua produced, hy neiitraliBing^with hyJro- 
Chloiio ftcid (llosflt'). — Aqueous litoniaioxylin in contact with potnah- 

ty in a ves*."f which excludes it from the air, acquires a iipLl virdet- 
due c*iloiir, wbidi on adinisginn <rl oxy|jcn» or on Itiariug- the fiolutinu 
n c:[»tit;u"t with lluMiir, bt-c*oaieH darker, llien ymrple-red, brown-yellow, 
jid liziidly dirly-hrowD. The [aat^fomied pi'odui?tis not pr(?ei|iitihl(> by 
icids, but. after scidulation with acetic ndd, it may be precipitated by 
iceiatc of copper. W'bcn an alcoholic solution of ho^matoxylin lA 
SipofieiJ to the air in contact ivith alcijbfflic ]]Otafth, black-blue flakea 
^t de]MiBited, free from carlmiiate of jxitash (Eidinaun), — A hcilutii'in 
mutiixylin in contact with the air is coloured by tarlnjiinTe of 
h. bfirj' la-water, or c-arbotJato of hnie, in tho nauie manner as by 
iwtic p'liiiali (Erdniaiin)» alao by bicarbonate oF lime ; cocacquciitly the 
Icubolic tincture of freshly hewn logwood will mdicatc the presence 
the srualh'.Ht. rpiiinlily of hicikrboiiate of lime in water (Dupasquier, 

rou xvt. XI 

vt ja¥ri|ilil4i ffim the aJtulLi 
.hm Ike AolabMi, wlu^ b^L l<> ilwlfi 

IM«|vntMn« ; and fffvAtofvb 
i* «btm lu'dt'^fl viih 

Ij erf ^aii»L-Ma-aiBiii (v, J7^> sqAmT'v 
Standing, lb blick-^i il'J 

gmttfi^ lift iiUBBTiirrp to Ibc air (Erdmouti, J. pr. C^iu. Tik 

ft Won aJbEmi. 


tvflaloxjiiu, iriUi tioleot 

A- irtt 2 «L ITtfir. An uoeen AohitiMi of hvirkaim^'Un nn- 
imM ftt the bodu« bat. and kit to omsI m a (tood rn««r1. (kn^ 
tkk KniBto loi^f bdW conplrle coding, ia li^t yultow, hm 
rrmnolftr crvts, vbkh Meanw a Onh-reid co4<jur. umii- 4^iuckiy 1^ 
ybe mahj^%AvA crwImlEL in ififfmrd dqpli^if, lUhl tiiuiii^ilialJi^lv in «ni' 
•htac (iMnnan). * Tfa« «^>x-hTf1nied ctytnaln vhi' I < itv/a^ 

MtntiaoftOf IwcpMrtoatyhn <^t»*iiiing ealto, arwK'tmn - iwrif 

U-bjiJnltf^ i-iyeUib viul« 0tiU ituincrAed in tbc ^i^tuia (llt.>:^<^ ). E^^^^' 
bi-hTitmi4-d rrVstak bc4aof U> iIkt ri^ht [iriamfttJo *>*lcx4i. oihi^ ' 

<>V- C3)- "^^ * boTOccit*JpriMn ^ All th«* fac-e, txw|rt js mre iaw» 
cnrrcd (Natiaiacis, y. ^. Ctrm, 75, SS^O 



«x c - lac «) 

16 H , 16 6 

1*0.-^^ lU ^- OS 

W71 -.^ «w> 

£^ 4« 

Jt'Jrt l&l 

(^U'*OO^q. 3W 

100 1<KM» ._.,^ t09« 




B. With G nt. Water. — Gi>lonrloBS or dozalijig white crystals 
(Heiutf), Transjmrt-iit |)Fih,niBT hnving-ii Btrotig liwlr*' runl pule straw'- 
yL'IIow to tiOJioy-yelluW colour (Erdinanii) ; lh(?y boUmg to tlie fli^oftre 
prieniatic *yelein. >V/, 2d, wllh a from >V^, 27 ; e t e = 124^ (Kojtp). 
HflinjnelfiberK" fibecrved tlie flbttii,' oryatftln without a, but with f 
(/Vj/, 30). A fjux' <»r r in id geiKrnil very predomiriitnt. r; a = I2fl° 2.V 
(nearly) ; e : j = 1 !S' li' ■*:;/= 1,41^ 30' (Rammfklierg'). ^^ aUo 
Tc'tflii-inuhfr i«jd C. Wolff [/, ^r. CAiri*.. 2f\, 195). ^ May bc* I'Uhbod tO fl 

white i'>r piJo-ycllo^v |fOWtIcT, Thu crjAtals, if kept in budly-olrjecd 
vus^cls, effloreAce iti dry uir 'ir m a viiouunj ([n.Hifli.'a from ojiivcMion 
iulo bi-bydi',-fcted lutmuhixylin) ; wIilii iiuii-kly lieutud ^l lOo", tbey 
mirlL in lljoJr wutcr iif i.Tytil:illUrilii>n to a redditb mjviH. aiid glvu iilt 
fill th^r water (llio Urtt ij-nlii-rne alowly) botwoeii 100' and l^U* 

CfyirfaLi, Kniiiijiim. 

»B C .^ ItfB ~- 63"93 5:3 7a 

BO 3.... _. 20 S-fiB 57H 

IB O .„ 14i - *(>« _ 4<>44 


ass loo-oo „.„^. looo) 


0"^"^^'. ^.. 303 6483 

flllO M 1SI7 

10 32 





C*H"Oi*Mq ^^ 36G 


C, -4^w«u( ^fifwrinn, — Hffiratttoiylio disHoIres slf>wly and spariogly 
in c^>ld waltr, very ttbuiidmitly in Ixjiiin^ water (Erdnjaun)" 

BorfiT ami HtiinttfiA-ifthi. — ITrpnifilftxylin diweolvte in a cold fifltnmtcd 
tt(iiit*f»uR fiolutioij of bor:^^ iixoro abundantly than in wator; a wuriu 
Bifliitioa talccs up so much tlxut it betximoe syrupy. No crystals arc 
ohtainod oii cviipjratiiiii: the liqoid. The lK>r<*x-flUutioo, by iLhHolving 
Ui»- iuL*iua(Ai\yllu, hhsi.t< il* alkiiliiir rrai^lbn, bt-coun-H blmfth-lllt^^r^^Be^?ut, 

d is no lorigt*]" pr('ei|>itifcble by flbcuiliiif alculiol or eUier'nlcohol ; 

rotiilrti a ^KifliriBi^'i rniy, Homolinios strtwjgly to the right, eomotitnee 

t at all, or very sU^iitly to the left. On dropping na acid into the 
Biiliitii-n of borax-bee in atoiy til I, it bccomea TJrilfiitly a^rUlrd, and 

lidlfiet* iu frtmi 10 to '20 tti?C4trid* Ici :i thick ciynlalline pulp; oPHftm 
o BotutiohS ib'oppt'd iuio it pi'tieipitaUc auicirphous brnmatoj^yLin 

«8e, p. -imy 

Ati u'lLieoiie Bi^bition of hisodio pJiosphttU dis^oLvcs % larf^e quantity 
ef bBiuiUosylin without lotfing: ilH itlkalinc reactiou (Ilefl*^). — JI^dia- 
toxylin difisidv^'ti &.|iarii»jily iti nohijion of rhiinifle t*f ^nxiinm, niorj* ptt*iily 
in ii'jueiHifl thlin'itlc of LtttntH, vitboui forming a pu-eipitMe (IIeanoj, 


tiiiVifTn-itiifer aildi^ii Xn SLqimuw bitiiiutoxyliji^ free frnin air, throws 
w» u while or pale-blue pi-eeipitate, which, cm expOBure to the air, 
bcoomee dark -blue uud bubeeqneutly brown- ted (lilramaiiii). — Sohitirfti 
of «j/tfm forms no prcnipital.e, even when added only in ALoall quau(i1y, 
but iriilmii^ the hulution Ij^lit-red (CrdrjitLuuJ. FruEii an fiqui'ouM solu- 
a Iff lueui/iloxytin mixed w^illi exc<-art uf sndu-ley, alninEnnte of atda 
rows down a copieu* precipilJLle insoluble in fli*dii'loy ^Pleeey, Dinyi. 
l3, US). 





mcfHoiltM,ifOBtt A f Mati ft i wl MoyaUbtif t—fciAJ-.irj II 
vbidk mMj be avpanifJ fnia tke ■a|kiT*lkqiMic 1^ ntpid t'tJinitniH 
wmttm^ viih & imiB <|— lilj of coU wiMr, tnd p«wu>ir 
hibalott* paper, and An dhtd bj fu iuuw i^ lo tbe ajr. A tetim 

^ l iw il tf ■ M17 W ifcH^ii fr-a 1^ BoaWr^ntn I7 

>nfg^i^wilhiiMirwa*f mBM 11; h^ lb* h^vi, ifldl 10 «*«f«r»W 

vp t*a tiiitiJi(iiiiii «■■ (^MHiBf !—'■■■ ita vidi uolt « ovaQ jiii'iJirj ^ 
~ mma,}. B«ia» di^afav 10 fr- biv^Btnrliti m k qiunfiia o( ■«* 
Life low thaa ihu sliicli n msirrid for tba piodurtioD of Rsatf^ 
ihcn Uv •dMHB af« ft iM lU : uJ tmtvi ii Ibr t«v or Um« >b^ 
fcaqntttllj B^Ma*— ll^«Mrfilif<f ■nmwia. Iftrra fn»*lirtHn||^. Miiiillhi" 
ihilamM trr Apniiltil aa th* nyiNih whidi fc^ >fpM»u^ 

Fran bfijniftt<^-NCiiaronni, iMimatcIii is obtained, either bj deoA- 
pCflinif Uiu cuin^Muitil wilh «c«1n: acid, dttenlHnf ihf? i«M«i|»Ulr ift 
Dinli»|f wul<<r. mid <:i]ncriitratin^ tbi^ ftf4utiiuif u licmijirm tl wfivaM 
ill luDjIrifVi^Tr hy Itt-aliii^ tu 1^0~ ( t^nlitianti ). Tn ')lic*iii ■ ntJdPP ai 
constant ti-H^ht aud frt* from snauiMuiu, tbo lieat muBl bo 



tifritft. Ifc-Hse'« hxm&toin fortnfl a blaok-Tiolt^t powcfef «A 

^ Jridt'swTiot.^ tind vt^ry hyprtwcoijic. — Enimanti* Itn-uutnit. 
i»y bo ly-irnrded am & jiydmic ctim[wn?d with Muit iJ 11 
*|km I'ntii'italt'd frujji ihi^aiiLtrKjiiiaciiE tfolaLkut brtkivitJo 
• durk-^vtn colrjiir ami metallic Iilaltv, ftiid jriolda 



ratioRt ft powder of ft pure li^Ll-redcolciur. Fmm Ihe a^iieonaenlutioa 
itstjiarateJsbvviipiratLoii, in dirty-grt-i-niiindtallicully-lustroua lamhue, 
but from a Bi:hition lii^rhl^ caiicentmt^d m(\ tJieii cooled, it in JttxjsiU'd 
in ciTstallihe grftiiis, ni- aa a rcd-b^o^v^ jelly, in wiiich reddiah tculen 
majLe diatiuguiHhcd by ihe microacopy. 

at ISO". 

aa c ,„, iwa 

10 H ..„ 10 _. 

.. 6SVH 

...-, afiu 

10 ^, «,, 80 

u«''fl''H>" — iisa .„ 

.. lOU-ClO 
, 64 



li H _.,.. 42 

, 4 

..„.. aa 


(^H'^i" „, _ 230 ,... 



DecompoBttion. Hremati^m IcarcB a bnlky cinder wbon iffnUed. — Tt 
diBBolves in ttitnc acid wltli parple-red cobmr, u'ludi hiiuij ]>ak[ioh into 
yeUow.^The BoInLiotifl in fl(|npoiis aiiiintinia and puiirsh inm l>rown 
wheD eipo^ed to ihe air. — lla.-m^to~m-aTEimoi^ia iinmodiiituly J'cducco 
the QDet&I from nitrate of eihvr, more eJowly from jriefnuiwe r^itratt, — 
IIceiDate'ia placed in contact witii fi'tc' and agueoua hf/di-w:hUirit o^cid, 
dmftoivt**. With light y<'llow-lrowii coluur, and [.bu Iil1«rt'd Holiition 
do|i«Bitfl a small miantityof a violet pn.-dpiiati? wnlSJuing zinc; the 
sftiDe fiolutioD yields with alkalis a copictus wliitc or pale violet ptGcLpi- 
..^tftto, t»o longer the brown -vi*>lot procipitatu of b&'mttte7n-eolutiouB, 
' VK> that it apiji-ars to contam, do louger hfl^matciii, but probably brema- 
toiyliiL — lly*ri>!kteTti is not rediir-rfi to bieniatt^Kylin by fit^di-osttfphvric 
add or hfjdrnsulphnu nf aiutnom<\ (Erdmann). 

CotiihmotiQttjf, Jltematelin diasnli-eB slowly in cold tOQlfir, uiure euily 
m boiliug water, forming a ydluw-brown solution. It disHolvea ilk 
tfUUtie hi/iiroi-htitjic and gi'lpfmrt'c acitiA, wilb red colnur, ehan^in^^ in 
yellow nn diiutioii with water i with oii of ifiiiol it fornin a bi"owtt 
ftrtlntimi, from which it ia pi-ccj piloted by watoi- ; in opc/jV tb-id it dig- 
ih>k-ea lerts fn^ly Ibaii in mim-tal ucide. — Ite ai^uixiiifl flolutiou bccomea 
ligtiter ill :;cflour wlieu lijdrns'ifjihufic iifid g^aa i,i (HWiacd tliroug:b it, bat 
recovera ite ongiosil oTour whi^n the hydronnlpbin-io aej J k evajmrated, 
aad on drying u[j leaver tht? hramatoia Lu its original state (Erdniacc). 

Haitnatein-ajitmoniiU—Jlatauitciu disBoWcH ill ammoiua with splendid 
pUrpJe-red colour. For Ihp mode ufpropujiW ion, apo \nge 292. The compound 
if* a violeL- black, graimlur powdtr, consistini^ «f Jiiicroscopic, traas- 
parent, violet-coloured, four-sidod priBms. In llip diy state, it re- 
maiua unaltered over oil of vitriol fU' in a vacuum, but if mojfil, it readily 
grivce off anninonift, which is also completely cxpulk-d by Ijoat. It did- 
Bolveb in water with dark purple colour, in alcohol with browu-rcd eolour, 
cbftiiging to puqiU--red on addit]i»n of watei.— <Tiie eolutioua ^ive off 
ammoma when evaporated (Erdmatm). 

n ' L-= r" * w^f 

; T ^ *> f-sl 

1' Z _ . _ . _.-.._ r» 3:7 

_: _ _ -f _ >-^ 11-7S 

y^^ -^"ir .,::;- _^ !■•--* :>:'« 

': -"■ :.." ' -" _:.■-: ' :■■ ' :: r- : ^17^ --r -.1 f Tirrl:^ ^r-rmerelT 

:r : ---v ■■ - -.--- ^'-- ::— i;^ - - ll ;■ -r? :t^TT-^-c j«wrover 

'" ±5'-"^." I.'-- : -j- -"-■-" ' M-- >!.-„'- :■ ci:< »^~' a- -i->'rEii^ in w fir 

j:i : i:i _.... nn _._ si« 

> , :, .. _ j-r- . *-7« 

il H „, il a-«* i-Sft 

:* . .. ,. :^ i^*i . .. Wr67 

t— '>^-.:-ii, . J— ix-x- __ lAHo 

»^ r,o "„■--'.*> 7 '-^ ~i 'T ^ •!■!.■_> i^_^".fJ^:L- Tp"tae*inm. ^^rtll 

'.rrzl^^ i -.i-.: ^-[1- t i^.'.z'j.— ': i* i- : iltervd bv hrpwulptule of 

H-^_>--l:. L_i* T-^ --. i.--^''-'j t;-1: ^!.:^ ti i'^ur. dun^g to nd 

A .".-' .- i^T_-: ' 7. :.. I :':.7 ^- i w^ fr.iu iAl'rkte 0/ barium • 

'U.'i : ' r t -r-- ; ^r- -■' .'.'. :1t r ^ -7 : w-.ivh, chanptv to (liny 
\.f 'j-\ . '.' i-.T ■■^y.. :':.-. J 7. ^V.-:h vS'>^? "f ■I'N'.-WBf/i^ii, it forau 
a :*..-: ,' L'V. -- - ' .-: , t:-.. mt s :».v1: L::4I:h 11; but wbt-u mii^ 
«-.-:, , T.:„i!l /Li;_: :v : vl : ... ':" :: 4c'i:;-:yj^ a rvJ i>«Ioiir and hi^ated, 
h ji-ii- ■• i— ' vi lv>.' ; --ir'.-l iTi^:\<u%Xt- {ErdmanuL — With mitraU 
lii hi':'-'!*'-, -..■_,■. = .''< ■' zi^'.^ i:."i y.t.'i'i-'-ri'U of tia^ it fonua Tiolrt 

with \i*tnxxi%\ iv-i-Zi%\K -x IvA-l a <Jjirk f )uo |>ivii]>L(ate. the liqiuil tvtxHuiBfr 
w'A ill nfiiit* vr Miarititrr th-- (.'PtT:L|'itaiii»u he }<-rf^>riuoiL The pre- 
<"i;pi<at<: i-* |*:ini:iHy Hi't'*Hrii]-:»rt.'il l^v wa^'Litlt^ the wimh-wator beeiniiing 
Ijr'iu-ji \ iiiit'r w^^hiN^ ]>ir u shi.irt tiriu- it couioiiis (<i) &O^TJ:t \\ c. lead- 
o)[i'li-; Jift'T l'>ii^'c-r warihiijg-. ijuaiilitiL'^j raiyiug fiviu -IS'fi to5l p-C 


32 r 3S« 33 C 31 5 ... ZV4 ™, dSi ~.. »'T 

it H , IS It II 1-6 ..., 1-8 ,^ H> ■- *^ 

1» o , 11-5 90 IIH ... 160,.-. IS* -« 1'* 

^ Vh*i I-VI 3 }'\AJ 65-3 — 50- S ... ^3-6 — ■'*^ 

'i-i>bo j'bo nw-o c*ii-Pbo",tPbO,-. loo-o ,.,. m-o »., icoo _- luo* 



AqoGouB hrematein-amTuoniH fnrtaa ivith fetTous chtftride a violet pro- 
cipilalc i with pota^Jt-iroii-atunt a black precipitntL- (EnlmauuJ. 

llrenitttcin dissolvcfi with rtd-broAVEi cnluar j^i alco^ul, Bporiugly luid 
with amber-yellow colour in etfier (ErdniJiiiii). 

Beta-orseUic Acid. 
C^U^-O" = C«H»0^0*i more correctly C^*IPO',C"B,'O^T 
Si&KHOi-dE. PhU. TWiru. 1846, 69; Ann. P/mrtA. 68, fi^. 

OccoTB in HoccfUa tmcTona from the CJapo of Gtmd Hope, and ie 
extracted therefrom, but tojfe(ber 'irith rtjca^llimM, in the 6ame nuinuer 
a# lecautiric iicid from thf Potcel^i lirn-toria nf fluulh Arnt^rit^i (xii, 
377, 3). The pi-euipidite llimwn ilnwn frfHii iHp Urnf^-eitraol hy bydrn- 
clone acid is a mixlart* of btliuoreollij? acid and roeoi?llinm ; on ox- 
hiiufiti:!^ it reportedly wi(h water, the rt^cci-'INiiiti reimiina undia- 
solved, while the biLtla-oraeUic add crystrtilit^c-B from the tiltrale. 

The acid jeeembleH leuuLoric aciil. Mwd reacts jikt; lliat iu'td ^itb 
chitiriiU of finte, ftud with GVimnnitif barifta &m\ Umt, — At HJo' it (*fJn- 
talns, on llie avarage, [Jivil ^i. e. C, 6"lb IL, awA 34'70 0, and has, 
therefore, ia the froo stftle, exnully the same comp^aitioii ae locuiioric 
acid (xLi' 37B); ita biLrytn-nalt hjm also the GomiHiaitiniiof lecaaorato 
of baryta (ip-ifi p. ^. v.. lis H. i*5a Maii). The aoid fiutln^r re- 
B^mbtee lecanoric acid in yiHding ornellatc of eihyl (xii. 373) 
when boiled with alcohol; but it forma a black preeipJIalG with 
nCiUtral aectate of lead, wberoaa liM^aiiorio acid is not pre<^ipituted by 
that salt, — ■ ^pnhkiiiBiB lUdiguH Ut Imtii-Lmrllii: ut-id Ibu rirrmulH C'H'^O'* 
8tiwkr/t foraiuim C^H'K)'^ [Anr^. PharM. e». 110^ tfoiitaicp 1 ul, hytlrugcii luis; Lo 
ivg«rdi rtKvdlliiuD u a prinluct af ihe Ji?coTiLpa»il ion of bpto^orm-^llir m\'\. fi'nii^, 
iiniultbnvaiLFilj nith owcllio ncid^ DL-nurding lo tlic t^i^imtioii, C^'fl'^G"^ — C'^llK)" + 
C"H*0'. On the other bind, Sctunflk {PiiiL M'lj. J. 33, 2'^^^) ami Gpfh^ihLt 
{Comj/t. rAim. IIW, 1117; TmifSS, 797J mgnpil Iwrn-o«i»lli'' Bi?id iu niuullrfkl wilU 
iH^iLPArifl luHd, qrlijpli view ma}\ till fuFlber iufiACiguliniij be nrgnnXad Kd tliv muflt 
phibablfl (Kr,). 

Gyrophoric Acid. 

Stxsjhouse. pah. TrfifU. 1849, 393; 4aa> PAonw. 70, 218* 

Obloined from the Gip-ftphora fiufivtata and Lecaiwra tartm-eft of 
Norway, in the same mauoer aa Icuanorii; at:id from Hvvcclia tinctcrin 
(adj, 377, 3)- 

Smatli aofl, colotirleaa cryfital;*, destitute of tAsUi 4iiid fiincll. Does 
not redden Eitmos; the solutions ac'iniri^ an alkaline reaction on 
tddittCPD of mere tn*ce& of poUeh or ammotiiai 

-^ : .„ -■.;- :, : ..., --^ . ■ii:-si . 6i-ie „,. eiu 

"--. Z .... -- > Z _,.,... .*^ . *v> -^ 5-30 .._ »^■) 

1= : .. ., ;.- j: :, : , !: "> ^4±? .,. ssdi ... M« 

r-r-:- „ :»' r-z- .■- : ■■*: . :.<->:■ , i'>*oo .... io(X« 

1. * *• --.7t----- .: . - u- :.--.' -1^ V '1 -z- -T ''-* -.•''^■^T •*{ thi"*- Kij. 

I7 '■' '.-J —"1 ---..= T ■'— r"- -rf- it -f O'^vened intii a rat- 
> Li"T :/_■: ' - ■:: :■"_" ^ :• -. '« ."^i t-.:i 1 »-E^:x*i^alI luantity of pita*li- 

'^. ' r. —- 1.- •-■ .--■■ .t.tu.:"t ^ . L ~-.-.\. U iistii^ctlv saar, eoEuble in 

-7: : :. r . -. 1 .- ~^ : :-i-i : 7 - = --:"? - .',",-, ihe red colour nni 
i-s,.:r-':_- ?- L. L.. _* ,_ :i- :-*St : I'.viiK-ric aoid, — When 
■:i:' -« '"i ■ :i- ^_". _._:-- -^ "1 -r?::*?** : ;-.',y*ti'K ii i^ slowly ooi- 
'.— vi ^- 1 ; _r - ■ -- _- *_i::vT. — ijvr,'|*"no aciJ boiWfoi 
s-.'^rJ 1 _.'* — _ *:: .J ■', ;. .-! i^ : ^ I'l.rr wiih smftll quancifirt 

:' '"- :^-: -v-^ :^ ^::- ■: v->t >?^^;i.:jz orsdlate of *fthvl(m 
;". ,-_ -. r > .- T-i A !.:_>*.■: :. ^«.' ^I Kp. c, C„fi*5n„mnd3*«0I. 
'".:i .-""-'. ■■'_ :i: :- tt-"-:- : L?.^ :_-t".v1;c ether if obtained. 

.-:--- ■■ ' ,„' > :.- rj .'.,< l-:!i- ii Tr-jTrt-, CTrti at ibe boiling 
":-■ J-:. — It > - ^ L- -"'7 : .i- .:: '- ::. -. x>.-** -f i^-ld aq aeons ammma; 
:r ■ :_ ^ ^■.- 1 _., T- .::, :, .: .? irrt.':: -laif ! by aiumorua, wiib"iil 
:ifc.-..,- .;. .■^7 -■ - . : :_i- ^\.<a'... — 1: difs-'lvi'r* n.*adily in euvM 
.:" ■.- ,- -, --- ' ^:^ : ^ ■ r--. ...riTvi ';y iioi^s withjul ult^ratioD. 
:s.<>.-.,' .^.:.* :.„ j. i ...■: :„- >'.;:. :-a:j*J t-.iUiiir ihe|»r(vij«iate*i 
i^' ' - u-.::.^ t.v '■.■.V7— ^:. {r^r^-.d-x.. STi'l a t*aryt*-salt IS obtauied 
V. -' /. .-?";/>- . s ■_:-.' ._ .■ .; i,.^ I: I : l-ut !ho acid »cparate<l 
:':. :^. :: ::. .> 1;:^ :-, :.; :"r ^. _'yr j '" -,- jv-:d :ii C"iuin»siti*iu aud in »"ln- 

A',.-' ';. [■: >— 7 :„ -. ..■: :-* :. : p7»vi|4iai** an aicohiiiic solulicm 
. f ■ r' "' '■-:",- ".v.:;, :;;^- f ^*iV 't-:t:*it* it foniLs a i-ixvif-itat* 

. :" v.vr-,i . ■ : ;.' ^.z. :.. 

T:,\ .'...^. l^i 'v- > —;::. i;^;"^:y i:i <;.'.^,' in boiliug alcohol alwit 

h BoccelliniD. 

SrKsmn^;. r-.-.\ T'-^:\f. l>l?i, 71: Ann, Pharm. $S, $2. 

iKviiTs, l""^>'UiiT w;:li Iviii-orM'llL" add, in /iWit/Zii /inffi>™ from, ll* 

Iho rMnuT ci" till' hvlu'ii j'rt'fKiriHl wiih lliiit^-waler, dffMiir«> ^ 

iiHi y'i \iy\vy\-\i'\..'vw i*i.';d. iL iiiixluTv of U'la-orht'llii" BciJ **' 

iiiiii, wiiiL-lu ai'uT w.ii^LijL^'- uiid dj;viu^, b c\>[itiiiuoiulf builed vii^ 



aloohttl, whereby the beta-orecllio acid in oonvorted into orscllate of 
ctliyl The Bolutino m evjt|K>rated to dryneea ; the orsdlic etlier is 
citrack'J iwm tlii.' rchiJue hy Ufuliiig wiiterj and Ihe rtictt'lliniti which 
reiiiaiiL^ '\A punned by recrytitullisation from a large qufititit^ of strong 

Fine capiUixry ciystals, having a silky liiBtre. 


afl c S16 „, „ ea-Tsi «. Q2-6B 

16 E „„ la *-fl6 .„ „ 4^aa 

14 o ,„,.,■. iia 8t-ft6 _,.. aa-gp 

L"Hi»0'' 344 lOO-OO „. IWDO 

So frccordiDg (4> Slrei-tcTr {Attn, P^itrm- 68^ ItO) hIio mgardB TDC(»ILiiiib u 
pm^tikft of thf ii#Minpoiit]cn of beU-orKllifr u^d, ^tauhcjUfl^ gitm the fotuulft 
C^H^O" (we piigo Kaaj- 

Roc<?^lliDin treated with solvttfin of chtarid^ of Hm* ftcquirea a per- 
mnneut greeiilah yellow tobur. — \V\\qi\ Buapendcd hi WAter Ihrougli 
■v\\\i:\\ chUtrifiC gas la pasecd, it tfecomes ycllowieh without lakm^ u 
chlorine ur Uinlci'going auy further alteratioti. ^ When baiL-d wit 
potash or bftrptfi-uiitcr, il, di>es out puffer JetxiinpoaitiuLi, or yield car- 
buriaio oF baryti, — Uol nitrio acid det;ampOBea it, with fonnalion of 
oxulio Ocid. 

Rt*cco)liiiiii does not dJGBolve ia water, either cold or hot. — It dia- 
Bolvea c*Brly in arjueoua ammoma^ aud remains free from ainrac»nia 
when the suluLicin le evaporated. It dJB^o1voe iu pottu/t and s^da-Ufi^ 
Wh<?Ti br tiled willi ctirbenfHt <\f hnrtfta, it foi-mH a vryfltallwaltle salt, 
djffehng io com[x>sitiou according to the coEicontr^ition of the ai:;lntioQ. 
Jt does not proi^ipitato Hff\tir<U or ba^c acetate of lead, or ammQitiacal 
nitric of tihtr. 

It diasoLvL'^ef veiy Kpatiii^ly lu cold aCcoWaixd ttha-^ requiring also a 
W^ quantity of bujJJng alo'ihol to ditiBolve it. It dnes not form an 
cUter when Loil«d with alcohol saturated with hydrochloric acid gM- 

2. Ceratophyllin. 

0, Bjissk. -dmi.PAarm. 113, 305. 

Ohutv, t^Ecther mih phyBodJTi (tt, £7) in Parmttia pkyntdfa^ Alrevdlf dMcribed 

3. Varioloriji. 

JtoBlQCET. Ann. Chiin.Phy», 4a, 236. 

f>ccurrrAiTff. In Varioi'xria tkalh*j/a» 

Wheu the hohc;o lh cididUHttKi with bcnllDg alorjhol, as described 
Tiudor ofm (lil'v 3^3. tl- tlnj eKl.i"a(it frcjrii fn-m rnxiin by wati*r, and then 
treated with ether, and the etlferoal eoluiiori evaporated, a cryRiallino 
re«duc is loft, winch may bo freetl fr-jta soft rv^in by cold jilct'boJ, and 
diutilred iu boiliug alcohoL 'She alaoholic eoLution, oa it coolsj 



to si. $77, 

^ t»?, Ml 171.— rMi^BU7 ^ 

!■!» i —e m c |«ftllftte of Uiri^ 
iL Wbn the ftdM b i-ili«4Mt« 

tvkCB W^ UMfrbV EBAJ be ClmVCfUd 

Btio ocadttic Vthcr (xp, dn> tf>d 
citncCn; Ike etfaer Cnxn Utf rrudu 

The kj*»'wl !■ J ittttii J M^ ii rmdwnAMMem 






._ lomn 

oilj dwtillftte. in which » locnfttm of omAm tolum ithot » tfa* ^ 
li^ie oTlen TonnB a crjMaiiiw Mbd <«i oooliB^. — 1< Enwd «> 
tJfttinniD fniU il mdt% nvolb ua, hoaon m bftnm. anJ barva wvtbl^ 
Wring > r«udoe. — S, Slowhr ommpOMd by ht^lllng «Htli «tf«i *• 
y^ktw itolntkA l«»VM A ydlow, ■iDorpboiu, tnttct •bt«UBO» vli> 
ctAporatci^L — i. Whrn heated witli ntmVtfAo^ il«YolvM red «^ma 
__>nd ia cxiLV^rlt-d into uxttlic »cid. — 5, Aa MWirtwiicml JoJBtW « 
Hk acid h colriiintL ytttovt by Innhhjft beooniM brawn ib \km tk. 



Qfklutlon of wliid», ft brown or prey precipitate is tfimwTi dowii hj 
neutral act^tate nf loiul, seaquiohlf^ridG of iron, and BulpTiiiric acid,— 
(>. Di?compom'cl by iKiilin)^ willi cscc^e of caxt^th pt'tiish, and with iime- 
or hari4ta-tp<itti\ U'^hi:n hiLrrta-vtuter is used» the barj'ta-t*ftl ( throvm 
4own ut liml b dJBriulveJ by bnilijii;, witlujuL l?(*in^ a^in precipitated 
jiTi I'jmlitij^ ; ntids do nnt tlu*n Hirijw down piir*-!]!*; w/id, or n\\\y Irjit^^a 
of itf bui eopju-ate, arti?r t^niHE* Jioiitb, sm^lt Bhining cryBtiilB^ wliicll 
rntltiu boiling watei, kflcrvMrds diiit^olve^ jindddxiot u^in orjPtQlliec, 
Tbeee ciyataU arc ubtjiLiicd ^gain b_v evapnratktti uf their eaaily fumicd 
BL'luljon In CL"ldid(?ii]ji>t ; llieir fi<ilulii>ii in l>uryli*-wati:ir yii_'ldr> citrb(ijiLiL<s 
uf burylft wboii lirjjb'd. —If llie bniliTi^ \^e ct>ti Mimed after I he iu'id ba« 
betfa dieeolved iu burjta-wntor, Itit- wolntioQ ticcpjirei* n yellow colour, 
And throws diivrn oarlxjuutc of baryta, wberisupi in, after separation of tho 
baryta, no crysl-ala are formed, but % brown bitter txlnict ia obtained 
— 7. Tfirchhriile of gM \<a not altered by aqueoiiH parellio aeid, and 
on boiling with nn alkaliae noLution of tbe ac^d, it iu more alowly 
leduoed thau by [ec4inoric acid. 

CombiT^tiong,-^ With Wal^,- — A. N^dl^i. Schtmck'fi 3fonfi-lt/drjited 
Pftr^iic a^iiL A boiJJnp^ »at«rated alcoholic e<ilulion of parcllic acid 
depoaita on cooling-. OP OQ ijiiick evflpciration, bug- npedlcB which lose 
\ at. water at lOO'' tiicti>r(Ung to SnJiiinck's formulB C'H^O") 


7 H 
9 O 

Keediea, -mea*. 

.... 108 .,„, 67^6 67-7* 

^. 7 - a'74 S-80 

... ra 8»5l aB*0 

G"*H'0». 187 „ 



I, Iffary Crt/Stah.-^Snhabh'thi-hjAnltrAfmri-Mifaviii. More dilulo alCO- 

holio HulutionB of tho acids throw down, ori i;tH)liiif^ or slow evapo- 
ration, ttrnall, short, r^i'^^ cryatale. higrlily luatroua and ImviLg- a 
iiigh s[ii:eTEe gravity. Tticy lifsc 6'51 p. a. water at 100" ('2 aL HO 
^ S'iS p- e.) and become opaque. 

la loa - 5510 .^ BBS* 

a a B 408 a-w 

XO BO 4083 40OT 

C-HHy t 2fci.„- 196 ..- 


„„. 100 00 

C Aifvfui's Mtfution. — The acid diaeolves with dilTlculty in bnt water, 
An^l B^rparates Ihcrefrnm flhnofit <'iitirely on {^^olinj^^ in lif^ht flnkps, 

Parcllie acid tipela carbonii: Acid from Ibe carbonittea of tho 
ftlkkilia. — It disaoh'CB lees easily in aqucone tt'itmoaia than in potash, 
ftnd io left frcij from amnionia on cvcijmrHtioti, 

lu m-Iiition of canftk jiofiah it swellfl up to a white jelly which 
iially dissolves- U h prpcipitattd from the solutimi (noT prpuiontlj- 
ibflvi) by iieida, in the form of ft tliick jelly. Fomie wJtli bnr/jr^ 
vrUjtc, indoUblc suit- The sanie Kult ia pfoeipitated iu Eiiimll 
needles on iiiixiii^ an aiuinoniacat 5t.tlutiou of tbo acid with 
chloiirJe rjf bariiLin. 

Ltad-BulL Alcoholic neutral ocetuUz of lead thrown duwn> From fta 


alcohol]? HolDtion of the ncid, white flatoe which cont&k dT'dfo,^ 
a, 273 IL, £5 7fi 0.. and 34 17 PbO. 

Tlie ulrabnlic add Jik-j* nai preoipJUkU* tiitnttt of filiw; Uw ygU oi , 
piVf;ipEt3T(> uppariiig- on ud^litiiin of animonk, Jb ^eduof^i bv boiUn^^l 

P&reltic udJ dir«E(oWoi» in br>j|)i»g ^tic ttad m^ri.- fn^dy tlw^l 
v?ater. It iJiaHolvoa in aUoftot. &iiil ie precipitated from the tulnti^^ 
by water oa a jcUj, Soluble aUa in cfAcf, 


Atv. KlZlfntviT. Tnotipiyol-Disitrrriition ubfr eint n^t Bom m im 

103, 120 fttid aui i obetr. CA^i, CWr, iai;o» 855 i rrclinu&irj 
Nutice: -i™«. P/i-i7-m. 114, 213; •/. pr. Chan, fll, 121*; A', J". 
C/tim. Phi/1. rj9, 47E>; fif//. CAiw. /iurr: 2, 37;^, 
■WouLEF He Lo»a£X. dfm, PAami. 1:^1, 37:^; abatr. A^ CUii. /vt 

W. LotitiGH' Inatufurtti-Diea^rtaiicH Ubcrdaa Cccafn. QiitUttgva, lUt 

Diecnvonn] by Niemann in the leavea of Erjfthrojr^hm Oiai{K<^kaA, 

Tiii- PAyf fli^p-- an; nflRrWapfcenrodcr (A'. Br. .4rr4. 75, 73), JohoAV 
(CAem. f^fij. i85:^t 438), l-Iacdoko 4A\ Br, Ardt.V^, 141) a»d JdKli^ 
(A^ J. PAoj-m. 20, 10^) had miBuoo<?pHluily cndeav<iiLrL"*1 Co iBotal< 1W 
acClTe principle of the Icavee. Gaedchc; deai^niitcd tbe cryttal* o^ 
tajned by dry -lir^ti U^'it'icrn of the extract of t^oca-k-uven, hm oyflrujjhifc 
and forinil f \\\vi they rfaeiubled taifFt-'inu iu (l»"ir bi^hftvoiit towi 
acid and auuuDEii^ 


Preptiratifyn. Cncfl-lcaTca are fihatist^ with rain-wator al lb* 
tompcraluro of GO^ lo 80" ; the united extracta are pri."".r|>ilfttrd wA 
nuiili-dl atctatc of lead and filtered ; the filtrate ia puiiiiitAti'd inti i 
BAluHLteJ atjueouH hoIiiiIou of HuIphAte of esijiku ai;:^iii liIienHl aoddoa* 
c^ninLl^il- AEid Llie cnncent rated liquid, after Uiug lohdered rfiffallF 
alkaline with carbonale of aoda, k shaken 4 or G tinwi *ii 
fn-ph portioHJ} of otiior. The greaier port of the rthrr in dieDlM 
oET i tlio residue allow^^d to evaporate upoDtaneonaLy l and ibe iofai 
cocaljie remufnlitg beEujid ie freed from a ^bii't of the cohmitag mM 
by tritumlion with cy^ld water, — after whirh n eohition in kji^ 
clilorie add is placed, in a thin \ayer^ iu .i Graham"* iHaljruL^rof fax^ 
ment-popcr, when, on thrice reoewing Ihu wjUlt in the* oukT iiaM 
ntodt of the eocaiiie diSueea in threes day^^. while a Urgv t|uabticy ^ 
CiiUmniig maiXfT \a left in tlie ijiiier veneeL The eoi-ATnc \m afatf 
nejjiLrHTed fnvii the Rohitiori, dlfifiolve<l in nlruhrj. acidified wilh vtiK 
neid, and left to evaporate, either sj»nntari'4»(ialy or orer ofl ^TtoJ. 
i'ouafni' fn-e from aOL'tic acid n*main6 behind, and ia t^trmcU^ fr^ 
the r4:mdiK- by ether, whilst forciur^i aalmaacca in ronihinalrno «itt 
acetic acid art- luft undieuolved in wv fonn uf git^aay dn^p* ([ 



^2- Ctopped coca-loavPB are dipfested for 4 days at a (erepeTatuTe of 
40" in alcohol i\i 85 p, c, witU wliioh ^th of oil of vitrol is mixed. 
The lcQ\*'a are prossoci ind the prese-i^e ia mniatencd with aluohol 
,Wid a^iu prL't*H*.'<l. Tlje lilterud extraiils an? shaken with eitcei^s of 
tliiD luilk of linn.*, and nftor 3-1 hoiira, filu^rei and ncntTnliapd with 
dilute siilphnric acid. After diKlilliHf? off most of [h<? alcohoJ. the re- 
BJdne is L*vaporatcd tn a t;yr*ip, or until the alcdi^l is all driveu off. and 
poured into 20 ijmea iU Imlk of water. The Mack-greeu rcein hereby 
tUiowTi down ft* rciiiovrd by iKMirtJi^ off and filfuring [he Iriiild. wliica 
in then rfiidertsJ alkaline with «ir)>nnfl!e of *inda, and sJinken wiLb. 
ether so \ong ns anj-thing is takea up. By dititilloticm and spon- 
taoe^^ms cvap^inition of the ether, impure cocuToc ia left heliiad, and ia 
thou diflBolvcd in ether and shaken with water ccjntaining anlphunc 
Bcid. The i?ther, hulding- the grivaler |)ftrl of the coloiiriniT niiitler m 
■olntion is reinuverJ, and the flnbjac^int enhition of sulphnte iif fw^iine is 
precipitated with carbonate nf aoda. The proeipitaie is collected and 
purified by tritnmting: it with a little etrocig alcohol, ^diich first dia- 
Bolvos the colounng mattevi il h then washed and recryatjilliBed from 
alcohol (Niemann). The yield of inipnre cocaine aiuouiils to j p. c- 
of the leaves. 

Proprrtt4*. CocaYne IB obtabed from an alcohnlic aolution to which 
«ater fifl.8 beea added (when pure also From ether'alcfjhol : Lotaen), in 
lurf^Ci coloiirie&8, transparent pii^mf^ bL-lonirin;^ to the oblique pria- 
malic sypitem, and htaiiniorphoiia, Doniinaiit form a b^iriTotiUd prism 
funiiud of tiie ffiees /, i^ / {Fi'if. 97). terminak'<l on ihe riirht by a 
Lemidonie A (to the frf>Tit below and baek nJjove), on tljt left by & 
temidoTiie (i (Fig 'jy) derived from another octahedron. I : i' = 106* 
16'i t:f (behind) = 50^ l'; ti h = ]U^ 18'; (: a = 31^ 30', 
Cfcavable parallel in h h'. Fritzsih), 

Ct'OaTue melts at 98", jjud KolidifieH, on eoolioE. tt» a Iraneparetit, 

iaaiorphoiiH mnt^H, which, aflcr a while, becnmea w^liilj.* ^w*\ cryalalliDe. 
VTlieii eaatioiiely houti^J* a email portion ap^ieara to Biiblime, — Taate 
fitter aud beuumbingi afttr>^'urdd couliti^t Keactlctn aIka]iuQ(Niem(Utt^ 

CryrlaU. Niflnmnn. 

82 C. ^ IW ., 8844 6«-8 e6» 

K H-.. It ..,.,.. 4-64 6-4 

W E,.,M. .^ 19 CB7 «. M ..,™. 7'S 

SO 64 fiS'lS Bft7 

t^Ne^K)* 280 -, XOO'OO 


Ninn»nn und Lo^en fiYP for coruloe iho furmutfi C^U^O*; for fy^ume 

ndoptt \hv rciiTDitb f^'SH'^Q*, Now vuici? bolt iona\t\a fonUi" bti iinercn 

invibvr of mlp^pfu- * li_vdrL>^fit-utu9uB, ihcj ^ithor r*miiro to hv doublyii (u in the 

of nthfr 1LL11I11T1I4), or tho hiui# musl ba iiipp4M0d to tvnlnin nn Moni Tnon* {w) 

ulTTif,' lo Lunpnolil I^hrfivrh. l,li^Sj,(iT nn afom lr*t nf ti^d<"f»Bil, a qcHtion 

on wliii'h |]|4' unal^wiare uqi dulHt'Ji'Dilj deciHVf. Frrfercnu} is hcrf bltcd 1o iha 

burr virif (Kr,), 

t^ivrnpositiants. I- Cocaine hrated above Ufl melting point nBPtimea 
• darker oilour. treeps ujf the hides of the luU', fiolvefl aramoniacal 
irmpours, and rnrboniBes (Niemann). — 2. When liPHleil on plalinuiD 
foil, it lakes lire and burnB with a Inuiinous flame (Niemann). —3. Dih- 
Bolvj^a in cold oil v/ vitriol -wilhout coloralionj and carboiusca vrhea 

302 PHIMART nucleus CnH»; DXTAZO-NUCLEUS C^Nil'^O*- 

hesttd (Siemami). — 4. TTualc^d tn IfKi" with wincPOtrnMJ hirtn'rj.h 
andj especially in n suiiU-fi tuTie, il ftpliis nj* into ln^n^'Vu; nci'L wl 
Beparatee in tlie form of an oil, and hydruclilomie of cogoniuc (WflLfaif 
& Lessen) : 

Terywoak liyilrrioliliiric aoiif» hoWvi] fr^r spveml Iiours wilh rrpriinr" 
emits Jin odijur nf hcDzoJc acid» tmt leaves tln^preator yark uol-Iji .- 
BtmTigcr tiydrochlorit; acid offecta the decom|K«*itit>ii -jfct Ihr vni r- 
bfith (L<fsscn). 

Comhitiathfuf, CocaJne diesolvca in 704 patt^ of u^ttr at Ij^. hiid 
rallier mote freely in ln>t water (Nipnmnn), 

It ilisailwfl eahily In dilntt? ari*ff^ forming ory»taiTli*inhU wlti. 
Aquc-oiia eMi«lic ammonia and carhriNate of umnn^niu tliniw di-wn 
fr(»in &n aqiicona h-^UiI^mi of liyJrwlilonilt uf ClH.■^*m^'. wliili? pre- 
cipitates readily siflnblc in au excess of the pn-di^ilaut. Thu^Ik 
potash iir<*ei|iLlates e^^eatuL^ hnt a Inrg*' i^XLVWft ri'tliMHilvi^s il, Th* 
(irecipitate prodiinflii by earhimaie iif &'v\a IrTniiii^s i^rjslalliu* M 
Btanding in ih*' liijuidT ami dooa nnt di^-k^tlvo in nn ^^seeafi of t^-' v^ 
cipitaiit. CBrli">naleB and plioBphatca of the oikniifl do n<>t pn ■ < 
tbe nolutioD- I oil ne- Wilier prnducrm » Hcaili-l-brawu, litiii^i:. . 

Eijtasaium a copiuuH browu-ri'cl fnvi-ijhilniiv Tb*- w.diitijm tw imi .*''■'-' 
y tartar.eTnr.Hic ; it ia rend(!rod slightly iiirbid by euljdjoqj'Hu'l^' 1 
poUBBium (Niomann). 

SMififiiitf of Cficoitttf. — The solution obtained by Ui'ntrdiemf^n><m(Bi 
with dilute snlphiiric acid, dpiep up, over <:»il «f vifricd. lo a e<Jwirf«» 
vamittli, in wliirb ci.ihnrles8 priania, permanent in the ftir. are foivcl 
on Htandiiig (Niemann^ Lut^Herk), 

Hifdrochlortite of Cvcatur. — ■Cwaliie altsm'bs h^drneblftriir add vm 
with L'unsidiTulile develnpinent rtf beiiL iu»d tnMta ; liw* pari* i'\ wimii* 
taki? iLp m tlua Wtiy I3'J7 parLa uf Ij^di^H-'hlnne Eu:Ld <ALMik>i>^ ^ 
C^SU"*.*'- 12'flJi ptp- JTCIi, The aniJ^rjihtniH rnnfaa Kx-umffl yshiiK v4 
crjaLallino ou sl^mdinf^. It difisolvcs lWIj ir» water* wilL aH.-n! n^' 
iJuj.. — From a hidiition of G<x;ui'rie in diluU< hydni'Iibihe u;id« luic 
delicate erysffllB are o]>taiiied, wbit^b aro ifTmaTienl Jn Ibc* ntr fcn4 thJ 
bitlt-r (NJorn:uinJ. An a^v<^li'ilic ai^liitJnn yiobie, <»n wa |i>i ration «W 
oil of vitriol^ perfoctly I ran? parent, thnrt pnemri, wiib fiorTN'sdimlir 
ond-facos ; tbey Bcaa-ely diminiah in weight at 120° (I^oaacD). 

CFNIT'C « S8S-0 ,. 8878 «, 

EOi — _™ 8fl-6 11*2 .,.„„ li>« 

CPNH"'o»,iioi -. aa-6 ifwoo 

^iirate of Cocaine* Amorphon^ nLaee, wbicli becntiim crTaUlbr If 
Al4tndiik^ uvi-r oil of viliiid. and d'-liipii-Hf^rM a^aiu in tlid ur> (!lMMt 
in ni:>r dre^Eiip'kMi'd by fiMniu;^ rdtrie arid (Nifninnn). 

pri'fif^l'l'f'itf of tin tbrowH di^wii, from bydr<K*l»lonvte of owiai». • 
deane, wHile, cufdy piToi f ki late, fiohible in a lar^^* ipmntity "^ '-"''--■ ^^ 
Chloride of amvurit arkil loct'ttf *\f virrt-iirtf timi fnitttMum j 
larf^ qtiantily of Elakee soluble in liyrb^odiloric add and ui . ~^^^ — 



ammonium j thrtee jwoducod by tha former are eiflily soluble alao in 
ftlcuhol (Nicmwiu)- 

C^f^ropIafijuiU of Cocffine. — BicMoritic of platinum prodticee* with 
hy<lTv>ch[<>ral€ of cocadic, n dirty piTv -yellow (Nicpmnrj), wbite-.rellL'vr 
flr>cculorit ()reciptafc (LoHsen), which soon bcconiet. crrsUllJue. and 
diflnrp^are t,a ^vaniiiiig ; it ih iil%'htly fioluble in livdroclilnric actd. 

Chhirii'intriite nf Cor^iiinf. — Tprohlorido uf gjjld aUo tUrows down 
from x'pry dilute hydtrx'ljloritp of cocaine, palo-vi'lhw, ftmoiphona 
flukes, wJiioh cryetullim.- from hot water or alo^hol l\\ gtildt^o-yHlo^v 
Iftmitiie, ftciilep, or ^iiinilce. Co^tn-iofi, after drying over itil of vitridl, 
81-4 Wj 31G p. c- ^^A\\ (C^NHi'O^HCl.Aiitl' ^ 31-23 p. p. An}, MeUa 
vhen heated, and yields a large aiiblimsLte of bensoic acid (Nieraatm). 

Ai 100*. 9f over nil qf vilriof.. 

c"pnT»oBn' , „.,., aBfi-6 SM/r 

Tx ^. .^^ Sfl-7 ^^, IB-W 



C"NH"0',UC'U'fCP 195-a lOO-OO 

Aceftrffi of Ci'raJuf. A Mibitiun of ciifnTn^? in iilLitbnlie ncetic ncid, 
evajwralfd over oil of vitriol or in the air, U-avea coeu'int truG from 
Bcetio ucid (Losb^td). 

OziiliitiT of CoitiTne. — ^fonn-ocid. — Wli^n a Holulinn of cocriTne in 
Strouff aloobfkl in nearly neutralittod with alcithohc (dpbydrnl©d) 
Oii&tio aejd, and anbydmiiFi ottior \& nddod thereto until considcriLbLo 
cloudincflB ie produLtd, tht- mixture boo-mcH L-icar nftor stanJinp some 
tinu\ willi ft(*|hfcratton nf very fine uiyntalG of the oxalate, Tbcwe 
(fcre wftftbe^l with ethor and driori over oil nf vilrii"*!. — They dn not 
loee woi^^ht at 100°, but mclL al a somewhat higber lempei'atare, 
after which bcnswic add h eeparutcd hy pouring- wator upon ihom 


o«NH"o» ™ , lav wa 

CU'O* „,..._^.». 00 ™.M. 88'T« ,™«.. B«i 

C«NH"0*,C'iPO" -„ 379 in&OO _ 

Picr^. tirid tbrowB druvn from hydnicblorate of o>calnp a wnlphur- 
yellow prcci|>i(nle, which eoon caltes tugether to a resin (Nieinami). — 
OoUotanri't- oeid proJuccfi, after aiidition of hydrorhlnrio atid, abuodant 
while flakeft, wbich beonrneB resinous ou wtnn<iiog,— Cocatanmc ac«i 
doen nnl |>n*cipitatc hydnK'blorate of c^x-a^ue (Sie[rAsnu)H 

lue dlfisulves iu alcfthai, and more easily in tth^T (Nicmaui]). 

Appendu^ lo vol. xiU. p. 8Qd. 
fWdHLEK St Loai^tN. Ann, Phann. 121, 371, 


Cocame ir Jieatod to 100" for some hours, with conccnttalwl byd/o^ 

chloric acid, in a scaled tube- The benaoic acid iherobj formr-l 
rumoved, ttie last pi^rtioim b> fihukLij^ with ether, a-nd 0\e. ai>iutj<iri 
hydroclilorat-? of wgnniTii.' in freed from excess of hydr^x^biirir 
by evaporation, and ftom coinbnicd acid by Jicitajing ifs aquerms i«i 
tion with o:iide of silver and filleriag. The fiUrah' \e Vn-n exn^n'. 
and the residue freed from traces of oxide of eilvur by disholvmr il 
alcohoL Ou sponljineour^ eviiponitloD of the solulloii, a thick Uqi 
remains, wbich aolidifli^ in flno iieedlen. 

Colourless, inodoroua aeodlos, having a bittcr-erreet tavte. Jjc^m 
Adhering or combined water elowly at UK)'. 


K ^ - 

at 1S0\ 
.._ IDH 
„. 14 
..., 16 


&a B9 

.... ' aw 


« ..... 

CWH^O* -,„ 

.... IM .,-.- 

,- loot© 

Ecgoniiie ia Tory easily B<*liihlo ia ^tfittr. — The hydrot^hlerfttf 
duiicote ueedlefl, rather difScultiy eolubli* in cold etron^- alcohol 

Chhrnpfmimtfe of EriHfuiiif. A tiiixlnre of hvdrm'hb>rhlt of rqF> 
nine with cblnriHe <^f ^■laliiinm and strong &lcotu:il, thrawa 6aw% 
Draage-rcd pri&rus which may be w^iitKl witG alcohul. 

18 O 

N . *.-,... 

IS H „.. ., 

a «... 

Pt ..„ , 

3 CI 

. lOfi-O 

, i«-o 

, 4S-0 

nao aXM 

a 67 

4C^ i«I 

1£,S7 .__. 

M-aa »»> 


c"?rip>o",uci.pio?. «.. aai-a „«-» ioodo .„._^ 

Ec^niii is more easily soluble in dilute than in sbaulutc tdcMt it 
is inaoltiblc in etfttr. 


Wnm.EK k LoflBBK. Attn, Pharm, lift, 374. 
Li>j»>(LN- Diitcriaiion, 

F^^m itypAc/fid. — An organic base DCcnning, togf>tbi*r wTth oocaTn 
in cocft-luBves. 

In prcpikringoocaiT]« afl described on pagt? 300, if t^thc aliirhttri^kiK 
line liijuid ff.^m which The cocaine has i>eerj exlmcled by i ; 
curbuuak' of eoda ia added, and ■( in then airuin bhakeu At. 
yieldn liv^riar and a neulrul oil haiiii^ nii tidt^ur of tot»DLyii. 
pubatujcvs ruiiiftU^ behlud whert tlnj vthei h dIsiUlvdi uu futlbci '^•- - 



rig the rPBirliie till it. hnlls, (lie teni|jeniliir^ ijuirklj riuei* to alTrivt 
S^(i°, and 9 hmii-TL albiilirK! oil cli^tilH ovor, while? n blnck tcmu is left 
bi'liiiiU. — When tins ilifctiilalL* ia innintahicU at u tHnjii^rnturt? of 140", 
fcvr Bum^ houre, jti a t^troam uf liyiiru^un, tlii' f^n^ikloi' \iyrt pnAW^ over 
of a jcilow colrjui' (a); while the rum aim Itr volatilises Qtily at 140" 
'tn 23(t", ami ty^rulenws In n tliick bifjwii oil (ft)- Il^^iiip is cniiihiMed 
in both piirtJoijR; that Jii h, howovor, is cnntcLmiriJiIi»J with st neutral 
oil i thiit in a ivith a-ii ^UHily VL>laUli^i.'d eiibstaiice. To rcruovQ a little 
.Ainmnntft pri.'eeiitT a is coiLvortcd into oxaliLto, tbo siilt diaRolvcd in 
*he<iliitf ftkrihol, the snliUioii evaporated, and thr residue mixtii with 
liaiistir jKtUi^h, ivhi'.'h tJi^puaU'C^ Ilie liyyriiii- in tlie fnnii nf oil, TlkC 
'tlkHlifio eolutiiiti in lioaUd toboiliac^ iu !k stream of hvdmgi-n, wL<:n tJio 
thj^riutij ditiPoh'cd iu lim wuttT. pu^e^jH over {h\ hd-lmawshriadjfi riflirfnu 
iftnd H^uii dj -tilling |i> 4 lyijpi^ ttfarlJnirinLiirtiij'mit_v baot(flln4'd),ju id fa extracted 
■from the dislillate b_v etlier ; on a^.iiii dlstillLii^ the ctht^rettl Hulntton. 
|(hc hygrini' itiii^iiiin lu-hiud. — The ziL'ulrjil oil iii b it* rr'iiM)rL'il by diw- 
'inUviug 6 ill uftior couliiiiJiTig hydroclilorii? acid, slinking the eolutiou 
\Vr\l\\ i!tJh.T, and Kt'parahri^ Iho tthi?r£3al livyeri after which, the ftoid 
^fiolulinn h tm^psalumtt'tl witli cauetic sodoj and the hygrine taken up 
ihy etticr, as la u (Losficjt). 

' Froprrtuii Tlnck, pale-jcllow oil, having a strong alkaline reac- 
|tbii, a huniiM-f IWHle. and wi ml'iir of tin rijc'thyl^Lii line. It [irwl net's 
'irhlte dnnd« with the volafiJ*? stidrt. — DIktiIh vrry slowly wilh vajjour 
of Wiitt'i'. U dnpH Jint appoar tu tto poisonoua, 

I LIy;^ine dons not ditfa<>lve in icaier in nil proportionBi TU<? ftOiiOOUB 
lolutiun fijrms a wloie pieciiiitate with protochloridt: of tin. yellowish 
Willi »iul|jha.te of iron. li^^lU hluo wirh f^nlpluLli! of eoppor; on buil- 
fciy the solution, the ci>pper prpeipiiate h'^coint-a grinnlir, but uol 
|kruwij, Hygrino TormB wlute prooipitateH with chloride of morciuy 
hn^l riitrale (jf silver; the silrcr pri't;ipitate quickly turns bniwn. 
j Hyi^hit^ rombiiies witlj &_tfii'-o^fiioric iu:id, fotuuij^ dtdiijiicficeiit 
IryBtaIr*- The aiiiK^i^tia hydrodiloraui foTtort a hi-Jiwh Ihn'culent pre^ 
li^talo with binkidifif frf p<ili\iisinm. red-w)iiie with prf'tochlondt t\f tin, 
irriite with arriish'e a/bUnt'itr^ partly doecultiot and partly \i\ nilydmpB. 
ft'itb hichtoriiU nf pfatinnm it forma dirty white-yf-llow (nr red) fiakes, 
frliicL arc decomposed by huatJJig thu liquid, atid do not appear in 
t^ry ih'lute mjhiliorm. Pivriv nti'i ihiowH down fruin hydrot^hloral^; o( 
ny^rine a yellow powder; gafhitttmic ncOI. a while precipitate. 
iXy^ritio dissolveH it; akchol and in efher. 

Primary Naciau C"H". 
Lin oleic Acid. 

C="n'"0' = C^'IP'.O*. 

fKLOrJiE jc BocJDET, Aim. Chim.. Pfii/e^ C9. 43. 
UuKExT. A«F*, Chim. PhyE. G5, 160 aad 393. 
bKBTO- Ann. Pharm, 3d, 113, 
flcC. Ann, Phiirm. 51, 214. 

ifiULBtl. Auft. i'Aarm. 101, 252. 

VOL. ^TI. 




lM(ttirfMih», ISSg). 

m O^d^sMt, f M. 

— Occu» in ttif n J tA i^ W) 

«i (or porfT-ofl) w nponilfd, tad the fo^ 
qvaab^ of nice lad iIuvwb Arwm bf n cxc«m ff cUvide «f 

fa ether, whkb iImtJti ■ ovt tfe^ fivilntr of finw^ ukd Wnw t^ mln 
of tjy? >olid fity fMft laiiinr*! 1 il- TV «<befv*l cnlntfari b d«ca»- 
yo^gd hy ^aJd hydwAfaiie aciJ, wbfrpfry the ttnolqc ■dd w xfiwM. 
wad wiJni SsBohtd im Ihr etber; tbe eotetioa ii dnvn <^9, as'I d« 
c<bn &tAed At Aft Idv a taBpentarr am po^bfe, bi ■ >tR«si 4 

dB0E4T«d in Alcohol, aad piwa p trnKd' hj ■m»rt»fa uid dlofMo if 
tornm. The lMnrte-«slt.r Aftcf bcinp wwAgJ and pf«i««4, k ib- 
9okvtd u elKer, anrfl the wt* amI giMola gndull;^ fociDed In A* 
svlniuiv *n peptAteitty rrjiilfclSin il from father, rnioi tt»c litfTto* 
nil. the aod is MfMntad Ly wilAtik^ vith ether and hrdrwUDrfe 
»<:^ pipenm|r«ff the ethet«all^wrof fi^oid, ud diatm^cir ib» 
etber ; it ic med in « TAcmnn over <ni «f ricnol Mid n Mixtan <f 
0td|iliAtc of iim And time (ScfaftlFrK A cvnilAT method m ^mtkryitA W 
Ondcflnwutf, who, however, pfclen iwoptAliag tl>e Imrinte of M 
hjcfalarideflf f^skiimui AStranghr«mnuiaiAal AntnCMm. — ^ofriig*^ 
fi&i«M4i^withcaidenf kAdBndw^tcf.Al AgenilolMistf vitmulAlli 
P*b-r?^T fP^*^ ^' "^P ^^b ctAer. wkidk k«v«» Mttmmie (Mbnhli 
•cconlin^ lo Scfc&k'Tj »nd a Uule bMc litwIrAfff of l«Ad mMbssdlfrdi 
erApijntCA tbc rtwed sohiticia i axhI dnun|v»»-«i tU^ nwliw vilb 
fayitracfaktfic wrid- The aciJ ChoBolrtAined tawABbt-d iriih lioiHAj|WBlr& 
dwaolred in 4^tk«^ aim] recorered tr^ W A ftf fa ting the >»hitifcu (k. k* 
deooopoAes Um> ImJ-caIi with h]ri&o«i%ibario wndf iikd «xtncti ^ 
linoiMC Add with ctber. 

Pr>t^^im. FAial-ycUnv, liinpid> O^HOC aI H\ 
hAvihjr A hi^ r«^fTAc|jvc pot^^r, niid n vcAk Add rcncdoA. Drc*»4 
fitlnlih At-ia^. TsAteti mitd >t firvL, AftennudA }mnk fSchlkr). 
MiiTF limpicl ihnn poppy -oil (Otiit^inannR), Btrv*% fcnitrii A«d «^ M^i* 



aa c. 

.,« » ,, 

-« 33 .-„ 

If TO 




Dtf^mpaaitiojif. 1, On fltAiidb^ in the w- f or l<m 
At«orl« Ii p, c, nxygx:!!, and l^etome* \[»cid And l<ni,. 
tnkcA Qp more oiygeti t\us fnpahpr it is, nnd IhichvJiiL, 


.Al thf^ 


will Ecarcely flow, but rcmainB colourless, and docs not cvcilvc car- 
bonic acid (OHdemannnV A thin layer on wood exposed to the airfornia 
a vamisb; on glass it merely becomes tough (Sclniler). Linolcate 
of potJish or sodft, containing an excess of alkali, exposofl in the finely 
divided state to the air, absorbs oxj'gcn greedily, and bccomea yellow 
and dry; it then dissolves in water with dark brown-red colour, and 
ileponite, on addition of hydrochloric acid, a brown greasy rewin, 
Bitnilar to that produced bythcaetion of nitric acid (Sacc). — '2. Hy 
dry dvtiU/ithn, products are fonneilT different from those yielded by 
oleic acid (Laurent). — 3, With nitric ficii/, the acid sweili* up con- 
Biderably, and yields a greasy resin, suberic acid, and a little oxalic 
acid, the laat probably derived from adiiering ether (Sacc). The reein 
ifl lemon-yellow, but beomes darl? brown after repeated melting with 
water; it has an aromatic odour, h strongly reddcjied by alkalis, and 
•till contains nitric acid. After being sai>onified with caustic potash, 
a^in separated by hydrochloric acid, washed, and dried in the water- 
bath, it contains Gij'lO jx c. C, !>"20 II., and 2.) -70 0. Concentrated 
nitric acid slowly c<>nver( 9 it into snberic acid (fiacc). — When 1 pL 
iJQoleic acid is heated with 2 pts. nitric acid, a violent reaction ensues, 
with production nf a door>-Tod, thick, tenacious mass, which, after a 
while, again becomes limpid. After 24 hotirs tlie whole is transformed 
into a scrai-aolid mass, containing a fatty acid wliich meltft at 56° 
(probiblj ftlwftdj mined with Ihphnoleic ncid. Kr.), BUbeHc acid, and a large 
quantify of oxa!ic acid, (Bromeis, Ann. Pharm. 35, 100)r — Nitrous 
acid and tnei^urfius nitrate do not form elftiibc acid with linoleic acid 
(Pelouze &. Bondet, Laurent. Scbiilcr. Oudemanus). 

Comhiitations, Insoluble in icatfr. 

Linolfatis. — The mono-acid salts are difficult to obtain pure, and 
generally c^Jiitain too email a proporti'in of base, on account of their 
easy conversion into acid salts (Schuier; Oudemanns). They are 
white, for the morit part uncrystallisable, and separate from their hot 
aolutioriH in Hakes ; by sjyintaneons evaporation they are obtained in 
the form of a jelly. When exposed to the air, they become coloured 
and odorous. They arc soluble in alcohol and ether (Oudemanns). 

Si>tbi'i*aU. — When the acid ia dissolved in caustic soda, salted out 
with chloride of sodium, aiid dried, and the residue is freed from 
diloridc of sodium by dissolving in elher and evaporating the solution, 
an acid salt is obtaineil. containing 7'5 p. c soda, and corresponding 
to the formula 2(C»II"XaU*),C»U»0* (Ondemanns), {c»lo. - 7'7& p. o, 

Barjtii'fnit. — The salt proiiuced by chloride of barium, with tho 
add to which a large excess of ammonia has been adiled» contains a 
proportion of baryta varT,ing from l-2'04 to 24 p. c, (C«ir^BaO» ^ 23-46 
p.c, BftO). — White; separates from alcoliol,oi» coolings in microscopic 
crystals, and from ether, by sjKJntaneous eva[>oratiou, in more distinct 
crystals. Exposed to the air, or when kept, ami also on boiling with 
Ucohol, it becomCH yellow and sti-^ky, Dissolvefl very easily in ether, 
leae easily iu alcohol ; insoluble in water (Oudemanns). 

Lt/M-saU, Resembles the baryta-salt. It was only once obtained 
of the composition following, and mostly contained a smaller pro* 
portion of lime (Oudemanns), 




-«. IPS 
^«— *7 





^-_ I*>M 



S O 


-_ io<a 



, — an 

.,„.* lOOOO 


Tkc J^iAf- and J/i^wtfNf-^vii/f ar& insoluble in v«tcr. — Tbc ^^rv' 
«ift u» bloisb-^roeo, iAwtlnbte in waicr, and nearly »o ui alo^ 

Lead-KilK — Tbi> add diatolvee a larpe qaanlitj rif oiiJo of Wi 
and FnnnA IhE-rcvv-ith a noltd plaAter-likt? ma^^; wiih a Hmallr^r i|iiant]M 
of o:(idi^ of tend, it forms a tbick tlukl uhidi, mi i-iijHimJiT? to tbr iir. 
reiiJAitiM far a lon^ \\it\c. ^rvn/ty. ^rij nT ElU' i^mi^i^lirrjo- iif tilnFri.- .r 
(IJebip). Tbp <*t[ii»T>-ftI rtoluri»m of the (i-ivd-saU Ui-ori>^s n- 
during ovaporatioa, and Ihroiva dovni a whiW tiui^t' suit, tipOTi 
an Ji*^d, rcd-hmm, jrUy-likc jtalt is d<p*>flitt"J i UiIb la«t hni' fi 
Uneecd-oil, and flhowfl a varjiii^f i^»ni|K>HJtion i.i|i aT>*lvsi», — K^j-- - 
itk the air in Ibin bi>Trw u|hiij wimmI, luH»k*ftlc nf Inwl d^rt^s tot foma 
varnish, but auipe off m sealos (Satv), 

SUrrr-Joxit, Nitrate of silver ihrowa down from thf ib iilii-«dl, a 
wbdte precipitate, wLicb sood blookenn fntm rnlEiclifiu i>f eilvct. It 
dissolves Tvnddy in ar[nenaR amiuonia. and, mit-vafuiradn^ the fiojalini^ 
a |Kiii ton EU7F>t^ltii<4<ri i*ui ; aiitftti^r jicrticik is deconi|io«ed and coLm 

the liqmd bliu.-lc (Uudemanoft), 

TUe add diftsoWca eaeily m cfAc?-, less rasily in oicoAo^ 

Appendix ff> Liimttie Acid. 

Drying Oils* 

Tbt? <iL'gotiMft ofli occnrnn^ in nnlnre, uhii'K wbrn expncrd tu lb' 

wr in thiiiTaycrrs, dry lip to a truiifipiirt^iitn rfniuong, nrkt |irittlj>ina^ 
wxi flieo i" their ctbtT cliarBcf**ra dint ln^^l^^*hod in many vttyn Jrnm thf 

jioii-dryiiid nils coutaiiiinir olein. It i*( prolnMi' thjif tI" v ■ ■".;-. ..- 

in tbecMHO of linset-d-nil — the oiio most iiixtdniti-lj in" 

respoct— ou the <nio hand, aglywridv-nf liimlr^ie m-id, %^ ;.,. . 

W"u!d ff-nn tbc l»yf->lljetical dry fat ( JWrf-lv/i/ri/) of iht* '*!']■ 

ariJ I'll tin.' oiliiT haud» (>JLlmiIiii 0'^K^''l"''r with atoarin F). I'j. n.t *•■;- 

"'ff jin^k[H'riii"ih fif winch llu-ir diilt-reiiws are dn^^nuixu<d. la a» 

impiU'O dtari> they oonlaiii nUn nnioaM, (riiTri, and nlhiirmii, a« well aa * 

yullow oiduurirg priiidpk' iK>flB<*siTig iMte ami fi»n-[l- 

1_ lAnnrnliHi The coM-tin.-8st'(i "ilid th-* frenli Herd* la of a jut- 
yelfnw f^fdmir, Hini wiUnnit ifisft^^nHVib!!' laale. Tl»e ivmtnrrrial Ji» 
dark-Vi^lUiW, and h.iB n tihnrp i>enctr:uiri^ nmell and l^mt*. ?pn* 
emviry at 13*= OiifllZ (Sdiukr. Sehiihler); MSsr (^-nn K^r**-.t. 
iJeh. Ka/nt, Jafsrfstrr. 18&0. 701); **thcr arotpmcillflTury betux-^v. 

arid 0033, l^p Kf' "' 12° = *>^y^^ = <»* ^'*" - ^"^-^^ • ** ■^' 
0'0125; at yi' = 0-«8i5, the sp, gr. i>f watLT at Id' bnitf J 

(Sauaaure). D<h» not er-ldify at - i^ to — I tt' (Gu«Mrav)» ■« * 



— 30°(BrandiB); lutcording- to Schillor, it dcpo^ittt a littb Kolid Tat 
nt — I«^. — (JonLaine, oli an avunig-c, 7fl-U p. c. C, lOjlO 11, » and 
10"93 0, (Sfti») ;thi? i:cilJ-ii-awH fiil c-uniiLirui^, uii uii iLvrragf, 7&'l" p, li 
C^ 10-3H II., and 13-85 0., cnrrx'Sf-iiidin^ to tlio funual;t 0*11*0* 

(Lefcirt), (Sec SdQBiUFc'i ariftly^ifl, At». Ciii«t. I'St/n. 13, 33H). 

ContniijA mar^&rm (palruilirif acc'oriijiig to SctiUli^r; ^fijvnrif jLo<;ord- 
ing to U:iv«rdijrLFC'ii), aud limddo acid ia cnnilwiiiitbri wilL gljc^nn 
(Sacc)i Itj buj-hiailicatiou, it fields x'a^^' DLari^iLi&ti^, arid Vs^''^ 
hmdeati^ nf lend ((JUHScniw, Kimn. Ai-*:h. H*, 8UJ. 

WJii?n lm*^ood oil ia ospcieEii to suiisihinefor «ninp wpoks. In contact, 
witli »[i aijusous eolcitloa of au c^uul \rui^ht of siiEpliutu of iron, it 
becomes limpid and colon ritras. Expusod to llic airiiitllii l^i^t^rn. it 
dries up to ulraiL^|iarcrtt. ri^sincms, uiodi-rati-l^' elut^tiL' niEu^^t, EVsi.vtLliljiig 
caoutchouc- whf»T» fn«[itf»d, liowf^ver, it doos not. mrlL, tuu carbonisca 
atid bnrns (Leuchrj, AWr/i. Av^h. 3, H>7J. A pucnljar Tit la prudufA."d 
at tbe aimc time, together witli a crambly gabstnuco, luanluUt' io ftiiori 
ft^ that tUc drying praceaa sceinfl soinewhat to rtatMiLle tlie doixjm- 
jHjaiLinn of asiu (pm hclo»') (Hc4>p(.\ J. pr. Ch^ia. RO, \\7). MiJieti with 
chalk Hoaa tn forma pnwdt^r, nrjd eicpojiud tn the liir for four wi?<?ka, it 
dri^e up cc)nipk't<>ij ; and on digaoU'ing ont the carbonale cf lime wilh 
bydrii^bloric aciiJ^ aud pKhaiislin^ thv residue with ether, a white n^asa 
of tiie coii6i»teuco of iw is oUt^inoJ, wliidi Ijehavta Ukc oleic ai:id 
Mllj.'rtd Jfj I'Uhrtiiro to the air, Thcri* rciiLfUim iK'hind nMirmiin Ihi- 
eueil-riil in the form of a y43llowish cinijj^lomcriite niaiw, which ia 
Ifi^oluhlf ill aiochol, ether, volatlli? and fixed oils, id coiivoi'tcd hy 
aloolirjlic hydrochloric aciid into a taixy BubElancc, and didfiulrca la 
caustic polrtsh tl^'nrcrdorbcn, St:hw. 17, 245), 

Im[i;irc oil, cDntainnig mucur* tir idlniinin, beeofnfiw randd iti the 
air, more quickly in ^uni-iljirie, and \\^^ iXmn n rf?piilKive rHlniir tind U^tOj 
a diirk culouri and ncid reaction. ^CuutcrniiLg tUo rurnmiloii uf rix>miH?d 

Oijgcn ID th# uiidanon of Iin«c«(l-ml, aj^o S4.-li&nb£rm [J. pr. Vh'ta. 7i. 'SS^\. — 

Wbcn the oil ia boiliid for flomu time, till it losyft alunit j ol its woipljt, 
it becomes thicker, tcuacioup, and vi?idd^ and drioft up Htdl mnrc readily 
than \i\ the freub state, to a tou^h, tiu peutlnu-Ukt; nmsa, kcjuvl^Ij miIuLIc 
in oiIb : Pi-itit*-!'/ t*arninh. 

Linaecil-nil (nut- or p^ppy-oil^ heated to about 320° — 375*, takes 
fim and baruf* cjuietly, wii liunt further htiiliug ftum wilh"Ut, till tar or 
chftrcoal reuiainrt. If the buruiug be inttTrupli.d by diiHio;^ the vewjicl, 
then? remainet a brown, lur[fl^riLLm'-like body ealUil litfi-frnt^ \V|ieu 
tbiift ftiib*taiicc IK luiilod coTrTinuoujily with water eouTaiidn^ idtrie acid 
fwfttpr beinff uddod 8o aa to prevent thu to*) viofenl aclirtti id the aeid), 
nn rtdoTir of aciTjIein id c^mtitantly evoked^ midtliL- bird-lmie bct^')mo3 
aoUd, <*f the conmAteaee of plastt^r, rcscniblcB India-mbhcri niid tio 
[ong^r sticks lo the fiiiyTiTH. It ih Lhcii not completely fu*ibK', disfioWrM 
to au emulsion m tusnlphid^ of oarl>»ti, shrinks wl«n boiled with '^ori- 
c^^ntratcd cfliir-lio potatrh, disaolvfs ouly on uddiliuu of v*-ater, and itt 
njEjftin precLf'itaicd from the solution by acida. TIuh FinbflhiHi;c in 
Holubte in alcoh'iljc fititasb u-sid precipitablc by acids i it awclld iu ether 
frt't* from alcoUol, Jiml |nirily di(<siflvc:*a in w luryei ijuiuilily of othei-; 
alcohol preci|>i tales it from the solution, la rock-i^il it mvidln without 
diasolving; also in a little oil of tur|>[M]!i:ic, but diBJiidvcs e^tmjdctely 
ia a lari^r quautityi and rfmaius unaltered on i*va|>iiriition, Lmflccd- 
uiid unt-QiU yield ^ or 10 tiinc« as much of ihie catmlctiouc-Siku sub' 
stauceas poppy -oil (Jonas, jVh Bv. Arch. 4Gj ISD ; J.pF. Chcm^^T, 3ai)_ 




Submitted to djy dittUIation^ UuBCed-oil gives off, *r^tliriTit ^mflbl 
white vapotu"a, wbiuh cundcnee lo a i-oli.»Lirl(W» *»il ^i:t'. -M 

brcM<U no the ihB;i]>jx<>Lntiii:c of these vuyxiuitit \i 
CJ.\\^^\^\9, liiiil ,vii:l>3h <\ dlj^liliali." uf b[M>^']i 4-rji|iyicimi[ili' 

yitldfi by nby disUllaiiim ihe ^fiuii^ prmluclH lu |«»i»py-ul, ^ 

*7, 1I4J- Stdjih'tr di!*fiulvftfl in but biii4H.'cd-i>il ivilU ri-d *>4onr, jKirtiuH 
urjiNlalbfluiif f'U cijAuik:; uu lnugur bculiuij;, Ujc -^lI UiKi-p U|r. "ii 
rvi>liJti()Ji nf li^vdioe^uijjbtini.; !U.'id. jUi iiA w<'[j;liL <^if Eiid|jbiLr, ajid fi>] 
tliorewiLli a bruwii viscid iim^ii: /uttif h'ttnuit >*/ iuIfJmi\ t<# 
Jk.rvt £ r^L*t (V. Br. Af^h. 1. 15| ; ih]<J lUiikt^^h. (/ yr. i'h^r» W 

On di^liUiii^ IliiEC'id-oil Willi sidpliui-. u Iiip;-o .|UJvaiity of 
4H»lp1iunc ucid is ovolvod^ mid odiiijl {\. 1*7) it oLtairii'd, brtsi' 
|in:»ducta (AnUorfloii). LiiiriL'i'd-<*il dii^^J^iUve ^fUitiuut O^^^Im 
dibM>l\i'fl ui.'JU'ly YB *"'K''^*""'f "liUf fyhmx-hy il in nmdiTrfJ h<.L*^i* 
ciiiitAhlc hy oil ijf vilrin] and \\yi\\\iMiiyiii nM, and ft:\ 
iilkaiis [W. Henry, Schw. J. 2. GiJ^J, — Phi-^turiis Iiocijujc'^ 
by boiliiijc witL liiibot'd-oiL (liLiiibc!U. J. ftr. Chaiu M* ^0T>- U^ 
with J its ffciji^lii of (>lii>flp}iorus io "j^ iW <iil bt'<Xfiin."B browwlN 
iirid Jii'lyf cocliJig la Wlbcij utid iiisubibk- in UuHCLni-uil i \ j.In^^^Jwrw 
Tiiriu^ n diiii tiir, whid] nitxi'>i iv:tb dryiii^^ iiJU ^JuiiEis. S. Jfr. ,AnL^ 
70. \S\iy — AVlieii tiuEt'titl-Liil in Ih'uUhI with ^ Wri*, lliuri? ^.*iia o^i 
firat ioJiuOj tbcii au om]*yri>un»utic L»il c^jlourud brikwii Ly iMmo; afl 
vianU whitL' vapi>iirs oi nydi iodic «oid avg tvolvul, Wic^vM l.y 
ycllirwLcih oil, tijul ni lu^t duiioiul cuntnlnmj^ iudijic TvuiNiri- ^1! 
y, /ir, (V*rHi. lA, *J^\).'^ Jifitmimitfi! Iisi^fti-t>ii is lir»wr» (- 
p|ii4>ll^bke hnst'od-od wlu-u UouU-d, hnf< ^\^[l. gi', i^f l'S4^< a: 

C/JoniitiUii liiii*it^i-oii ]A a dai'k>yL*Qow, lliltk Uuidi nfeip. ^r- 1 < 
uiiU i^iiittiiifiiiiWiii. c,Uilonhr(0»UPJl*H>'nLfriirl. .V, J. - 
:^i^y ^Uii iniT^ing from \l\ to 25 ^iin"i» vhhiiiU ni Kutpktr mib <!"■ 
Imtiet'il-oU, iMiiiil^-lLOito-Mkc i>iWuetH aw nbt^iiHTd, whuli aro th^ i i< 
tbo inrjrc (;lih>ruk- of ttdjiliMr lfH.-y o^riliuii, itiid UJX' hoi ^^i^ ' 
ijjodvir.iU'ly dibii<> aijid^^ and aijiumje alkiditt, \a\X uu: uUiumt 
livd bj i;inicL-riti"ati'd ulkuiih. Tbfj becrnni.' bronu fit 1^0 '^j \\sv.\ r.i . ^ 
jihU UK'U ut ^ \\\s\\*3Y k>ui]ii.TnIiiri\ Iho iiddlduii of 5 [>, C i'bt>r 
EfidUiur tb:t'la'LBliOHX'd od* bui drica iif-r cuiiw? it f^ bni'iicii ; Ibo [t' ^: 
BUll rxiiibiu lo eijvrjiils tlu^ auini:' n-bkliium lui tii<^ fully 'hU. \^ I 
lu u 8<jbitiori of 1 |ijkTl IJiit4t-t'd-oil ill <^U (■■' 4u iiiirjB bi^tdi'hidi* 
bull, \i qmuility id L'bLriilt^ uf kuI|iIlui lh widii-d i-r|u:d fii (i 
U'4'iglit '»r tbr' nil, tbo iiilxtiit't^ ropitsdj)^ Ihiiil W Miriii< "\ 

up to u i^nniish r)T» wood (IVnn, i'o'n/it, frnd. 47, H7>^. - ^. 

ratd. 47,1+7^). — With | iU Volutiie 1J^«ynlpyy»^^*nrrV -n-ui, Ii 
Im'i>jihl*s biuivniflh-yi'llfptt' or y:rLVii (CiJ^i^rtJ.— Cidd *-*? «r 
ULiloum it vrllowUb-broHJi (iijiullii-c do ri:iHbr>)i ■ 
(lioiiJonii'uJ^ vi'ij K*'ri"kln>rf) ; it mn^ubilt^ fbc '*il, . 
n?d, vi'di't, lutd l>Wk. and inulvcB i^idpljUL 
i-i'liliJlii* ftl hrsl a bingb. Ilttok, TOpv^ rta|H.j. . 
thtK UaL. WLiti'i' and ulo^lnd t^iko uji nut'^iaifkii'? ^ 
^dulin: tttttrhtn'i' tti-iijh-Uit tnum'ti, A Jiiiihii'i* <ki 
nd with 1 vol- tiiirpbiii'io B<.'»il irr H|i. ^-v, I '47^ l(» 
vi^^^^u»lyi bo<>>mi;n ^vix-u it) 16 mjjiQk'D <1<dvvil). 

► .U<IQ 

-1 v- 



Unooed-Dil ore rmx&d with 7j p;r, 8u1fihunc n^id coutaitiitt^ 90 p. c. oil 
of vitriol, the IctQpcratiirc ristH to 7j° (FMUiff Dw{/f. 129,53), — 
LLnsetMi-oil titkw fire witti fuiuing mVnV ficii/. LiTJtsi.'ci-, bt'iD]i-, auU 
po]>py-tiils laki> Trri.' n\i>iv t;\ir*\\y tliitii iiiir-i>il ; wllb liiliitr nir rk' iind H^n 
fijililion of 6nl|jhurii; add is iit'ws^^urj' ^Koii*>lluj- A vigor^niwl^ uliukcu 
imitur^ of lJiiscE;d-i:}U tvilh j ita volume of iiilritr ^'kl of up. ^t. I'lS 
tcj \'2'J, bccomen yollow Iti 5 miiiutcfl; with acid uf 6(j. ^r. i'oS. ^Tct-a 
to btrjwu I with nilro-BiiljjLuriv; (i."i|ual i)iir(,f4 of oil of vilriul liuJ xiitrio 
ai'id), ^i-wni (CiilvtTl, Ki/Y. Affii/. [4] 7, Kil ; J. pr. ai^iiu 61, 3o4).— 
(See aJso Lescallier, X P/mnn. 13, 20:11 Liuf*L'L'd-oil wbakeii Willi 
water and very dilute aitric neid, is derx^loriaed after sodqo lime, aud 
converted into & varnish (A^t/t. 1763, 411). Uu dropplu^ sT tii 1 drama 
of etrou^ uilric ouid iuto u huiida'd-weight lif liul iiiiectiJ-i:)!!, u nKmy 
6cdiiiu*ul in formed, witli frolliiiig-, iind Ihtf oil in ulwn^d In a vMniirtli, 
as with tixido of lead (Jouas, Ami^ P/ifirm. 31, '2A&}. — A iniitof'e of 
J part Uat^od-oii ojid 2 part^ i^ommoRml iihfn^ aoid, lu-atod with 1 timua 
ii9 bnlk of w^tf^r, ao<ii»irta a. red colour, eweih* up, fTolveB nitik: uxide, 
and foiiud u tough, cliMLiu re^izi. Th'm lu^t uoLitaiuu mur^oiiL' Jtcii], uud 
liie motber-liqiior malic mul Niiberic iu;idB. Hit' rtain, UeatL-d with 
uitnr Qcid, agaiit becoiiJGH oily, and is tliou decompoaef] (tfie nnir^ric 
^d ordy r^'mairha^), with Ftjmiatkm of aubi*h(; And [Njcclic ncidt^, and 
A volatile fftttyfiuhrtlmico iutvi^g the otldur of butyric add (8*h:i;), — 
With nitruii^ acid bjiJiivd-uii dofis not fona cWfdi^ acid (Pelouzc & 
Boudol). In cTintHi^t uiib atjiieous mnmouiit aitd alcubot, It ia attached 
with difficJtUy, and yieIJa it Binall qua.iiiily of warly cr^'sUbi of an 
oroide whiob uidtfl at lOO^t sobdilii^ at 97^, G.nd di^aols'ce easily in 
aloidiul; it contains, on &a avcrairt^, 75'25 |n e, C, l!J'02 II., urul 5-l>3 N,. 
and Ijjui t!n?r<<forr tlie compobiLion of mitr^acdiuldts witlj \\hJdi it ia 
idfiiti.^il (KiiWuey, J. jyr. Chem. (i7, ISIfJ- — LiiisttyWiil yii-ldrt with 
alkalis^ a vory &.»ft soap. On b<?uling with i il^ vj-ilume of rauatie 
cH>da oi fp, pi'. I"34, it tnrriR yellow and reruaius Jluid (^.'aivt'rt). liy 
distilliifion wilh an exccfia of alkali, it cvi.tlvt^H hjdr<.»j>;uii, !ij|c^thcr wita 
& fiiiby odinii', jtnd yirdds n ^lvl-u diriLillati! (AL M(illcr, Ihiudtcttrla-b* 
^^74). — r'^jffi^nf/m und wv/i'um iixiilise in lirir^fM-oi^ tinini^wbiLl moro 
quickly llian in voliUilo nil^, with fonnulimi of soap ^Oay-LutPac & 
TWoard)* LinsOL-d-rtU iP ojtidipud witli |H.'i:uLar fjieility by hU-Jufif/toU ftf 
fX'fiaft and diiulo fmlphuric ftcid, atid jirlds nil acid, ritrong^y ftmelling 
diHtillaLc(Atv-biij:h('r, Ann. P/amn. 7:1. ll'"J).— It diriwilves oxidc^ of lead 
wb*^n bfiiied, and \fi Tleooffiriapd rheri-hy and rendi^i^od mnre pjisily 
drying, foiTnin^ what ia called hoUcd oil (see Liebig, Ahp. Pharm^ 
lii, 110 i \\\ Uunry, Sohcr.J.H, (J36; Miiiidk'r, j\. Jir. Arcfi, ii, llGj 
VtUTeTitrajip. Iltiridivdrtefh. 3» 123). — Wlnm ehakcn with hiifitc acetate 
tifl^nfl ■hit] h^ft at ri.'Kl, it tlirirw^ do^\ii a tnrbid nincup LXiiitaiiiJiij^ oxide 
itt lead, above which i^ n yellow Titriilt^b eontairdng 4 or ^ \% c. oxidt) 
of le*d. — Kxpoetd to the sun in troi^tjitrt with vifrcvriL^ oridf, it retluces 
Ibfi mercury to a liquid maee (Kuohp, Ann. PJtaiin. ^\\ 20<'); paHial 
■Muctioij takec place in flirting' eunabine, tbo oxide becoming MtLckinh- 
S#»t; but it. is only when boBi iw applied, thai a ainnllijnJiuUty of inotal 
U rtWined {Ann. Phnrm. 2(», 300), 

LineiJed-oil aboken wilb an equul volume of nlt^ohnl of ep. er, <VWI5j 

wdourti it deep precnish -yellow (Djfcvidaon, Kflint, ;V. Pi-il J. "250; 

j^p*'- Cf*eirt. 20, 2U5)i it given up ttf boiling alcuhol of <!0 p. u., with 

^■rtJnl df^fohnatioO) a DtLle acid, rchin* and ci/lounug uiutt^-r. VV^hen 

'Qftkcji with ateclute aleoLol it splits up into ttillow, an oily ulcobol^ 




liridatialcfiholicni! Cr^«> Mayer, Beri.JaMj. lftS7, 1- lift), — It rfiii»rr1r*s 
according to liimhWi, in sibout 5|>ar(e boiling, anil a r>ArfP r ' ^ 

rkx;orJjjig to lliuudcti(G'iVd, i4, £tiy) in 3i iniit* aic«hi>l *.! -_ ^ J' 

limwiii*:h vello* at first; jdlow after eX|>o«iiro toairan-iUgtl. Sn, 
fMJ27(l^Sc"hiibIer), 0-i"i8 ftl lU^ (Tnmmsdorff), [I-02G7 (van KrrekWI 
«^[[>i.'lfa like hc^mp aud bos & mitd Lv<U' ( Hiictiholz). Coutujiw I'ti 
JiVfi-a^, 7097 p, C, 0,. W" U. and I7'^6 { Lofi^rt), Chlmittntnt Uu 
nil \k yHlriwinli-lirtiwn, nf X\\p rJin^tistencj' of h<]nfy. ami <jf Hfi. 
1'I04 ; it COQtaiDB27"35p. c chloriiip. Brotai'nated Hr/np'Ott i^ 
yr'llnw»fkf biitU'rvctjuiBieteTUTi', liaaa ep. i,T. of 1 '-4 II at lU'S, ,► 
4(f'3G f. <:. broniirie- Lct'oil givea for the two Uip formula: ^.'^L I'll'^J'' 
and C"*Iti'[l'"U'- — Tin' uil m t^jbrnifJ ^ipt-a vrhi^a shiiki-ii with |t^ 
i"f ilA vnliinif.' i"f eyn]|);i" f/nfijiftorit ncnt. al^u, nfter }h miiintt-s *D> 
aliLiktu witb tbc snnio |ir<hj»orlioii fif iii/^iAirric ^nfi nf hji. pr^ I'A'S 
l"G3r>, and ID 5 mmiitii: wilb riiVnr ivt/J of sjl (H"* I'l>t« Nitric wi*I 
ep. ^. l'i2 to l';J3 ci'l'Mirs it grici'uisb iliilj-brow-n ; nifr^Mi 
iu.'id Muck. Jifti^r U'li [iiIiiiiU'^ (Oalverl). — Siiiioriidrs wilb dilficul 
oidy afUT l^n^ b'ljCiri^. yiftdiii^ a pniris]t-8ii:i|i aImihal nv ^i^ft 
ckbtiLiciod wRb Iil])^u<.'0-oi1 ; tho sodu-Armji j^i'^mle 4trd by uall U ali<^ 
(l'romiiiMdiii'n')H llontL'd ^viib |1biti^tulk vi diolufioii i>f i-aasEic 0<Hiai 
sp. gfi I 34, it ia tiilimriL^ yclloviieb-li'r.iwn, iLml tliickt'iie, w» liiaJ 
Jites not [l'»:v fiom tbe iiivfrlt'd v*'tirt*'l (Catvnrl). — Pwjfinlvw* ii» 
jLfirW of cold, and in nil pmimrlliuiH nf U^iliri^ nh?<oluIf^ tii 
{Htiuhhfih^ A. Gcftl. M, CI5); a Rolutiftn \u 1'2 laitt hot idje-dutoak^'hi 
lir'j.if'eilfl rttOiitiii in Ihc cdd (Ti-onimydrn'rf, J./, frrhn. ('Arm It>, i'l 
Diesolvcs completoly ui etfitr, witb t^n^on Tcllovh-bh colour.- 
Itcaal (.Hnn. fAim, «4, 2G1) ; Heee t/^. 38, 380| 

3. Pfpp^-oit. From Iht- «ul-iIs of Pupnrrr gfannifhyrm^ P«l**-yr 
liriipid; t^»\vB »4Uffblly «li:iqi llkt iiul-oiL Nfl^Mlndn H|», ^t, t>»l; 
(lJr!inilr.fl ^ Itndic). 0'L»22 (Hi^d<*), l»-^(iitrt 0*rit^*'ft», <*^' 
(t^L'biiblcr), U'llJj^ULcfciunt'), Do-.'s not poliilify or iHTomi' lutbij*! 
— W to — 1-2'' (lin*Mcrow> SubililSr-s nl — l>*' u(kI j» not t'ul 
tlmwvd iu lluvo bourn at — 3' (Urandts), CoiitniTis 7'!'<vl (u *'- C-. II' 
H„uud 11-71 O. (SaRL^J-, "U\\\o ixy*-rufft.;77'^i.\. IJ-yi H„nud]M9' 
U''-'l^"*''0- ContAJim liiMitt'itj aad (U»idi'ninriii6), piobAl-ly lojn^i 
with <dli('r ui'iilis, un ^IjcoiidL'h: Irv tiu)Hoitbv^«-iltirit, ^'4 p. c. ;;tio 
and l«5 1 1- C- faiiy ar.iijw are obuitipo ; I hi' LiUiT ari-Iluid nt at' Ui li' 
and nl lo^ btT'ime thi(.'k. itnd do|w>4it rriEir^irii' tu'id : tn>tn liMi ]■ 
■ ■r |]j<'Lr k-nd-tidlH l^iIu'e- tnkos il|i 81^-3 piiru (I J^v■'t<^>^^^ Ai^ffL. ^: 
lil- 8<)), Tbe oil ^^M[lL'hd Ijv illitT from Iht? i*<*oi|fl of the whrtt 
jM^fipy dooM tjcfl u«]iilu[ii nM^rpbioi.' (Muiiiibi. y. J, rhnrm, 2X 
I'lm^iv-i^U tlirtiws Jo^vn at ^iHi' a i\f>{tttH\i of sibny Ki-»|rti, uitA 
ipiJrr'c"lourK»BB! sijon afl^TU'Hrda it l«>iK and ovoIvj-k, with 
triitio^ odinir, t^rbun-ttcd h^'<li"u|^i"n and i-iirboujo uxidv ^rtuif*, wttfc 
wbirh ii bull.' iJirbotiJc a,a*\ ia niixud ut llic coninit-hi\.'mi.*ut imly, Tfc» 
lirsl illHldliirr, iininiitiliiii^'' to J of l\n.' uil, i'i jtJlm, [id« a jwwjfJ 
nd>iiir» ^lod i'«oi^rsdH nx ^ii" to iL Aofl itiiki^: it i« i^ftinjfHii'd of a ^& 
ipianlify "F <d«'ii' ncid, a Uttio inJir^rtm^ ti'^honi- and AiTolk^ ^^H 
urvtd'iti', Eiiid ritiiiyroNiniitir oit».— Tlo- *'i\ twu^-Lioitf; iti tb4> rp|ni«^^| 
a )ionioj:riU'oii>^, rii^riir-riitltd, bniwn [imht*, and i^rnittiiriH lao nia/]{^^^| 
uicL- Ai'id : when tbis itf a^iibj ditliUod till j irf ilia wliuLc i^vtaflfH 



oil h^ passed oven tti^re la oStiiined, withont aiiy rejiulaive odour, a 
|iii!e-^roen nefliral dislilhtt% wbidi rpTUHlns lluM nl 0". and turns dark- 
btNin-Q in the nir; il p>snL'S'^t'fl a fllighTly omjiyreumnlic hut uot irri- 
ttiting odour, U i[ifl<>lul>l<? in cuiHtiu potasb and but sUgbtly fioluble in 
akv.ihoL— Lafltly, ou &*ill fiirlht'r bcnliii":, wboreby Lhe oil ta ooloni'ed 
ADd carWiieed ami llif Ui-itriiiii of i\te ti-iott becomes red-hot. yellow 
vjqnnira ariw. c^niisisliiiy jmilijiMy «d ohrysunn (xv. 1) (BuMjy and 
Lefann^ X Ph<iriii- II, 3^!I ; j^^/rt. Cfiim, Fh/i, 3(), 5). 

Pi*ppy-'.>iJ {JXidieoM quicklp ju Urj ^f(r, and aj>(>oare to be more diy- 
itijfthfirL IJiinecd-oil (SatcL — Wben it ia hciitt^d witb hk-hronuite o/poUt^ 
and «iitphuno add, a »iiUd fat, oapmic Hci<], and a tti?iitral oil puHaesaln^ 
the rhHractersof valeric :Jiltiby<l« i3ii*Ul fu'i.»r j the nil unntatTie H8-h54(Jh, 
11*78 il» and ll»-ys 0. (Air^Udlor, ^lf»f, Phurm. TA, 500,— Phi>apIio- 
ru» diaawlvefl, aeyorJiu^ tu Bunhb^fl/.j iti 3[J pai'ln of ^old, i*nd 34 parta 
Iiot puffpy-ojl, jmrElally cryatalliuiu^ on djiiliii^ ; ibc.- soliLtiuii rihitK'S in 
\\yv ilurk, fumce wiadmisaion of aifj mnfUttlikc plioajibuiLtlod hydrogcui 
and e^iilves that ^ts when beatril - tlii; Hiiililiitii of li liitle volaiiU- oil 
jift»veritB tht plu*nj>lior<?sc*'iirr(? (Knlilei E, nSf'/iFif. 47, yr.ti). See Boil^L^r, 
j^fAir, 6S, 1 1.i; Wa!tki>r, Poyy. 6, l^.i), — Ai^nlnliimyf 1 part pbospbonia 
111 Id partti p{>ppy-i>il ueparates^ at 7o ' to liK.i'^, into a ix'niianont'y ^id 
portion auJ a 6ld»^taltcG rescmblixi^^cnrnitclioucCJonaiS, A\ Dr. Ajl'A.70, 
139). — <Jtlili*riria1ed-|»iipjiy oil is dink-^>olb>n-, of t\\\i consintejice rjf 
caftltif-oilj of Bp, ffr. l"070 at '^^, a'ld coritaiue 30-4 p. c. cbloriue, cor- 
retwmdin;^ to tbo formula CtJPIl^O*, Hroruiimtcd poppy-od lm palo- 
yrli^w, of ep> ^r, J':J7n at 2^, and coritairifl 3(l"r>3 p. a bromine, 
agiT?(Mii^ with ibe Jrinuiila C^HHll*!!' C^^^'-'i't),— t^?c also Kiiop ( Phirm^ 
C'^rr,lh.54, 3j?l,4miiiuUllH,) — Tiitorattd wiiii|of itrtweyiLuftU^mia 
c/hmr, it ff^ruLH a ttiick aiiap wbich dit^^ not l^eooiim cli*ar wbeti loft at 
n^sl; by au;itatioTj with ai|in.'rmh chlni'idi.' ol lirno, It ita ii'[i<ii*FV'\ torun;ii>iip, 
JiDiciilllTliqiiL'rinlfli.-. and i*ticky. Wtitu In cub. t.^f.'jit, oioil '•]' t^ih-wi are 
cautioualjitddi.Ml lo 1*0 g'l'ammcB pnppy-oil, tbo tcmpcratun.' rises Io74'5°, 
wir.b oiijjhidrriLbU- j'l'ulbiij^* froui tlie evuliidon of il Eavj^^i^ (|uaiiti(y oF 
lUlphiiroud aoid (Maiimout, O'tapt. rmiL 3.^, itli). Wbcu 15 graniraea 
poppy ^fiil oro mixed witlj 5 ^LiLiniiica inl '>f vilriol, the torn peratare risea 
trt 7(K {Kdiliiiif). Pu[jpy-t>il ii* not coloured by ftgitalion ^vHh J ila 
bulk of butpZiaric acid of sp. ^c. l^iTh to i'G^J^i itor by aiaiil^ir tiuHL'- 
uitnt with niin'v in-Ul *if sp. ^i- 1-18 ; uitric ai:id of up. ^r. r^:i rnloun* it 
y^tLiwiftli-rcd ; ibat of ap. gr, 1 33 colonre it ryiJ (L'alvtTt). Wirh 
alcobidlc ffflinioni'j it yicldn, ui'jrurfadilv than linsi^-d-oii, wjirty t'ryi^lala 
of aa amidi?, wbich rni^ltfl at W^'' (solidiiifs at 12'' : t'arlot), dmaoK-ca 
randy Ju alcobol, and ba±^ the compositi'ru uf [aurpirimklc. fStw beluw.) 
(Itowai'y, /. pr, Cfieiii^ (17. 100). — Easily Kiipoiiifiid, and ^> i<'lds, ac- 
ciirdiu^ to Pidltjtior, a Hoft soap; ai^oordiog lo Suc^^ ^ very wbUo bai*d 
noap, lA'hfdi dotti not uiidvT^o altLTotiou in tbo air^ cvoa whim it 
contains free alkali, and ibi'iiifure diiI*.'rH pr<»bitUy from the soap 
ulitaiikod froia Uiisced-od (Saix:, iV. Aim. Cfn'm. Pktjs. 27i 482). 

Poppy-oil difisoket) ill about 25 purtB uold, aad 6 parts lot 4j/4?oA(»i, 
and uiiae* witb tthtr^ 

4. Wiitivni-oiL — From the kernul of Jyjhtis rfijia. Hrccuisb, soim 
turuihjiJ fiub?-yt>llow. ^p. gr. t)-92 tUmiaUsj* 0-:1^2T fllnsr^iiji), li'026 
lfi*iiibl*rr), i)''J-2i-3 at 12". rj-Uiyi at a^-, 0-071 at 94% tilt ^K gr. of 


r ftl 15^ being 

: W^uuur 

e). laodocou^^aatga 




- irtnsH&i Bk ^ad, MB Miiinff mt - 5* (DtwIm); fanktt 

A'm. Onm, ^Ipu U, SffiV <» t^ a*cn» 70-^7 p. o l\. H-^ a, 
mad I7« 0.(UA[irt>.-'B«& ftbcmM^ 1S«MWV> Dvw bslUt 
ibBB liuerd-cqL — A moLom ot vafa^-cd 3 Ubc* in ihkiwi B in 
eofitaet with a^giefi orir wteroEry in tin ■h«dr% ttbvurbvd im lli« 
frrt «i^ Mc«iti« <Mlj 9 vo l w et «if oxjgem, aftd in the folkviqg 
Un tkye (m ^ogMl) mil ml cote CC Tolnimcg ; tlua nfjid ftbwf^ 
tioo droi^Md (nda^j, mad atoppcd mltoifwtlHr mt Uie «h1 if 
OcUil»r. Bf dat tine 145 vnlonai im mU hmd bet^n mlwcbaL oad 
21 Tftliiimni flf cwfcoue mod evolwd^ witbooi fomutioii tti 
«0iarB«dmma*pmrrtti jriljrvUdi did not produce m gnMij 
pmpcr (SmuwnroV Wmlnat-od bekmreo tovmnla phuvqdKinu 
nmc imifmrr »» pr^pfij-oiL It fonns m jvQov cJhfcrwwW W i/ ibi 
ODBvtsace of iMniey^ of ap. gr. I'lll mi 1:^^, miui asiifjiiftiiig. mooutdiu 
in hetort, tJ'l^ p. c.iA^vae = i.^^PB.^if; mod m nnttlmrly ocJcttBed 
inmmiaed ^ of btl gr. 1409 ml J7*JS ccutmiiiaip 4<><» tx c. bnMM 
= C^Bi'UXO* (Ufort). Tbc oUt fdimkifi wiib | itm bulk of d^^JUrW 
deaf ol ep. ^. 1'4T^ U> l'SS», exhlUls ki m i^Dmiun' li mji buw ft 
browiidi or brown CDloiir t vbefi eimAvfy &re»ioi v^ttfa lucric atidii 
vp^ gT- I'JSi it is 4%kk»af«d yellow in firo iiiuifit«« ; will) nitho mcii <# 
0p. gT. 1-22 to 1-53, khL SynifV jiii^i im; flnJ msd ■dro-4«Jf4w* 
aMOobor it (the latter id twomiiitrt^s) bnnrti'jrclkvw mad dvt'Uiiwm 
(CahcrtL AVitb alcDboli<r uimMu mi 'a . it fi>nna m vcij HunD ijumntitj i^ 
ui miii»ie MHlidifjiiig mt 6d'' <Oftflet, Far. Sk, Bmil lft&»^ t» ;S> 
TieldB, lifc^ linsaodod, m soft aomfk 

fi, Grfijft'md-oil. From llie senls^ fViu i-in^/Vni. Tb£ expcowd 
cdl of tlie freah &&d wA£b«<l scetk b oilimrli-AM ur ^vUow, hatIj 
tnodoRiutt, mod bmfl a sfreetisb mrocuktic tm«1t>. S\u, ^. 0-l^t (0'734T 
Hulla&dtl It rcmaiD^ fluidst — 6% bvil ^idilicA to m tiuttrt?' ihami it 
^ IP- Poftaeaaes liryiog propertka. iuid wLuu uKpoeed to tbe mV 
Ijvowiefl 1igh|-jt'll< iw, vimTil, and nuit'id (|">iMiiiiiaA, mocordiu^ 10 
Hdiondt)^ U'heii sapoiiitied, ii forms a Tcllm'->^'"y. very aoft ANA 
vliicli, by distillation with pLoapliorio arid, y^tlJ* v T '^ -.-^c ify 
di^i^lJuu witb ^xidc of lead, it ronia avanucb. Il i? !i. 

«mfHly soluble in hot abaolittu alcdW » «oltib1c in mJi irni.kni^-u* ui 
ether <J. Foiit«?ii4'll^. J. Chim, Mfii 3, m { ScbnvbaLrr^, j/fy. i'i^ik 
2S, 1511 ; Laiidcren J^'';»rf- C7, IU8, Ho1l;uidl, i^bmn. I'i«^. 1, IfS). 

gr. 0'02ri : rnthrr thJikrr tLati liiu#»l-ciil » betxnuiTS ^-t^ <bk% im 
turbid at ^^ 1Q', and solidit^r^i at — ?7'^'- Inod^im^t^; ta*lva ndHi 
is 1)01 )hoi«f>iioiiB. Drio-sBlowlylSchubWr}- Y<:IIow ; has m fuftl nbo^ 
like rape^; drying | Bodiur k I3ucbuurt Rfp<rt^ IT, 8(1). 

1. Od of TohftecD^Med. — From A'iro/hrfuff rafionm. fftJt 
yellow, of sp. gr^ 0'92:t:.^ Nearly an tliin aa b«iup-uU, uid |i«Tfccdf 
dttid at — 15^ iuodoroufi, of mild U8t4; (8cbublor)k 

8, (W i>^ //rtiftontf-Kfrf- — Prom J/yi'^tyttmus n^fer. Sp. ct, WU 
(Brandisl : coliitirk'w, nu>deraUl>- dnid. 1 no-lnrniif^ : (a«ti>« BttkL Kot 
L-o]iJ|ik^Hy fJiJiiTiL- III iiO|ian«o'j|diLt)GubiirQliH>boif itm&dmatJ; PoUb 
in i^tb'jr (bmiidis A'. 7K 5, 1, 4U> Wbctlicr or oot it tB m dmoc ^ 
not ttxactlj known. 


9. Sunftoteer-oiL-'^YTOTa tlie st^ede of HtUanthus annvu^. Pale- 
TcUow, of ftp. gr_ 0-9262- Thicker liian licmp-oil» thinner than poppy- 
oil. Solidifies at — 16° to a while-yislluw muss. Dries slowly 

10- OH from the seeds of Hcspci-is jitatronalis. — Greenish, becoming 
brown in time. Sp, gr. 0'!>2tti*. Perfectly iluid at — 15", nearly 
inodorous; dries easily (Sob vibler). 

OH of Qold-of-Pleasure-se&l. — From tbe need of M^gruta tativunit L. 
Cartt^tut »ativa. Dec. Palo-yellow, of sp. gr. 0'9252 (Schubler), 
O'D'232 (Lefebvre), 0-9234 (vao Kercboff). Thicker than hernp-oii; 
becomes veiy viscid at — 15', and solidifies at — 19° to a white bntter- 
Nearly inodorous and laeteleas (Suhiiblfsr). — According to Hetiry 
{J, piiami. 16, 71)i it is yellow, has a powerfnl odour and taete, does 
not eohdify at — 6'^, but cougeala at a lower temperature, and is not a 
drying oil. Contains a bttle hydrosulphocyatiatfi of sinapinc ; yields a 
aof t soap. 

12. Creas-aeed-oil. From Lepidi'um saCieum, Brown-yellow; of 
0p, gr. 0924; thickens and bccomcH turbid at — 6* to ^ 10°, and 
congeals at —15° to a yellow mass, lias a peculiar enmll andtaete. 
Dries fllowly (Schiibler). 

13. Gotird-eted-oiL From Curcuhita Pepo. Pale-yellow, of sp, gr. 
0^9231 ; the most viscid of oils, next to caalor- and uhve-oiis. SoHdi- 
fi^ to a grey-yellow mass at —15*. Inodorous, tasteless ; dries slowly 

14. Oil of Madia &ativa. Deep-yellow, viscid. S\\. gr. 0'935 at 
15°, after purification^ 0'9286. Solidifies, acciirdhig to Winckler, at 
— 10° to —17°; according to Riepol at -22-5. Absurbs, in five months, 
150 times ita bulk of oxygen, and becomes more viscid- By exposure 
to the air in a tbin layer for sbt motitlm, it is ti'ausf orined into a tough 
white mass- Nitric oxide colours the oil brown-red; when the action 
ia continued for a long time, and the oil ia afterwarda exposed to the air, 
it becomes nearly colourless. By digestion for a longer time with oxide 
of lead, it becomes ahuoat coUmrless, thickens a.;d reaemblea Venice 
turpentine (Kicgel, JaJirb. pr. Phurnt. 4, 34o). Yields, by eaporiifica- 
tiou, a Bohd acid melting at fjU^, probably palmitic acid, and a liquid 
acid which resembli-'S oleic acid, but ap[X?orti at the aarue time to be dry- 
ing; the latter, is jxsriiajis, a mixture, it ctintaioa 7G-0 p. c. 0., 11 II„ 
uid 13 0. (BouBBuigault, Compt raid. 14, 3fil). The oil from Madia 
Mdiva (the same which Kiegel and BoussingauU investigated! Kr.) 
yields, hy saponification, no volatile acid, but traces of ai^ acid tbe 
lead-salt of which is soluble in ether, and a solid acid melting at 54" 
to 55°T flTid sobdifying to a lamellar crystalline mass at 52 . This 
last is C*H"0* ; it cojitains, ou the average, 75-6 p. c, C, 12-56 H.^ 
And 11-WO., and in the silver-salt, 52-76 C, 8-80 H., 32-14 AgO,, 
and 6'80 0, (Luck, Ann. PAarm. 54, 124)- Luck's acid is a mixture 
of stearic and palmitic acids, perhaps with a third acid (lIcbtB, Po^g^ 
92, 600)- 

15. Wbad-ittd-oil. From Rtseda luteola. Dark-green, of sp. gr. 
0^358, particularly mobile, even at —15". Has a repulsive odom" and 
taflte. Dries easily (Scbiibler)- 

16. OU of Scotch Fit-MML From Pinua si/ivettrist L. Brown-yellow^ 

9j4 tkxah ^loxn c^p>. 

*^ —!«.'- iui k liLi.- .'it.'Xz li: ;i-fcT :c T^<cfiTiite. Dnet easily 

;r. .'-T ./' r-_:'-*.;-i>. ?r fr.-;l-t *»i*r5* :^" ^iiw cnrffeL Dec. ; ff«M 
-iifi!^ I- :r;_ jr. .--^t^t; j-r-j t, r^:L.*^i±_g ccid at 15"- Hm w 

1?- -.-.T -■ T'.'v- _^.-_' -.^-. r- cii--k# /V-iid, Dec. i^mu ftoi, L 
t-::.k:>:-i_-T Ti^Hr^-H-*,^,- tL- r_;»rr -r-:-!?. Br: wL-yenow, of sjx gr,*j:. i^i k:":-!:--* tr> i-r iij,»-i ^ s-_^T V::niLg *eii**lion in the 

laik-T It ^ k : i:"LrT -: "_-. >-^ kii v.linl-v ^-li vi ihe Eeed-capeale 

«~l-^ :i,7 :i:T7 .l . : :iit k.': lz_- ^ : i^ Iki^^r tirLt^ sl-r-wlv, but ia zDore 
=■ l-^:!-e 11. kTis 1--:t *;^.' 1 1 :,!*:> .li-fr iiT"— ,; oil* (Zelkr, Apert. 

-:.:^ ;- : ; s.l-. s -.l ;, :_vi . 

i>- -r"-—/ .'I / 5- ■-*■■? i".-. — Zx;, r*TTf<?^i fr:'m the fmil. UmpiJ, 
fi;^".l-^i&. .■:: ^;. ^— - -,'■.-», I*.-i^ l.: ijT i:n eveu vbeu ^pr^ad Id ■ 
iLl:- jj-:- NitT z.* ^-k* rerii^rt :: lu "i-r*U'ly fe-Uil sad crrauUijx^ 
iZ-i s-wttt^: T-L,-K_j^ I'-5^:!v^^ f-«j.-^iiv in al«<>{me akxihuL bnl 

Brominatcd and Chlorinated Oils. 

LcFOA- -V, J. PKj-.. t^ ;:> iiLd 5i5 ; *Uu. Cootfir. rvvidL 35, 7»i 

Wftoii f3;'y oils iiT^ Ir ::^'i: in c>:':iiaL'i wiih bmmiue or cbloriac^ 
ihtT t-'C'tr.t L.'i. p-At '.-^ Lydr -.liiv'Tic aciJL auid yk-ld prndncti 11 
wtiLc:: j.s*n -.'i tirr Lvir- ^.-n :? r^j Liix-d by an tquivulent quaniitjof 
l"r.-iixlij«r 'i-r L'L] -r^^t'- L^: .rt r* V'lrd^ lU-se j-n^ducis ae probably defciiie 
chfiijk-dl oiii|- u:.d.<. a:,d i:^:^'?,^ ij it.i'Oi iornku1» which ai? Idcob- 
sist^riit witix ti.t' tjvt cizjt tiiiiv lAXiy \yA^ dL-|.-.«it eiJid fate whet 
o-:-L>.'«i aii'i liiitt iii<y i^jy l>o rt.'S'>lvt-d into glyocrin aud a number vf 
dmt'n.'iit latiy acid^. 

Pni-irKiti'.-i :/ Bi\-f-ii''iitftl 'iml CKhrinatfd Oil*. The oil u drpZtch«4 
viih o vT IM i-if. '->i waitr. Li-aifd ii> between 5U^ and 80", tad 
clilvriiie giiri U ^tiE^^-d iuM tlic tujuid a$ loug- an it cuatuiuefl to be 
abzwrliod. Wbt-u bp.imiiitr h iL^d. tho watt-r ia kopt cold at first uJ 
wanned o[ily toward:! tin- cud l'I tin.' t»(teration ; iho brumine ia a-Urd 
by dn'pi* aj( I'^u^ a« it<» o.>tijur Uieappvan^ and the cxcvmi of broiuiikeif 
rtnjovt-d, if*sary, by furiLt-r additiuu of vih — The piuduct ii 
waribi-d with wunn water, and dit^sulvi-d in irtbvr; the ^utiitt ii 
Hbakcii up with ivarm water, and thi- Liil ibiu freed froDi ftcid, U diied 
at V2t}\ 

The brnijiinalt'd und cbtnriN^iteil oils are nf dark-yellow oJoVt 
b'-uvirr tbuTi wuter* iiiori' vipL^-jd tliaii the origiti^d otU, aud diffifr frua 
Ibciu in tnnlc atnl ikIouf. — Tln-y thk'ktu wheu (.-xjiotieU to tbeur, and 
turn hlightly br^iwii ut J6i>~. They buji bvtwtx'u iw^ and ilu't 
uc(|uiri[j^ a dark-brown colour, but witliout cvolatiou of ddonM 
or bromiue. They may be kept in dosed veu^ lor « W 

phtsetoIhElc ACin. ^^^^ 817 

limo wUltont itimiiig raucid or flour. (Forlha propfrrtirtof Hk» pn>dticto, 
«H I ho «*"pnJ oils- J 

Prmnry NntUta C'H'*. 

Physetoleic Acid. 

p. O. HcFSTAT^TiiR. Wifn A{-ati. Jicr. 12, 765; vlnn.J'Amr*. 01,177; 

Chem. Crf'tr. 1^54, 808; ^m, (.Vu-, 1844, 4^5. 
QuSssiiAVN A, BrUEvfiS. yl»«. Phann. !)4, 230; abstr, ■/, /^r. f7Afwi- 

e?;i; /'Artrw*.r^;-rr. 18.^:1, 5IS8; Cfieffi.5"c. Qu. »/- 8, 1^73: ..V.-lw?, 

C■iXItwKL^ & iJiissvAKM. Ann. P/iorm. 39^ ftl>5 j abetr. -/. pr: Cheat. 

70, 7S; Chtm. Ccfitr. 1850, (^92; jV. J"i, C/«V-, P/*v*, 40, llL 
P, lIoprE. J.jtr. Critm. m, 112; abstr, tV-cm, tVn^r. "itfGO, 625; R^, 

Chira. pure, 3^ 158. 

ilvpa'jaiiir AcU. — TWECOveFcd by Flofstniiteriu efwrm-iijl; hj Gi>3Bmann 
& Si'lieven in the oH of ^»vrr/*> lifpo^fea {fl'iadb. rtii, PhiU-ichtm, 8)i 
Cyilwi'll il O^'iMmaiiri hrt' nf 0])i'iiaLi lliat rliL- iiltPlilv of tlie iM^icld from t^iosc tm> 
KUFC« J* not utifiTftcEoriJ; prared, 

TlVlien Hoppe's oji(ii> arid t^TPK)*, ii mpidlf ™di»*d. ilwT* is prodiiwd — 
UigrtltPr wilh rtgipin. nhirTi in ifittnlnhlp in i-lliir — )*ii ai^ul W'hirU mn.7 m liiswikiTl 
DUl by clIiiT, and criali^lini'ii i>ri tinjlju^ I'nuii u liirL Bdluruk'i] hIiiiIjuIio kiIuliuti. U 
femip bulkv rri^^taUiij*: Imiiiujr, vliirlj nEirmb L>u I hr fill tr Ti-a fliur hK^u;^ u oilb v lutlrr, 
mcU f-a^ilv i-^ m lit^lkl vi-lltrv oil, nolidifThl il5*» and coeiLaiei on Elto avenip^', 7&'t^ p. r^ 
C uid ll'^l lir Tliir ai-iEl. i^'lii'ii eKLK)4Ed lo lUe uir la a meltvd bUIiJ, d^fixiiiipoicfl 
with rantid mEour nriil ii'pimiliijii m titown ivmnniia llali^'n, Lnd diBUklvpi t^iuily 
in ftquFou* ilkHliH ; \U hnnln-hBll raninifm fi<>21 p. c. t\, wa!» H., and ZO-fiJ Rh<> j 
th« ailTrr-Bflll ul 15° L'oiiUiiD:* 3l~'L2 p. f . BiluT, ^D'iill p, c- AgO> Hifppe ri^^iuda 
it w iiU-nlLLnl villi G(>aMuaiiii'9 plijiBL^luIebm'Ld. A Bl_»i.Tridpi>rihiH ncid ^I'DnlnLimig 
S at, ■iTcerin -t 3 at, ncid - X ut." water), willi 72'8 —73' 12 p, c, (J. Bnd lOS? U> 
lO'OO U'f iBprodutx^d lu llie cudfltion of aLiii^fat (Uoppc^) 

Prfpttrnfion. 1. i^roni Earffiiiut-oiL TIlO fatty ^cide of the olI 
are diBsolvi'il iti flk'>hi>l ; m'iicliUlic liud palmitic acids aru prcciiatatt'd 
by iMniiinniH niid iuvtuf(M>f ruig'ncjiin ; thu |irm|iitjit.e is removed; and 
tbe filirat^^ in miic^d vilEi anrnaTtia and an abuhnljc (snliitlnn of neutral 
aoolale of lead. I'lii? jux'dpilato ificolluctod afltr afow da^a, ptci^eed, 
ftnd difianlvbd in cthor; tho ctLortal solutio^i is uptatcrd witti oqncoua 
bydrrHildm-it acid; tliu diloride of lead Js filtered off; the fillrnle 
IB aliahi-n up with watiirwIiiHi hiiH bwi) fn?i.'d fnmair by bojliag ; the 
othereal layor which aeparaCe^i sigaiu 011 leaving the liquid at rest ia 
UJcea ofl i and tlio other is removed by di^tillatioup The r@maiam^ 
liquid on oolin^ defflsite ycllowinh erystale, which may be pnriliod 
by prcei^iirf, and retTyabilliaatiun fmin alcohot at a very luw lerapf'ra* 
lore. An mlditifirml qiuiTitify cif m'sUla nmy he obtainud fnmi ihe 
rtiolber-bqiitn' {Gu.4ani:iiin Jk Schcvon). 

2. Frvm Spcrm^'il^ Thi^ snap prejKirorl by boiling the nil wiLh 
jotafih-]ey and purifit^l by malting liuI^ lb dissolved m botlin^ alct^tiol; 
" the filtrate, after being freed from alcohol by distill ation, is diluted 

51* TJtAXT yrcixi.3 c«H». 

■»r^ Tv:-^r- VL-i zr-2^.-ir.^i t-.I k=.=i ■':^aa2 snjrar^r-kttd The 

^i-^i:. '^'-■.i i^.-- ." -- ; :~-«:T -'L"- ! -iL r:'iA aiid uiirkcompr>sed 
f::*- T^.ii.'-r, j^'t^'^j- "-Z.L.-- > 'i :i ■ l-ii-ioil^.i ■ : -h^ p-'lid faWy acidf, 
Z'-*^ r- ----. > — :.^-^-ri , -.tlt c :> -Tb-rL* ■:>:ii]ed"a ; ihe fosMw 
i-i' c:i ^'1 - :-!'.._ .-. 1 i; r: vV-^^-al ^-'^nTiMii mnod willi 
trr.^* ■-_.t -L. .-: ► rT :- ' ^.-.-n ; :l-r ire.IjtiiTr 0"lmtt-d- wahhrd. ami 
ir'jT'i _:. fc ~ J - —- - i"_ i : . ' -":.:J i-. i -:-.r^:k.^-.i ar*> removed fir>m h 
zj :r l-l --.-'■.- .'"- > " -J --- ^^Iw.ivi:^ ; *iVr;-.:nloate of lianti 
r^'ii-k-'.-Cy '="11 ^ '• -'-• . /T :■:' >':.'- i"-J v^.'-Iin;; the resultiiiff 
*.tLj c^ r-y^t'-r-, :i-i :■ r:. -_ -Jt'^z. c: U *iirj*:'#iled as a wliitt 
o. T>7. — i-'-i — -*' ':»: :- S-.T^L '_: f c- :.ii*.-t viih the air. wit!*'*] 
-TLZZ. t.' : ■- L^ - ^."..-"L-T-^T Ir.-y. l^ j vir^-iry. It may tc ohlainpi 
Tc:?* ': 7 rrir^-- 1^- ".^~ r r^-> :_ > V, ti-- r<sZL.v «"av, and liecompiwJ 

«^ ^^' 1 . ^-;" --rHg~ J." ' i. T>:J-":"i""^ . i: Gv" .H,'i?>iiullcr), and sulii^fvin^ 

M ■: Z?± 7359 7»M 

> H c4» . 11-^1 11-77 

* O _. ^ ;; _. ,. IJtW I*«7 

C^^H*-:- t:-', Kt-y-jO KNHO 

iV-^' r'.*--u. I, r:-7«-:: '-^* icil* Tch<*D oipnjiod to the if. 
ac:":-!^-* i y-, ,v].<.^ .-^ i .-. j;,: r*\.vi "*r^up. auil then cryalalliiM 
«-::r, L.^. I'ry. ' '-- v ,: '.-^ry \ v '.'.':..'. *'T\,zur*-< iiU^>mni\n A SrficTff"^ 
A: I'-V IT, k- i,--->iv ■■-^- = -"" '' !'-■ .-.*:".'.*'-v!iri»f inio-oiL »nd iKiofHiii 
p.-.'.: > . -^^ ■ z.: '?-" ;^ i: ■-■■ > r -^'J. \V].*.n ^objoctfsJ lo dn' dislilb- 
n ■- :: r'r^: _rv-:^ ~ .i r-i:>\ y- 1! -^ 1; j'lM, llien yclliwiiJi whiw 
c:ys:^l"i---, •^.'.^ir :^r'.r. vv. 4 -'^ l i!. : l.fTly. a fetiJ i»il, leaving a ^irutt 
q"i:.t^'y :' v'-^r ." v'.i. it- „ ,<c <i*-*::.j(i:i), l[.«ftiiiiti*r, who <iBiilW 

0:'-T*^ :\4:-T.". -i- ■': ' ' -k' 1 : " ^ ", :, i" :'"'":,Tiisu]r*phj.-irBHil- — HitwT. Ii** 
fc-ii al'-rr--'! ■ * i\ '.--tk- '. ''.- i.r -* - -> l-f^ «.-*>a.-i..', dnii likeviw let* pi.'[il:rK 
fc'i-i :!.*:: t'.:. : -*t\- ^ . ■ k.\. '■'-.'.. A *.\— 'V„ftr.r, . — 3, WJtli nitrtMt nivl Jl 

tKS »^>o n^ :..: j>.^.^;:i:.r w.^r. i-. ..r--j..\.7 t a*-»L 

C' I?.' -:•'" '-'• T^v av: : :fi i-:*-*:-y !<ii>->riiIiiiliK*. 

/T-r'-'.M-'^V- TS'i^T^--- -: —v nV. '»'*.' — Kr-mi iho aki»holH' ni'liith'Tnl 

S2 C - lTii> 5S*T2 

20 n ^"'» y 

3 O -. Sl-*> ' 

niiO T«SS 23 





&9-7S .. 

7'lfi »- 

aa'HO .. 

Z S41ff 

CBBH^BatV S21"5 10000 lOOiXl 


Oopper-mU, — An alcoholic solution of acetate of cof^)er, added 
to an alcoholic solution of the add mixed wilh ammonia, tlmjwB down, 
Ml cooling, bright blue crystalline graina which do not alter in drying. 
They sinter together at 75* to a tranelucent wax j ihej are easily soluble 
Ji ucohol (Oossman & Scheven). 

a£ 100°, aaumvm A. Scharoi. 

Sa _.«. 193 67-37 « 67-27 

M H 29 1018 . 10-89 

SO.,, 24 8-42 

CuO 40 14-03 

(^•Hi'CuO' MS 100-00 ^,... 

Phjeetoleic acid diesolvee readily in alcohol and in ether. 

FhyBetoIeato of Ethyl. 
C"H»<0* = C*U'0,C»H"0'. 
}588HAinT & SCHBVET. Ann. Pharm, 94, 234, 

Hypfjgftale qf flMjt Thy$etoUic or H^po^ttie etJur. Fh^niohinaier. 

A solution of physetoleic acid in alcohol of 95 p, c. repeatedly 
tatnrated with hydrochloric acid gas and wanned, deposits this ether, 
vhich may be freed from adlioring hydrochloric acid by washing with 
rater, from unaltered physetoleic acid by washing with small 
[oantitics of alcohol, and dried in a atroam of carbonic acid between 
00" and 120''. 

Yellow, Bcentlees oil, lighter than water, but sinking in alcohoL 
Tot volatile without decomposition. Very slightly soluble in alcohoU 

G^asmuia k SohareiL 

36 C 3ie 7e"B9 76"73 

S4 H 34 1305 11-05 

4 O 33 11-36 11-32 

CH*0,0>'H^O* 282 10000 100-00 

Gae'fdiuic Acid. 

C»H"0* = C«H"0*. 

fALDTBLL & GoaskTAj^. Ann. Pharm. 99, 307; abstn J. pr, Chmn^ 
70, 79 i C/u,a. Centr. 1856, 892 ; N. Ann. Chim. Ph^. 49, 111 ; Lit*. 
Eopp. Jahre^fer. 1856, 494. 

NitrouB add gas ispasBed into physotoleic add, aalongaa the mass 
eoomea more solid; the product la then pressed and repeatedly 
[jatallided from tdcobol, till the melting point no longer rise^i. 


Ci>Innrle&E crystalline mass, which tueUa at 38". iolidae* Ut ■ ndio- 
cryftallme mass on cuolingr* luid volatilised unaltered at a higher ten>- 
pe rat ore. 

as c ^. 

30 H.... 

4 O 

192 , 

30 .- 

3* . 

-,„ 75 59 

. -_ IIM 

12 60 

■■— "^■' 

. 75^« 

C^fl»0* .... 

2*1 ., 



liomfrif viih ph5wrd«Li> t^Kd, 10 wliich ii i* rTJ*t«4 in the matt moR ■ 

vlalJic lo QleLc h-id. 

I Q soluble in tritfer. 

Gathlui^t'' t.j S".t-u — The acid i^ di-^snlred in aqueoQR earhonati^of 
EJ^. tht' $<<Iuii'->ii Ifi eva|'>mTC<i. and ihe fait diiisotved oat with 
abs-^lute alc>.-h'~>]. whi^n'ln- a ^■likiioii ic^ obtainedT whk'b ftuUdifiea to i 
translucent jVlIy oti cihiling^. Dilute ^luti'^ns yield ciystAlliiio lamliHB. 

Gntitlimite fif C'-pf-^, — Tr^m the a^iucona pAda-Falt, Bnlphateof 
cnpi>er ilirp^ws d'>wu a small quatitiiy of a cryataUine precipitate 
which d]Asi>lves wiih dJfficullT in ali'ohol. and ttepamtefl therefrom ■ 
grains. Mclu without dect^mpnsiTion somewhat above 120°, 

Caldron A O 

33 C _ \9i ... 

29 H „._ ^ ... 

3 O 24 ... 

Cnl 4i} ... 

,... 67-37 ... 
,_. 10-18 ... 

.... S-42 ... 
.... 14i>3 .. 

._. 67-21 

.... lo^rr 

„. 8-6« 
.... 1383 

C^H^uO _ *i5 ... 

.... 100-00 ^, 

.... lOHW 

GaaJinatf o/' Silvt-r. — Obtained fn^ni the soda-salt by preclpiUlin 
with nitrate iH silver. — White- anii*rj>liou3 piiwder, which blackm 
whoa washed, and tspeoiaUy when heatt-d with water, afcohol, or 
ether, but doesni*t dissoh-o. 

Gueldinic acid ili^olves readtlTioci/<:oWaiLd in «fA«r. 

Gaelidiiiate of EtbyL 

CalPWeLL & Gi>3SM.\\\. Ann. Pftarm, 90, 310. 
GtuUimie rfJ^rr, 

nydriv^hhiric acid in passed into a solution of Fftoldmic acid a 
abpoluie aloihol ; water it^ ndd>'d after 12 hnunt; and the mixtuRo' 
^eidinic r'thtT and tn-e pielditiic acid thereby pri^.HTtita(ed is apin 
Kubjivti'it li> the i^arne tri^'ulment. The product is washed and diiedat 
l(lO' in A Mrt.'aui t>l liydni^'eii. 

I^untnar. cry»«lalliite. ctfhmrlesti masfi, vhich melta at 9*orI0*. loJ 
distill^ wilhmtt alter.ition at a hi^dierteniperatiire. Inodorous. Ilf^bMr 
tbaik wateri heavier than aleoboL 

nSI! OILS. 321 

S6 C 

84 H 


2ie .„ 

34 .... 

.. . 33 



.... 11-36 



2B2 .... 


Dissolves with dlfficultj In akohoL 

Appendix to PhyntoUic Acid. 

Fish Oils. 

1, Spcrm-oit. — Occore, together with apermaceti — from which itia 
ijg»rated by mechanical meaua — in certain cerebral cavities of the 

When freed as completely as possible from admixed spermaceti- 
hiy by leaving the latter to crystiillJse out, it is neutral, rcmaiiis liquid 
*t 18% is saponified wUh diificulty by potashj and yields by that proceHH 
Ibesame fatly acids as spermaceti -fat, but instead of ethaJ, a neutral 
product melting at 20' (Ohcvreul, Rtcherchea, 337). Sperm-oil appears 
to be isomeric with spermaceti-fat or cctin(p. 347) (Stenhouse). — The 
oO which runs off from the epcrmacoti-fat solidifica almost completely 
itO*, to a compac tUg-ht^browti mass, in consequence of stilt retaining 
'penn&ceti'-fat. When Baponified, it gives off ammouia,with traces of 
>>etli;lamine, and yields physetoldc acid (p. 317), valeriaoic acid, email 
Jjmtities of solid fatty aoide, and a small quantity of glycerin 

On evaporating the mother-liquors obtained in recrystallisibg ^thal 
fnm alcohol (b«c below), an additional quantity of ethal crystallises out 
■t first, and more fatty acide may be precipitated by acetate of baryta, 
ifter neutralisation with aniinonia. Ultimately, when as great a 
^QUttity as possible of ethal has been removed by evaporating, 
^'ptaliising out, and cooling, any baryta- and ammonia-salt remaining 
ID the liquid by boiling with hydrochloric acid, and the rest of the fatty 
•dda by potash-ley, there remains an oil which does not solidify iu 
tte crystalline form at 10^ or Vl", volatilises slowly in white vapours 
•tlOO% and passes aver, partly decomposedj at a higher temperature. 
Thisoil contains, on the average, 760 p. c. C, 12-82 H., aud 11-18 0-, 
tterefore equal numbere of atoms of carbon and hydrogen; but it ia 
ttill impure (Ueintz). From the fatty acids of spermaceti Heintis 
fikewise sepai-ated another buttery fat, containing 74"17 p, c. C, 
U-63H., and 14-20 0. 

2. Whale- or Train-oil. — From the blubber of Balana tnisticetus and 
rther kinds of whale. A train-oil of sp. gr. 0'927 at 20* examined by 
Jhevreul, was brownish, deposited solid fat at a temperature above , 
lod contained olein, margurin, and a small quantity of dolphin-fat 
ivlerin). — By continued heathig to 182^ wlialc-oil is blackened, and 
i^ers further alteration (Boatock^ Thoms. Ann. 17, 4G). Oil of vitriol 
alcrura it reddish yellow. With aqueous mercurous nitrate, it forma 
yellow salve, wliich turns brown in a few houis (Lescallier). With 
IxaLifl it forms asoft soap. Dissolves arsenious acid and oxide of lead. 
p. gr. 0-924 at 15°(Lefebvre), of South Sea whale-oil 9195 i of that 
imh the Faroe Islands, 0-9293 at 11° (Scharling). 





The oil Bcpanitcd from the eolid fat by cooling to 0" ftad QltratiV 
IB free from acid re^iution, tttij disHijlve* at 75^ in 0'82 pt, jJc^boI uf 
ep. 0-795, tbf &oliiliu;i uut becifming: lurbid al <i3°, Willi hy^imlp of 
p»ti^li it i](iu-kly forma fL Intiwn mia.\\ tuAiAA^ iit wntefn am) itoiiumjng 
vftleric, olmc, and umrgtiric acids, and a brown ct>!ouring niatlcr ; 
j^Iyccrtii Bepanktod nt the enmc tunc la brov^ and }^B an a^r^ 
luste. — The eolid fat dq)Oflitt-j by cniillna: the oil, when puiinp^ 
C(mip1ett']y iLs possible by attlulion in huL ali-obol uud C(K>Ua}^, Wi 
after fiiBioDH betwei^n 21° and 27°. DiHaolves in 1-8 pis, butalei.iluJ 
sp- gt. 0'795, fviid portly frystflliiBos therefrom in wbilv neodlc^. B/ 
saponification it jielda miirf^ric and i»ltic acid^i a trace of valorianiu* 
acidj 7 p. c. p;lycei'iii, aud i p. c, nf a bnjwn BubttloinX', wliich does ivA 
melt at lOO'' C., liunih williout rehidno, nrid UifaHoIvee coinj-lt'tL'lj ut 
boiliug alcobol (Chovreitl, Ann. Chim. Fhfs. 7^ 373; also AVeAnwo. 

Slbkinff train-ml maylK! deodoriecd by paesbg Hteam ht^aWnj lo 
IGO* through it, and wilftetuaiu Bweet for ^veral nn^nthe (^^hnriiDi:, 
J. pr. Chsm. 5(1, 377). — Trulji-fiU is JTiimediulely bUdveiii'd bv Mtw 
(Cbah-au, Mulh. Sfic. Bvil. 31, 416)- — Wlwu 5 voh wbule-otl art 
heated to boiling with 1 vol. soda-hiy of sp- f^. I'^l, a tod liiimti j* 
formed. AVhtn shaken with fiulpliuric acid of ^\h gr. 1-475. lu I!*' 
proporlioij nf 5 vol oil in 1 vnl. add, it U'coiuca faijitly led */krl^ 
miuutes, dnrker with ncid of »p. pr. VfrZ, and clHrk-bri*wo utdi HCiduf 
ap. gr, l"t»35. Nitric acid of sp. gr, ri8 to 1-22, asL-d in liky inMHtr 
instead of tJie sulphuric acid, coloura the oil Ug:ht yelUiw ■ i'^ 
miimtosi nitric acid of ap. gr. 1-33 colours tt redi syrupy yh -; 
acid (iiiily whon henL-Hl, ttccnrding- lo Chat<raii). wfhiiirs it Jaik-nd 
(Cftlyerl, J. pr. Chimin. 61, 354). — With alcoholic ammonia, wluikf-ovl 
foima a larger qiuiTitity of on ainide soLdifying at*i5° (Carlot, Ptir^S^ 
BuiL h 73j. 

browu, witi] a mosl iulolcrablc fidour (Davidaoti. Ed^ J. <ff >'c, 7, WJ. 
Sa gr. of the light nil 0-93l7t nf the ihirk-txiloiired 0t>a03 al 11 
(Scharfing). Willi eixla-ley, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, 
nitric nctd of ep, ^x. 1'33, it exhibils tbo Homi? if »lours uh whalt^^jil. 
is reddmed likewisir by nitric acid of sp. ^x. I'lfcl and Vl-i (Calv- 
Wilh aloiholie amnnmla it foims a Uii^ quaiilily of olcand 
melting at 82^ (Rowu^'i ^-i""- '-■''^'- *»?' ^'l")- 

4. Shark'vit. Haifixi-kthmH. — Fri.»m SfpixfiuA ni'iximns. Ha« a fj 

yellow culuur. aft[>. ^r. of O-ftTO toO'^rr*. and a ri^pulsive ifdmir- I^ 
not fiolidify ala few degn'ej* I»e3ou' 0^ C^ontainH H2"77 p, e- C, I2'9fi 
and a largro quantity ol iiMlino. tty dry dinKllation it yii-lda a y^Jli* 
oil, having the odour of fc^rolcin, but no ftebacic acid. It ap]>eaJ« 1" 
contain u jn-cnliar oliut: acid (UonaEda, Chan, troJ. 1S52, i'JO i J- f^- 
Chem. 57, 47o). 

&. SM-cai/^ml. Stekalhtthrnm. — Thbncr than whal<J-<^n, palo bro^ 
trftDftparcut, iif up. st- l'92iJ at iT (Si-hmling>; vslu'u l-ilf^l *"' 
ditutci aulphuHo iioid, it gradnally formn a jiri^'lptatc <l>fl^id*iu^ — 
Tbt^ fat of Siihuo TJt^ailtm is yidlnw. mild, and baa a faint M^y ui^^^r. 
— T"vhttrcn pi^ from Fkigurw Latnr, ia brcwiiiah yclhiw, aa>l immilj 

a Pitc^<ird'Oil Probably fvom Cluptft Pikhardw, Yelli ■^''■^J' 



dear, likp Hgtit-crjWre<I cod-liver oil ! emtlia lifeo traiU'oS, Contiiina 
oleia, wJtlj a ^ijiilI) iiniLntLty of reela, a volatile acid rcHembllug 
faleriaaic udd, iL[id iodine (liraiidfis, ^V. Br. jlri-A. 16, 85j. 

7' Porpoiw-oiL iif«rm-A™?«firflii. — Fn>m 2>f/;jAjp*fMPAr'cfno- Obtained 
by licalin^ Ihe Ldl.v -blubber wjtb w;iter. Sp. fp". 0-D37 &C IG" ; pale 
yi:lliiw; lIitl'S iio[ ir»iJderi litmim. Lnsjt?* iifl cidniir, whkh rewmblea that af 
fivsh «]iivlm**s, on oxpnamt- lo iiii:»jd light, becoming eI the fiiimo lime 
diirter HI ctdour. Ibirii nearly cuUmHutw, iinii^enuiriu^ atiaukl n-'uctjon, 
fmin bbt'Tiili-jij of ViiloriimJc acid. Couftists of olein, not flolidifyiug till 
cooled to — liTf", muryarJij. and vjdrriii (\i, 77) (Clievreul). Thia vLiltrm 
iajjj-ritji'iif « iiii tdul whidi is pinJur*-*! by IrcaTmg valenEinie iidd witb 
glyoeriu (BeriliMotT A'- Ann. Chiia. PAjfn^ 41, S.^^i ^ C'Aiw, rtr<7fm, 2, ti7), 
liXJ ]>t^, t*f Iho oil yiL'ld 1<J pte. valerate of baryta, 11 jj^lj^'onu, fi2'2 
marp:in-ic ftful idnc ytjiila. WiiJj j pts. boiling filciFliol of **p. gr. 0-821- 
tbfT nil fniMithiL i^'kbifioii, wbli^b beciiuii^i^ turbtd iih auim ilr it J^ rt-iuiived 
fnjin tliG (irt> ; witik I pl.uf alcoljul a mors staljle mjlutioa U formed, 
CttfiftMo ol lakin^ up aiiy furtlier iniaiility of the oil. Oa mising- Ibo 
iJoohiitJc fi<»Intiiji] with water and distillin^^ the water rclolus id j^oIu- 
tlati tk small i|iiatitlty of viJeriauic iH;id, a eubstauce b&viiifi v. fishy 
' lur. lunl V. yellow colomiag luulter ((Jlujvrviilf Rf.phrnihA, 267). 

8, DfilphinoH. DeipKitfhfitt. — From Dftpfnumt fflobtcfps^ Palo yellow; 
of Bj*, gr. i)'^\H at :;^>' ; dofs not redden littuua. Contains ct'tiiu 
Vftleriii, olein, odoriferoufl eubatancea, and a y^llovr oolourin^ mutter. 
^— Ti de|»osits crystafb of i:<^lin at 4- b" w\d nipxln&i — 3^; the re- 
juainiii;^ oil i^f s\>. gr. [>'924, is yellow, and sulldi^es at 15° t>j a »oft 
nkth«, whioli bL^LMiiii-s perfectly flunl al 2(1^. — 100 ports of the crude 
oil VK'M by sapoiiiiiyatJuh, valeriaidij acid, 12'0 p, t. of browa-yellow 
^\tn.riu, and ^lti■^ !>. c. uf a misluro of mar^jiric acid, oleic acid, aod 
^tlii^L^-lO<» plA. of the oil frpcd from cetU jitdd 34'G pts. valurato of 
liaitH.i. t.1 \ttH. glyut?rin to^c^tlier with iHlorifenniH and adoumi^ 
oiJiriir, jI'7 pis- jn*iv^,''[irie unJ ok-k- adOT !iu*l l^'S ptB, oibal muted 
I'll a flcivnid nonti"iil eubstanco mcllh»^ ot ST"-- — ItHJ pts. ftleohol 
*ip. t,T. (i-ftl2 disrti.jvi! at 70^- 100 pta. of dolphin oil, forming" a eohj- 
_ «i vvhinb becomes turbid at Si" ; liJO p(f*. aluoUol of Bp. j^r. 0735 
. /^ I ■■':<■ ai 20% 133 filH. of tlii.'cnjde oil ; of tfifi oil freed fnnri ri?liu by 
lt>'> [its. hoiliiii^ u.1cij1io1 of epedfic gravity 0"82j disHolve 149*4 
'***- r irmijij^ a aoluliou which reddeoj* htirma, the rt:d colour dis- 
tN»riiif^ ln>wovti' 141 addition cif ivrtttr (Cherrtul, Ann. Vhim. J^itytu 
ltJ4; 2i. ;^7-l: Rtuhti-t-fiff^ 2U1.) 

Ctnl-Zif^' ftiL I^l^r/&i'itn Si/>rXrfi^''^th>-at Jfu.lp dr fair de 'iKHv/', 

jWtirin jurUi. — tJbfaiucd fr^'ni The livera of vurious sjHjviea of 

, cfi(»eoi^dh" froiii tlio dorac {Goihtn CfUitii't»\ the<yiuI-fi9h(f;rWufl 

'mtri'f^\ and tlit- Ifaakjcriaa or Ifcylischof Nfrwny (OWm I*oIl<i- 

"i iUf nlimf^hj. ^ The uil reco^nrsfd by thf pUiLriiLimo|i'vi*^ it* thut 

'■^*Ji(h! from ih«' nrnnmon fini {Gn'frts Aforrfnitf formi^rly Ctl'e I Airfi^tg 

^"■y and the lin^ i^*', \fo!vn or Laf'i A/ohutji it is reewivod fton 

'**■' l^' >nudiund, Ehcrl'i^'d was formoriy mipplied wjth the <*il from 

^K''^rl, oblained from the liver* of the dorse and coal- Hah, From this 

L^*"*' Ucnnjiny uud the North of Enrui>e Htilt riivive llieir supply. 

■-H V(T oil is prepared on JL small gcale in ihf? Shotland islea and on 

^ti^lis^li eitaftl, chiefly from the onmmon cod, the ling and tho 

'"■IfiofffiWj/arrfl). {Perdra'a Materia Medici, Aih Ed, 1857, ^\^\, 



77fl) T- — When ilie livers of iho fialieB iire exposed lo llie ean, B|^t« 
coloured oil flowfl oiit fit first, liul ftfler n wt'tk or a fortiiij^li*.. jini 
faclioD seta in, and brown oil ie obtained (Mardcr), ^d, Bm^ca t\ 
liver oiL Dar^ brown, giL^exiieh bv transmitted light. Iraiippiiniit 
Uiinlttjer*^, S|i.^r. 0?2fl ut 17-3" (Dr .Tr.nglOt '> I^^^S al I 'r.^tMHtilr 
hna fl |M?euliair odinir, disflgr^^f^aMy frnpyri^umatic niirl bitlor, prrulm 
irriration in the throdT, anci rerfdc^uh littmia fJightly <I>e-l'*ngh)- I>< 
not depcieit. aiiy itoliJ fut at — IS'' (Man^or^ ^dubk- in 17 to 20 
cold or hot oWluto altoliol (De Jonplj). Diasulvt^s at 71° lii 1 
alcohol nf 0-346^ forming n Bi>likttLfii uliii-h l^cnmc^m liirbul at i^2'nnJ 
deposits the oil ai 48^ ^Murder), — *. Pntrr bi^wiu — Of (lie colour d 
Malaga vifle, Sp. yr. 0-0'i4! hiie a iiecnHurT not uajJeussnl tA'wn. 
Bebj tflsto, pmduciiifc' imlalioa iu llie Uiroat. wid rvddiaa Urinw 
Btron^ly. Sirbible la 31 to 911 [itg. of w&t«r and IS pla. of loiiiniT 
BbKoluie aloliol ([kt Jnagh). 

t. Poleriind cUiirer. Of g'ildon-y*?lIow colour. »\i^ gr. 0"Sl2S»t IT'i" 
{De Jongb), V.-9'2S at I5'5''tMardfrj; roacte and IsbIch lik*- fr. but Utu 
etronply. Dejio&ita a while fat at — 13* (Manlcr). Snbibk in <0 
ptSk cow aud ta 22 to ^0 jds. boilmg aliHolatv alrnbol (r>e JrrriErh, 
L'huiUdeJtii dtnionif eneiMfjer. »oti.t ffit/jt its rttpjtnrts^ ct^itnt mrrj/n liiu'i- 
pfitiri^it. Paris, 1853. Srfifik, Otitimnrk vifrdt Stucl.\ 3Iifc^ il"lf 
Jfln, Pfi'inif. 4H. atili.)— ^^^ ^^ tlonjt-livor bus anp. gr. of O-Ddl^Jat U' 

Cod-1iv(?r iFil citusisl-s clilcHy of olein and miiixiiriiJt witb»iipilkr 
qiiaiilir.ii'tJ (if froo Imlyric flcid, iw^tic add. tf>n»itirnentn at lIu^Nlr. 
gnduiiij and other jx.t'uliap tiulistancois aliout 1 f». tv of «iltA, and*' 
emtkW quantity (.if frei."i>|jne|*horn3{Do Jongh). U oontaiiisi i."tin<*, ti/"* 
mine, jibneijliorus, aoa suljihur (^ve Mow}. As volilih* arid-s Wftciirt 
found ImtjTii" and <ra|fmuu:'ida ; from liirlml a«l-livrn.»il, I-mVn jrtJjwc 
arid was deini&ite'l. S^ umiljWF uf eod-bvfr oJ by MupJpp !>". J^- Jpt* 
13, lb%). Dr JniLgh (.^hj. PAam 48, »J;!£|. Kin^l <> Jlr-. Jrrk 70. X^M fc^ 
WinkWi't Ti'pui iTtppulifig llip oil, tf9 J. pr. Fkamt- S&, lUl, 

When ctxl-liver oil U elmkcr* np villi water, the water laXe* op< 
free acid, a rpsiii whidi wrmriili?^^ irti evaii^frnlioii, aud hrdiHljino'* bct' 
cipiliildo by tiiielure of p^lU (Mardtfry Miiiling walrr diiJU'ilt-w fmo 
brown Old-liver nil l'2r> p. c, fruia tbo efi^ar oil U'ti f).e_(TCiri»'"t, t'»**tw* 
tbiT dec*»iiipoterl hj saceesMvc treatnionl with dhc, aV*- ! ^ 

and ainJeoHti [Llujb<i|, ihi^ ellierlaUiiijx up biliary acwls, tU- jJ 
liol. I'f dinning malt era of the bile, and th*^ aiiijedUfl aloibol ni ;iii li. ■ 
black shiaing sabataace wbich diBeolvoa in alkali^., oil id Wiriob Amlbii^ 
ftcolie arid, and when (Lflsolvcd in alcohol, forms hroirn (ArecipiUli* 
with Saryla-wab.T and in'iitral acetate i^rf l»^ad- Thp iioriinaof lb» 
B<|ue'tUt^ extract of the ud lenjainiaiJ^ undisKulveiJ j»flvr tlu» irrjitiottl 
Btitl cmi rains organic mnlti^r. [ng'etiitr wJlb natln which an- fm U*M. 
potsBh find icKliae ( IV Joriffli). 

PhoHphonih and aulpbtir L'Xial tn cod- liver od in tho ntAtonf <teft^ 
CombiuatkciH ((jnlili-y* X J. f'h^nt*^ f\ 2it\ liniinr oociira •coordi*^ 
tu IIurbeL' {Ann. Phnrtn, 31. 1)4] ]>l' Jnn^li nad otbciA, m nil tniro' 
livpr oil ; aeciirdin^ Uj Cbcvjillirr ojn] Ifnaiunn (J, Chun, uirtt, ^X It* 
and ]aO), i^uthiMJilicr Uanri, Jt is iii>t a <^>n^tallt Ci>a£liLiK.-iit, firfbvili' 
{Jahrh. pr, Phurvi. 2. 17S) found lu mi>3l eiwes. but nul alwity*. boS* 
iodiuo and brmniae (ihc tjuaulily of which he dctcnained^ pucwiiiBff 
hfdtae withonl broannc, 80[neii(ne8 neither oiie TLor tlir o^h^T. 9vri>» 
B1«T wd BnutlM lA. £r. .^anL 13. UdJ. Wvkcaiodfl- t-V. fir. ^mL AC MB- 



CWwUior (J. di'i*, miJ. 22. G05)»L, Gmelio (J** Pifw-«. S9, flie.amlal, 321), 
GinFdin Btd Prcitoer {CompL re*/, 11, 618), btno Murder {X. Br. Arch. 13, l&a) 
and RutiUTieU (.V. ^-■. A-'-h '6±, ULI), rl.P li^.l [w« of wlwun roiiti*t no io<iini- in raJ- 

lircroil-— WaJi-T^ alcuhiili acid ctlier do not outr^et tfic* loJina and 
bFi^mmi^ (Herbergpf), whtrt^is iodide uf potnet^ium ndded to cnJ-iiveT 
oU ie diiMolvtd c>ut by al^jolml (ritulii, /. pr. Chttii. 24, UOG) VVbeu 
cod-liver oil \^ c^irernJIy diinTi-d, \.\ii* ti^miUiq jh fuiirifi (j> 4?4>iitFiLu bra- 
mine arid iodine, hul iint tlic wliolo niiaJitity proacnt in the oil 
( UcrbtT^cr). When tlio nil ih K]i|>i~>riil!i.'dt til? indanc jmetici^ lata iLo 
nnd^n-'ljo (L. Cmt'tiTi); wbcii tfie oil 1b Raprjiiificd, tLe ai|iiec»uft solu- 
tion (jf llie p)Iiisb-fiiilt pr('ci[>itatrd hy siilplMti: of ruiij^nit-sm, and Lie 
liquid fihftrcd. the hdhur [vis&y^n iiiin tbi- IlitruTt;, Ji:id c-animt ba de- 
locU'd L>y 'Tarbouitiing tlio mugncela-eaap and oxhuimling tbo rot^ldue 
with nitric acid (iJtiif^Tjr, ^- JJi\ Arctic S(J» Ufj). Tba iodino neither 
pus^^s intiJ ibt' undcr-lyt, nor iutr* the acid lir|nid utit]Uai;d aa decom- 
p4>sib^ th<? mmp. bvit rrriiuiEis iitisnuiuled with itie fikUy addn (Stt^iii). 
The only wiiy of <h'lp(."tiii^ ii ift to wijtrmify fttl and L^itrbniiifle the 
*nap(ni.' Jnnj_"bl, Ltidwig alw {Aj>ofh. V^r, Zeit. 1, 15^1) obtained, nn 
lilt one h^iid, giycoiin frue from io-line, on the other aoap conlainhtg 
iodine. Wi%kler'w sUlemfnt Et/Hj(r£. pr. i'Aorni- £5, ItO) Lbjil cod-liver oit, vhen 
fBpmiifird by puloBh or Eeod-oilde, dws luH ridJ dyoerin, hwt jn"l'?jid of llioL aub- 
■K*aoe» Wiurk-ler'fl prupvlic oiJJc or prof>vh€ Eiridi doc:^ oot uji^L^r witlk ibr crkrlier ci- 
pcniufii*A of Dt.' Jcrt^h mid Mardi-r; neither ie ii coiiJlniitHl \tj tho ohifrrutiooH of 

Wbon cod-liver oil which has been oshauftted with wub^r in aiponi- 
fied. the Boda-sijap dcwimrxused. by m'utrul acel-atc of li^ad, and the 
lead-salt eximiiated with tlWr^margatate oP leiid rt-maiuH undieftoIvtiJ, 
vhite iho etht-T takew up De Joiigirrt fjndmsi, k-Hidi-s idt-atQ nf loaii. 
The oleale of lead is ret^unvcritd iiilo eoda-flELll. the lultcr dissolved 
in hot rtlcohol of 30° B, und iho fi^:tlutiou CLUjLd to \Y \ iho pidulu thca 
rcmaijie dJ^^VL'di nad may be sephiratod from the solution by sutphuiic 
adih Thin paduin is a dark'browji, rnab!L% iuddi.iroiin and tusLt'Iesa 
acid, which \a innohiblo iu wuter and m nitric add, btit dis^eiolves with 
1^ colour ill oil of vitriol, ikud uiay be reprpcipitiilod hy wiiler or 
ftUialiit. It cmit^ whE^n burnt tlic ou^ur of act.'tic acid and of cod-b^er 
oil I couUJns ri^-Ol p.f. C, T'JI II., mid 33'59 0-; its lead-salt Lontmus 
fil-73 C, a'*9 IL, a7'31 PbO. ; aad its edver-Halt 7^0^11 C, .r.l7 H., 
ST'fifl AgO, I)e Jongh gives the fornmlie (*]l«0' and C"n".\[OV 

The mrbid rc'siduo oi a light brown cod-livur oil, dopOBitcd at 5* 
after previoua wanning* lur^c crj'fltalline kmioti?, whi<ih were collected 
rpn liui'[], preij^c'dt riLt]Kjuitied 'nith potash, and purillcd by &AlLia^ out 
the stkMp, deoninpustiiiJ: \\u'. aciui'onn fluliitina with bjisio acietiil.ij of lead, 
*iahiiUBlmg ihi; load-plasler with L-ther, and di>com|irifling it with warm 
ftitucifiii^ hydroehlorio acid. Xiifee erjstalfl oonsiat of Luck's iJadinio 
atid, whii;h»afterdei.olorieation with rininml diui'ooal, and iV't^ryBtalliBa- 
tion fnmi alcohol, forma Ihiii eluuiiig luniiotf, melting' at iJ3^ oi 04% and 
ftolidiFying in very long net-dies al fi(i°, — »T1il* jK»(jiHh'»alt fitnun large 
ehitim^ laminie. The bjii'vta-salt dried in vacuo, eontaina 57"22 p, c. C, 
fl-58 lU 7-76 0„ and 25-4^7 BaO. ; the tiiivor salt, o<»'6;) p. c» U, «'34 H., 
6"8fi O., aud 3395 AgU., agttcicig nearly with Lack'ti formula uf Iho 
ftcid C^H-^U*. Tlie ai'id dissoht^a spariug-ly in ui.ild, i^asily ia hot 
ftlcolW (Lnelc, iV. Jfilnh. Pharf^i. fi, 245; ^Cheih. Ctiitr. I8.i7» WWy 
TbMtp diift iLo not 4041'ord eiLtii^r Wxih any othc^r uf ihfl mdiviibiid knonn Eullj widH^ 

Cod-fiver dl kept in n closed vessel for 10 years, uonUiaBd 77"44 



p,C^C., H-27 H., and 11-59 O.; the eamG after fc«^n^ fnp 10 
with aooees of mr, coataineni 72-71 p. t'. C" 1*>"1 1 tK. auA 17'!-^ 'V 

Imd tlnTL-furi; taken \i\i a qiiaiiUtr "f "Sji^cn, iuii<hjh(aiii^ In .V.'.:^ i-. Cr 
nf itfi weight, or TiTe llmea Lt« luluiue. At llic sllilif- tiiiiL- tt W 
becomo visold und tnrbid (Aitlic-M. CAifrfl, .V>ifti> 1. JKJ ; /f*p. r**-*. i-vf, 
2,433 ', Kopp't Jahrffh. 18^'^ 325). — OH t)/ virnil coloure CT-l-l ■ 
black ^Girurdiii iSc Freiaacr). A tJiutgi^t of 2 \ttH. 'i\\ vt \t\c ' 
1 pu c*id-li;'cr oil, becouiL-s hot, Hi-oil-r^^d, bLick aikI ihirk iJirr - 
liajs, iumI Hfiii-llrtof &ul]iln;p)un ariil (Mariltr). A fi'W druin* ^i 
vilriol cclour uKl-lii^t'T -^^il vinlot. rod-LiVhWri^ -mA tirijilly l»Wk i K^ ii * i 
wliali^-o^t ti^atj^d ill ]iki> ruanuor innaedisitely l>ec'imh» brnivn An-1 i' 
(Kummcll, -V, 5r. Anh. 3^» IJO), — A well shaken mixlurc tj :> 
cod-liver oil and 1 vol, hulpLuric aciJ of ep, gr. I'iJo or rrjii Uv.< 
pirple afhr lji mitinti.'^ l ii Juixturw oF ilie wl witli tt»<' satm- nn.i^viri 
of i^ulpbiiric acid of Rp. j^. ]'8J5, dark-brown. Xitrio nod <4 ikp. 
l-2^f iLticd instead of da1|)tiur]cucid, ilova not ci>Iolu' Uic oil} tmt 
add of fip- t^, 1-Cy rcdiJena it; eo likewtBv doea nyrupy pb< 
ftCidf wbere&is iiitrusul|>liunc acid tunia it brown (Culverl* J* pr. 

Wliun cod-liver oil U minjd vilU oil of ^ilriijl, and the mixtmr* 
hoatod with ^xgosb of nikali, an odiMir of oil of mo isf^mittii'r ■'■ 
mixture, dilHttd -v^-ith wftCcr mid difllillod, ^It*^ t-ff a lii^bl y<l 
buviug lli(- srjjtil i»f iid of nieH iif^lili^f thji[i watc'i* :iud UifEiiig ui ni'i^ 
3[XJ". ir ilif* mi^^liin? of cod-livor, r>il aTid oil of vitriol \e k^'p* fa 
0omp day& and tboii di^lUlciJ vriEh liriio arid i>t'ater, || yields n bmUj 
dij^tUlalo, having tlio iril<jnr of p».M>crniint ( \Vaci»/rr, J- />r- CAntttt 
1 ii5; cmp, \iv. 4nl). — Whun cod-livor *i\\ \» iiisliljp^d with |>ot>ib- 
]i^j, [1 WiiU^ry disjiliate is ^djfiiined, )i:ivin^ tlic ndrmr of tndn-flitt ul 
iy>iitiLinin^r Witjckler'rt propyUc mid*? ( Wjigrir-r), dwl-Iivi^r oil h«U^ 
with iof it« volume of 8od:*'loy of ap, gr, l-^L acjiiJive a red oih« 

With akobnlic AmmoLua It fomi» a Urgr qtniutity of luntdc m^1iai| 

Ut Srf" (Carltl). K/J\vri(»y (J. pr. CU^m. (37, IGO) tiM*inM a nJ 
ipmntif T of ^midiv nicltiTi^ at 'JJ't lieconi trig solid And irafivpanailll 
*jr, cont!iiiiin;r nn tbo iivrra^, 75'U!> p. e, t'^ l^'Dil IL, tud |*1& 
and iiwilv sLilubl^- \i\ JilooboL 


10, Ra^-iittr itiL — Oblwned by boilini^ the lirffcmof /Buyig 
nikd R. biiriff with v^^tpt. Palo jt'lluw : ptiil-IIh like frtab wlafe «& 
Sp, ^,l^-[>2i-i. N'riiUnl. Ir. d'']MihiiM a wfdlr< stibAfance wtMm iiMpiad 
to tht' nil", morf quit-kly whim t-lilnine a pcisgr-d intrj it, U'itiidl'' 
vitriol it nnintn^H a durk-rud i;iijr>iir, HiaiijLi'iri^ after m ntimtVyc ni tf 
hoiir^H hta^jJiii;^' rind etiniri^' lo lij^ht vhAt-i ; \W jila. nlix>hnl<if ^fwa 
diHsolvc^ l-:i \iin. id ibi- oil at U'% and 14'fi pt«. nt ihn U^Knr M>t- 
lOU pifl. k •rilling elliur di^rilvo X>^ plH,, fbe gn'nFrT f»trliim fif irhicfc ^ 
dri]HitiifA!d nrk LVMiiiit^. tW ifnjK»niMt-:k]iun, ok'io w-id. iD«f^{wic wvi 
j;r|yL-ori(]. Jtoil dLOplkinir iKid biivin^fuii ■)ffi.-ri8ki'(r 'nlour, arj obUM*^ 
A liiro of flu- oil OiiiiUhiK O'lH piiu iirflidi; of |H't&j^«i(uu. <Ueni^ 
A l'reii**i>r, X ./. /'hnnn. 1, MU : f .'oM;*r. rmJ. 11, i'-lJi; J. pf. C^m^Sk 
m\h) Si'i" iiUii (!'>l<i<7 (.v. .;, Fk-mif. 6, aii*;). wi*o fdtjnd Ml |f«& 
jmtidi^ *)\ fHiUtfittiiiiii iu tlH< Ulr(>. TIm^ oil <.iir>tmL]ic jtbi«t^iorv W^ 
•dpbiW (fiohlry, X y, /^tnn, <>, US) J. /fl-. Chtm. 2^374). 

11. /^uMor-^,— From tlie liver of (TorJiu /-ofio or iMm 


Pftle yeUow; has an odour fuDtor tban that of train-oil* Contiuna 
Ddtber wxiine nor bromine (Herberger, Johrb. jw. Pharm. 2, 1 78). 


Walz. N. Jahrh, Pharm. 9, 304 ; further 10, 326. 
Bm IHffUalM (p. 331). 

Formathn^ 1< Digit&letin 19 resolved, by boiling with dilute Bol- 
phnric add, Into digitallretin and sugar, paradigitaletia boing formed 
at the same time. — 2. When digitalin is boilod with dilute sulphuric 
acid, Bugar and digitaletlu are produced, the latter then decomposing 
farther, as in 1, 

I^^yaratitm. When 4 gr. digitaletm are boiled with 200 gr. water 
and 6 gr, oil of vitriol, for aevL'ral days, or as long as the deposit still 
contains nndecompoeed djgitaletin (sparingly fiolublo in eold alcohol), 
a yellow resin separates out* which, when washed with water, then 
dried, and treated with absolute ether, gives up to this solvent, digita- 
Eretin, amounting to half the weight of the digitaletiu used, while 
0'52 gr. para-digitaletin remains bebind in the form of a yellowish 
brown powder. By spontaneous evaporation of the ether, the digi- 
toliretin is obtained as a loose powder. 

When 304 pts, digitalin, dissolved in 20 pts. of water, are boiled 
with ftOO pts. oil of vitriol till completely decomposed, the precipitate 
then washed to remove adhering acid, and treated in alcoholic solution 
with basic acetate of lead, a coloitrless solution is obtaioed which 
(after mnoTHJ of the ififld. Kr.) diies up to a cauliflower-like, indistinctly 
crystalline mass. This, when treated with absolute ether, gives up 
ISO pts- of digitaliretin, while 59 pts. paradigi tale tin remain undis- 

Yellowish-white powder, having a bitter, not sharp taste, and 
Doelting at 60^ to a resin. 


CalaUation aM<trdiHy to WtJj^ a. t, 

as O .^ 19fl .... 7218 40 C 240 .... 71-42 .». 7Sl ..„ 7210 

SB H 26 ,... 9-77 ' SB H 32 .... 9-62 .... flS ..,. 9-81 

O 48 ™ ISiJB S O 64 .... IQiX .... I8'l ..„ 181)9 

C^H'W...- 266 .... 10000 C*H»0»..„ 338 ,.„ 100-00 .... 100« .... 100^ 

& from digitAtftlia ; b. fnm digitalin- 

WbIi it undfioided b«tire«]i the two formula jii«t given. If tb« flnt bo adoptod« 
tihfl dBGoinpoaluin of dif itaJiiji Jn&j bo Mpl&ined bj auppoaing th«t sugar uid 
d^itilB«ia ■» flnt formed: 

ti» httrr boi^ fiirChsr tmoItvcL^ nthsr into digiUU»4in and lugnr: 

328 PMIf^KT StrCLICS <^H»; OXTClX-^TOCLrcS CWH»0»- 

or tnCd pan£fitilf<iB tad vit^. 

VHWqd IbfuuU of dici^Aimcia (C^UH^f be ulof^ad, tW flyul» CII*0* «- IfiO 

DigiuUretin is quittlj dissolved by ttrcmg futov i»e»rf, fftmjbjr 
dark yellon- eolutioix, vrlucb, wbo& eraporatedi li;4t-eB h gotdcn-jt-Jl 
nitio-coropotiti d . 

Tneolubte in trrArr; dissotreA nilh redrli&li'-yeltow colour in oJ ^ 
iTVrEAir and m prpcipatal^ th^^rcfrom by water; irtenhible in HfdrO' 
chhrtc aeidf ammojtia, ^Jtd pot^h-lfif. 

Dieeolvcs in aho^oj vtd m elAer^ 


fjfacofaicfGi of Diffitalirttin. 
1, Digitaletim 

Wale. Jnht-b. pr. Phtimt^ 2l,SA, — N.Jaks^. F^arm. S, 823 ^ fonW, 

ft, 307: further, lO. 3JS. 

DELTFa A'. JflArfc. Ptutrm, 0, ^6. 

Fofunl; allad J>ifitali» hj WhIk. uid Btnkfoi ot far Ifap moal |«n t^ iW 
uuDv iA thii Qi«aiairi thine eiU4. i.Scc i^i^o/Hk) 

Occmreact. — In purple aud yelliiW fox-gloTe (Dt'^rf offi imr^wna ttid 

PrffitrctrioTK — A- From FcKt-^loi'^ Uov**, W1i<>ii tliv drM^tj lUid ^ 
vcrieed leaves are freod from <Thlorophyll by complt?i<> cthftiLst^ia "iU 
ct^er, and the uudisftolved rt-«idiic is fufthor f xhiiualoi] with iJoohd 
the alcoholic tincmiv yiflds, witii almliulic nu^'ar-of-U-nd, % i^'^r-"* 
yeUow-greeti preripiiyte ; and the fiUriii^. rn*ed from Pict»» ■ ! ■ ■ 
by bydroAulphuric aoid and dfcol<^rit;«il liy aiLiuutl 4'iiJtro»Eil, > 
when left lo cva[n>rato over oil of vitrirtf, cryutnia and runlnl 
digiuletiij, amounting- to O'JS |i. c. *'i Uiu weight of Il'l» ^ 1 . \S *!■ . 

The nicitlirr'Lji;imr n'Tbiii^ dUELUlin in baluLiun. wliLcb mnj bt- < ,t<v 

kAuUcki with hjdiblod oudv of Ir^d itU th^* M'b'>tp i^f iLlu iwiiiiir itflid t* |if .^■fO'.^ 
•Ad Bra.pOTBfing Ihtf filtrate. From (h« iIi^IbIid iLui oLiliiiiied, fptlm FiirMi*>^ 
limoM of Acnd priacipli and fnt ^Wftb], 

B. Frrtrf) rrWe Df'ji'fulin {p 3311 K Tho pnl-KtanfH- - '■- ' ^ 
absulufu uthcT tniiii tiir- Unly dritij^inli-d bv \Viiti^ El^ 
{liv. 531.1); flu- di^itidlii U ilirn dlMSuKcd mii hy ("idd wnt 
rcnndiiiag^ ili^fitulotirif aftd^r tx^in^ w:ii^hvtl with cold «a1< ' 
by ro-i't_vE>lnllJHu(ioii from tx^ilm;^ akojji'l of hjl Kr< 0'^ (^ bUJ. 

2. Crude di-;-i(ulJuift triturated t^ a pulp with cold Mlcoholof TO^c^* 



the pulp is l«ft to drain upon il tiltt^r ; and the rceidue \b w&ahi^d oa the 
illter withfluiiillqUJLMtitit&of ak-oliolT "*^ iontj aa the iiK'^fbol whidi nins 
(kff appears c^)lmir*.fl when vifWfd In miliar lliick laycre. When [he 
residue la ditJadlved in hoiling kicoliol of &(J to 8& )t. c,, The eolulion 
filtorod as hot as pnBsible, dejjoeits on cooling-, doKaliiig-whilL' flakeb t>f 
dif iuletiut I'lily d sumU c|uaDtit5 al wI]iL:h rcmiuna disBolvcU in Lho 
muther'-liqufir (DtlfTb). 

Prcptrtie^. White, cFy>*talline nodiilet* (Wala). MirroKojHr roundish 

lion in <ntla water ha* a eirong, bittt-r tuste ^Wf^'^)- Acicoraing loabifl- 
■tatement oF Walt, -mler hmli'd Hith dipUlelm it toflli'IcBa, U driod ftt 40° 
and then further heati^d, it gives off 2 p. Ch water at 100°, taclta nt 
ITi^"*, Olid bi^giuH to di^otjnipDSEf, with evolution of add vapours, at 

Willi (awoh). Drlin. 

farUrr- later- ri^fr*. 

44 C Id 59 19 69'AO Bfll „ fiSOS 

aa H ,.,. 38 ,. 862 914 6'S S6S 

16 1^ . 3229 31-10 -, flat BBSS 

C"B*0'"...lifl - 10000 .,..,„ 100-00 ..,.,,. 100-0 IDO'OO 

W&lz original gavo tlia forniub C^'IPO'. 

i>rcompaT[Vion*, 1, Digitaletin hearrii on platinum-foil, melts, puffs 
up, and ijfiveg off white fumew, whioh burn with a slight deposit of soot 
(Wttta). — 2. By Uoihrig with dWwie en iphuric aciHj'M in reaoWed into 
eug;ar and di^taliretJUf a certain quantity uf paracLigitalin hein^r fotLned 
ftt the s&niv tiiuL' : 

C«H»&* - C'^HisO" + C*n»0< (WbIbJ- 

Tbc forniatton of Eugar bv bcilia^ digilolrtin ithh dilute rmlphiirk' vid, hod pra- 
Twuijj been ubwivccl by Dciffo. — 3. Di^atalotin ImmerWid in oii of vitriol, 
assQn]e& a dark-rcd colour, and then dintiijlvoa conipletely, Watwr 
renders Ihtf flolutiou turbid, then cohnire it nlive-green, and diwfiolveB 
the whole, — 4. Digilalelin dinsolvi^e in fuming nitrif adtt^ with yellow 
colour, and without pcroepliblo djicnmpoeitioo j aad water 6ubH&queiilly 
added, fioparatea a jcliy and thi^n white flocks. 

CornhirtffiionB, DljC^talci ir J diesolTCB at mean temperature in 846 
pta., at ^b^ in 500 pit*,, and at the boiling hi^al in 222 pte. itdfrr, and 
8e]jtinLU?s Trom tlit- lant sohjiiiKi in noduloH nn cimliin,'-, — It fb^itiiilvcH 
in cold hifiiifuhlitrit: acid rif ftp. gr. 1"21» and ii* preeipitated hy water. — 
It disaolvefl without coloration iti aqiieouB ammonia, and ia aopnratcd 
ag^ain by evaporalioii, or by additioa of watoin 

ll disfiolvffl ill 3^ pi*, olcofti'f. of sp. gr- OS^ at mean temperature, 
in 2^ lo 2i ptfH. Hi the boiling heat, in 3^ pts. al^eolute alo^:iliol at 1A°, 
and iu 2 ptu. aT Ihr^ boiling he:it. — It dissolves iu I'JijU pt»i- ether at 
Id and ia 1470 ptii- builiug uthcr, 

T/nfAJitr i\f Diifir'rffrin.'—Ohiii'in^d by precipitating rupioouH digita- 
k'tin with tantiic icid. After drying it is yollowieh-brnwu, and wlien 
nthbL-d Lo p^>ndi.-r forms a mass leeeojbling tanni<j acid ; it is insoluble 
in water, but aoluble in alcohol (^\'alxj. 



2. ParadigiUIetm. 

Wale. FT. Jo^rh. Phana. 9, 305. 

Obtaioed, Ir-gelJif^r-with utigar and di^-itftTiivtb, bj rhv tlec^^pnejlST 
of digit ak'tiii uud di^Eaiin Iry dilute ^uljfhuiii^ ju-i J ^1.32^)^ 'uid [loriiifd 
by n?crj8talliflEitinii from alcoboL 

Shining, yoUowiBh, tastL-leas masa, uot deootnpofled at 100' 


44 C ^. 

M H 


.„. as* .^ 

.... M .. 
„, 112 ».. 

,.„. 8 33 _ 

.„. 27-21 .^ 

.... sra 



C^H'Ky- .„„.. 

,.,. 410 .... 

...^ lOO'OU ... 

...„ lUOH) 


a. oblALoed fram rliiEiiftlelin^ fr &om digiUlia. — Difm from digitilatCD W 
oantaimng 4 ni- If aa vatT- 

PanLdig^tfiti-tiii meltH And^urn^ at Iri^Ti temperalnree, leaTing Ai 
coal. — Oit pj' vitrtot dissfAvee it, firet wirh bi-ownitli, tbi^n wiU» fini' 
red colour; nod wator added to Ihc enliiticiD tbro^re down ^Iv^al»h 
i]a|Lc». ^ ruminfT TuEnc acid tiiaBolvcB it qakkly, aiid, with eroUitJoiicf 
gaflf fonniu^ a nolution ivhicL becomes cloudy oti addiiinu of vralfr. 

Pnnuligi Inlet in in ioftoluble in icnier. — It dism^lvps in wiiTm A^dnv 
chfonc acid lA s[^ g^r. I'lK, Hhd renmine in its original Bta:« wbco ll» 
eobition is t'Taporatt-d- It disflolveB elowJy in cold, mpidlv in w>ra 
potask-it]t^ and is precipitated by acids. It does not diaaoLve in a^ocou 
ammonia, and Ih not altt^rcd by cvaporotioa tlierewltb. 

Soluble b alcohiil., iiisolablc in riher. 

3. JDigitalin. 

TToJioLLE (1S15). X. J. Pharm. 7, 57; abrtr, Btftd. Jakr^v.^, 

0. Usanir. X. J. Phann. 7, 160 1 nbHtr. Bert^L JaJ^m^, CB, MS. 
NatitkLle. J* Chita, tuid. ^\. 61 ; abstr. ikrcti. Jakmba: 26, TJ4. 
Klshann. */. Chiin. «t^'L 22. 577. 
L. A. JitrciWKR, Jifpert. HS. I7S- 
Letioruuis, IiT. Ann. Chim. PAjfa^H^SB; Aim. PAann. €7i251|/.l'^ 

IlonoLLE Al Qdevkmh:. ^rraoirt^ mu- ia Dii/italine ; AlmU.N. 

:*, 1- 
A. Bccmntit, Sm, Jtf, Jlfptrt. 0, SH. 
Q, h\ WiLi. J^hrh. pr. Pharm. 12, 83 ; fnrtber, 14, SO; ttuiha, flr 

29i further^ 24, 86. — -.V. /oArft. Pharn. Q, Sfti furtboTt S. Mli 

fuiilicr, la, fllfl- 
^El-t^ra, -V. Jahrb. PhttrnL. fl, 25- 



Atl«inpt« 1o isulibte die faiUfir prun^iple of Cfae pur^lp fbi-plove (Jiirjiialig 
fKhTJvrro) were nuwlr- mnnv jtars n*ru bv hanjwr {BUft. wihp, *33, 1^ i SrA*\ 
la. 110), Duloiiff d'AjufvVi (/. Fh^u-m. 13, TO^ A'. TV, Ifi, i, S'/J i B^rt. 
J*4rt*i*r, e, 27SK Mdjliuk iJfri,^rl. 38, 2371, PbnioBa (Zr-i7*fir, J/hj^A. fAy». 
4. ISO), WoJwn J. WdfliTi;^ fJ. '/ J'/r7fli/. LW/ of PXirm iV-'iJ- Bbslr. J, J*Aflr«. 

If^Mi. 18.11, £. 142>, T.iukvLk]! (Ahh. I'kanrt. 12. '£&i), Bratih ft PoggEnli* (tA Pjbvrn. 
ZI, 1301, B. TnjuunBiorft" UV. Sr. Arch. 10, ll»), A. Henry (^. 5ff^c- P*yf- 1. 74) 
ftud BuuJrkD (^', J. Fhiinn. •%, ^) i but ull IIjopd autbori di-Acnbe Jiv DigTlfilin 
chicl1_) Lbi: Hbcrc-al or iJcubolii:' titi'Lcl, or Lbc eubs1uD»d prei'LfiJlatcd by aoiila 1r'>tli 
infiiKDrid uf Ji^thLs, lIomOLlL- fir^i chHlniyt} a. piin-r produrt, uml □iubE Mn'rvfure 
be rpgnrdcft u tiie dintovi^rpr of di^fiUlm. Wnli, foL'j^wiiifl ebk-fly, Hrit imt wWUft i 
Ihp dipn*tu?iu givpn bj Komnlli-, nliliimwl litfi rnidp illgiTntin, ultirh b<- ikFI'^nrhrda ' 
{Mte Ifflow) ivwtvFil into cli|jii7ilir, cligimlMiTi, dii^iidlirfTiii, nnd i^rbrT jiibft-tiiHifl, 
Hnn^ f( whirh aptmr w tn* iflfiilical wub iltiid? Eiuh»oi]LOT]t]T o^uuDcd by Homolle A 
QueTCUDp ihnu ilouiullt'a dit'itulin^ Otlicr cbtuu^lA, uldtillFi^ oiiwr mudet of 
ptTpaJatioiiT nbUiurd »i^belaiii.r< of diiforciif propfrlurB — whicl] they nf-'crth-^hM 
drpcribfl at diglbilia. Thi^«i? rcEaliunti nrc afili i^jhi-c loiiRutil by IIlc ciradnisbarida 

tUffilalutt a^m cIom no^ a^pfp nitb rliikt ot Homoll^ & Quovtmne ; and thM WlIe kI 
Hnt dfui^iutn] Fu4 dcgiT^ddlin na Ji^iralin, rpgorduig it na id^nEintl nilb HaitifilWt 
digiUUn, fflinrflflA Iip how givt-i Iho munr ili^ilalin la tlie bitLor lubftluice, C^^^HH", 
fbrm^rly i^hlLMl Jifjiitutflm. For thr?^< rrnpon^, Ihe prcdnrtt obtompd bj dUnsrcDt 
tibdiiiBtA frLFiu diffitftJiffr "iH ^""^ be dewribcd ^rpDratoJr fEr-)- 

On a liquid volatile nlknloid Trom difitnLis, obtniiu'd In tbr- BUmP manner m 
(■oniDD fr>ai hfn^lwk, mtl ivaurctt-'d by wi Koi^a\knriU {T^Hnpf-r. CliAm PknTm- &, 
712) aa ibo lurUBo pnnuiplo of tho pUat^ fuithof ootmnuuicationa muy bo oi[>ccl#d' 

(hciir\-<v€e. In the leaves of DigitaUa pvirptirea^ — Tho eced and 
capsiik'a likewise contain di^talin (A, Bucliner, sen.) AJao in 
iJiifUittiA Itrtfui^ at iLiid aTler Huweriii^ timu. 

A.M'iiU'b Di^itHlin. Formcrlj kopwii u dJieitnHfUii, lad dvjgnntcd <b fui^h ic 
tW roDmiMfB bboTD cited. 

iVgirtrn/ifff*» T]ie green parts of the f'»s-ploA'o plnnl coarecly 
jHilverised ftro pibaiitiLed m a Kt'ar*< \\w.»i^ with H |its. alcoh*>l dF Kp, gr. 
U"852 ; I he alcohol is ilisiillud from the dour tincture in the water- bfttlij 
tiic rcsidmi is trChted with water to lou^ a« it imjwirlfl li htttor taste to 
that lH|uiil ; mjU the nuilt-d fstnictd an? di^eattd with levigalcd oxide 
of lead aiid a small quaiility i>f baeit' iM;i:t.itL-, till i\ filtiircd Hamplo is 
no Ifin^^T diiiidird hy ihi' butiic aL^-Ute. The liruiM i« tli^'n fllltn^l [ the 
^efttf r }>arl of llie diesi>ln'd lead is roinioTcd oy d:liit^ autphorio acid, 
the rt'flt by Bulphnto of ammontQ j tlio flolulirnj is neutraliaijd with 
ncnectm aDimrtuia and (iLtcrtHl ; the prucii>itfb1e wi^ll w^u^hod -, and the 
HUuLiuiL pK'd|jit^t(.'d vtiUi n<[ueciLjii Lajiiiic at;iil (k-tit< advautug^oiiHly 
wUh iiifasidj] of ^all-nuts tir nak-hark). The prccipitHtc, wpII wasbed 
and prefised^ La trilurnted with reouutly precipitaliid hydrate of load. 
Olid eihauBtod with alcohol^ the alcohobc cxtracU ar(> frc^jd rmni a 
entail rjiiantity of diflsolved lead hy hydniBHlphntio acid, afjd IVum the 
greater part of Lho alcohol by dlktillatiou ; aad the rebidue \a loft to 
evajJorate slowly. 

Tho a-nieous decoction of the plant may aleo be froatod, 08 aboyo 
deecrittfd, insitead of the alcoholic estract i hut the disitalfta UxotA 
fiblaiiu'J ifl more cnl^ared* and requires to be purified hy troaling its 
ulcfiholin Holutiun with a small qiiaulity of blojjd-diarcoat (Walzj, 

3h The alcoholic extract of the comminuted Icavea ia apptnted with 
bahic acetate of leiid, and the yellowish grceu Qttr&te is picciiiltated 



hvdrDGQlphonc add. After ocptntuije: the ^uEpliide of lead the 
lot t» difitilli^ oiF : the tvaidtie u c^ibaustt-ri withi^ther; ll^o pn^^ 

with tmnnic acil The ir^ed prvdinUEc dissolreii io ali>" ^^~ 

(lGC0Bip0£ed bj baeie ikcelalc <rf loaJ, Il^vl-s oi/arlv wUiit *!j 

fin -ba Emtmii f Cr.) (W»l2). 

3, Tbe meat]; diied, cmrwty bnMed l^are^ are cciD\i^Ptfly 

ntedwitfaalmfaol; liii! rMnldnglrt^oioFeejtre fr^L'd fi\fm tiNiijlnl 

Tli]1atioa;&nd tb«R<idiie,afterl>eiD^^vupi>niUd l*^ tl»plliii:kuc»t 

*c«^in: ^pluunn i« ftlttkcn ti|i with puiifiH aniuiHl i^hLUViiAl, fi\:frw 
ntittrwltwA wkk Mmawn, sod prvdpEuicil b^ laiinic nvu]. Tlio dn 
mdpllate IB «>bs>8t«d Willi aloolialfiE ^p><^; ib'^ cxtm^U ^ltc ik^4 
■oeolPtlMJ »ttd Nwd fnm alcobol by diotllUiion ^ and llic li; v n?iil _ 
b twin wvk-dw>tlL watc*. The sadifl9olre4 ]*>nio[t U drit-<X wiLviiid 
fay a^tAtioft wjlb rtlKr, ttissdv^d in «im aloohrjl of 90 p. c, luid ihi 
nmioBk kfl t» 4'v^»^te (Wxltainn). Thb ^itfKt^ viddtf I 
l-te Co l^H |v<*L digrtAbn^lViitEteiu). V7 lo 0-8 |x c- <W»Ii). 

TW ■«*»« rtUbd of digilWn it nfanrtrd *itli ^«M lltamL miinj -icli 

I ivftfvft* • ■w«ii 1 1 h i ucj or fg H i l i. ^HMMd. and ptmnui*! vLth 

•I k«|. Hid 1^ .oew if iMd it KTBcnd bov tbr AknU by kT4«^ 

mi. Tfc* fp^w pt rf IW *kchat ■ dstilbd oC ud Uu 

IB ^ J UM mA iHMid «sk mCir ftoi alurh ibwiln* 

rf Inn iL «a cvapdtMidB. ■ ■ mUiib-vdlm b^ttf nd«, 

ba4 wi tnttb -^m cbR m£; vfaiUr ia'i>«l«T vmI >IoJ>^a. ui 

ri r* '> tW b«i<* ■fi» «teMMl by IMv^ dtfte bu Ulio b^ 


t>»fc JigkJiii pwyreJ bydlbvr of these noeenett still ciiatviu: 
I. Oftw««l«ttMM wUe)iBajbecatnuird(>jrctlwf(ilv,^3i>~Ain 
1^ digitUole BCid, lW Mnl |CiDci|te of dtgiulinL, A uid lt« iflrl 
iBfiiyb fal («■ JiciMiiA Icr ^^ wv the ton i!^t»licTiii nr difi- 
iiiLniii) i> A raWftiTiw h j o l ibk n cold w«tcr, vo^ di^tnlvtiEL. - 
To«l^tfttte thi«g— l—t>nCTg>«*J|itfr|igpUfgdigiL*Iin, thv foUuvuf 

CV«At <fcili)B^ k fx^iitti wUh tlwolato oUmti the rtudw > 
C«ff«nd «il£8|«>k«iC wM«r, wUc^ ifiaxarM tb« d^tatiiu Invipf 
tW dMalrtta U lh» baClffB a the fotv of A wlule : - 
i»iini?|-Til pBrtfaiiiCofcc wd ftftdtkvoagU^ w&kIh^ ' 
TLi iijlnio« ktilhtrtT) *f ■■'--—* *■'■*' — fa^i A^.^^i tiii«tvd,«nJ 

McmM» ■ All ^ned ftt ft (tsdr hmt* and trr 
MM ««MtAr<f hl^ntvj oxidt of load, ud «ilb ^ . 

iLjLiiiii utirfiC*"wwilfcM.illitMtfi rli 1i 1 I I |i III 1 1 

anj ^ ijijl JUiu^tfa w^hel The aolttthxi, wh«ft <nM^ 
«xiitamtnl W«mi » Mt^ MtollM rll?* which, whw pnfffeUjT 
JrvTiHVr h* imw^urf to *jiilMriih pww*?r, 

^\v^ wwtwwii «-*pA^ tte'digit.fa thoi prn«^ »igb 

AtU frtaai dkttektv ^ ^ dvotat »ow J1moIto« th« prac^nic 
rjihJSVto--' acid I M » *) ■ «M akohDl ; VUIM tfa« ^ 


V Prop«rrips. YelJowiah amorphotia mass whicb cannot be obtained 
white, ovi-n after repented eolntion in wator, prt'oi|jitalion with lamiio 
acid, an<J tlecoTaprieitioii of l!ie prccipilale wilh bjt^Ic acetate of lend 
(Walz). Rein[U[i& unaltered ot UXl", mt^In at, 1375°, ftiiJ ilL'CiuiipOHj'ji 
at 300"- Tastes ftrnmgly bitter (WhI^). Kot i(e pro|.*rtiat, 
*efr heiaw. MokculoT rotatiou, left, [a]f = SO (Bm^aet, JV. J. y^ar^m. 

66 C _. 83e .« 65-36 fiC-95 ,„ 65 2 '] 

.4B H — ,.-HH 48 .„.,.,. rao 612 ,„ 7fl 1 

O , ES4 MM aS'Oa 36-g ] 

c«H"0* eoa loooo loooo looo 

WftU rormvrlf ungoed to it tbo fonniilft O^^iK}*. 

Decompositions U Digkaliii Jipat/sJ on [iliil.iniim-fiil, A/jrfjj witboat 
rt^iliie^ — 2, \V"itl> colli oil nf viin'oU it bpt:i»m<*rt lyil-bruwii^ ihon on 
dilutinji wilh waior, dirty grefnisli t'r'*>wii, wilhout nro'*i(»ita( inu nf mucb 
of the diesnlvrd (iintter. — By boiling wilh lit'lvte gitiffJttn-i': uri>/, it \& 
re&Jved iiJt<> wu^Mr, digitriliretin nnd parndii^ntalcim. liiOptflndi^- 
taliij jiclilt^t 42'8 p, e, flnir^ir, 3EI'5 p, f. di^hiiiretiii. iiiid l'^'3 p. & 
parinli^jitaUtin, Lleiice Wall euppoaes that, the digitiUin is first 
ri«oK'ed UiUy sugar and ditritaielin {UmnP* - C^m^^^}'^ H- U^U-Cj \ 
Olid tljut Ltie Lhtter \& j>ar(iy cojiverEedf by abritract^ou of A at- water,, 
into [Kiradigiialeliu. parllv resolved into di^'t.ilirctin and iiugar' 
(C"H"0^' z= L^'H^-O" + C"'iP'0'). — 3. Di^itdiaindismih-edby V''''^- 
i^loric ar^ut fii sp, gr, I'^, ujid is partly prei'ipiuited on ililuting Iho 
BcJutioiJ with wattT ( WiiJa). Bj^boitui; »iiti diluio Wtoofilono (will, it yield* 
PU^Hr lLud"ik;l (X Br. Arch. ^t. Lift), — 1. It dis»jivffi in famhi>C "''"^ t"^'*^ 
With reddish yellow colour, auO fili^hl evolution of red Yapoiirs \ and 
walPi" ^^■^►■d to the wtilutiori, tii-at Umws u jeily, siflerwai'da separates it, 
yellow depojtit (Wab), i 

Combinatmu^. nigitnliii dinsukea in 125 pts, cold and 42pts. hniliug 
WfttOr. — Tlic alfllemcDt of Ab| {Ot^ierr, Phann. Z^it'^hr. «, SOI) ttiit dipttalia 
^■olTet iu lp£90 plA, wiLliT at 19° Bppcnni \o ri-latc W didtitletiit- Dl^ltftlin 

diBBnives in itqueous atintionin vi\i\\ roHi'-rtd wdour, chanpujf to 
bmwiiifth, iH precifMlated \*j w:iiei', attil remaiiia [ipi^ireully uuaUereil 
when the flnuiionii ovaporatea. Il dii^solvea at mean temperature iii 
^^ ptt. iLbsolute alcohoi, or B|jirJl of up. gr, H^Hb, at the boiUng- beat m 
1| to 2 pre. — It disK^dvca iu t'D,000 p«a. of tthes- iit 15", and in KItOOU 
plft, l)oilui^ r,"Tln:r (Walz). — Iu 8u [)U. t/iWu/jrm at 17J'' (rfddimpcrt, 
Vtf, fir- A}^k. U10, U2j. 

TWinoff fl/' t}ifjifii/i!t. Vvom an aqueous ftohiikni of dijrllalin 
tftiinic a-^id thVowfl down a floet-nlent preeipiiale- whidi srh>n arlherrs 
together into a rcfliaoiis tran^^paivut masi; tide, when dry, beL-otu^a of 
a brow nir^h -yellow colour, and con be rubbed *\'tmn to a li^^hl ftrey 
jMJwder; il la ^duble iu 500 pnrif* of c*'ld, or 300 parta jf boiling 
vater; in the Intter ITj tnelta tu a bof t VL'sla L^mtainliig' 4fi per cent - 
of dJ;jitaUri(\VaIa), 

B- KiymoWc's DiyttaiiiL. This fiubfitonce woAfiubsequeatlj designated 


I7 HoBoOe A QarraiB^ w fa Vi^irMm, uhI «>m>wii to be a raatim^ 
AocK^S to ^ak, it k kdmlicftl vitfa diiritoloiii) fn. 32^), 

Two poiBidi ctf EUiigki v-fiu* demd fox-glorr loavi^fl arc tncn^irtfA 
villi wiier, aad rxtkajvst^d io a pnoniator; the- ai^oi^^H citnil 
ia pndpitBttd bj bane aoMai« of k«u]; c&rtH.>iu{4T <-r ^'}* u 
adied to ihfi filtnto aa kmg aa it foona a fffvcipitau.' ; thi.^ bn^ i« 
throwiL 4I0WB by oxalate t4 anUMViu; aiiij tlie Uft^cvM by (iuii^^iatft| 
<ir ffo&and asHMwa. Tba Balatiim is Gttcntd iitf« sui^I fardutUlf*!' 
villi «£«»■ of taaaic arid ; tlk» pncit<tst^ is eoftoc-re'l. washed witL 
a Ktltc ffiU wUer, Ukd witile ptill mwt, nixail iriei hulf iL« weight r/{ 
v^>cd IhhAi;^ ; aad the aofl iDAAi in dnun^ on M<*tliiJi*-i>npor, drif*^ 
al a f;«ille bc«l, pouMled. and ifigf^^ieij id b-tilin-: iJiMhciL Tki* 
aloobotic aulotkiDi, t-Tafmalpd al a gnilli^ hi'itl, Wnt-r* ili^'it.iT " - ' - ' 
MJ bgfr c <d trrmt de^oi^arvnt ftalib M vsfthin^ vUh wau-r 
ia bod^i; aboahrta akoaot, treated wiUt aitLeinl diarro&t, ariii i">i'i>:i-m 
aaa veUovfianakriBaae^ bj «pocilaafi>u:4 cvacHiruLion (if Ihr filtniA. 
TUala pDaudcd* dnj«^ gd vttb tftfaer fur 2i Uvuk, and aftprwB " 
boiM m it. Thci mai ha t d ^ ^ P<*^^^ '^ H(ini>^ni>V difj^itnlEn. 4 11 
qfnxtiij of vbkk is Kkewiae oepoaitad from xlo' oth>:'ri-Al it-ilaiicM 
qmlMMott* eTafnntiua, ia white crwte, but mixi^d wiii a grf^riu^ 
fli tad J ca to ttoeAea of aaoibor aabataaoe (ILtcaoIIo). 

Wlut^ wartjr mmaini or Goe scolrs, Inrhlnrrms, turf 
faanaf a vM^ biinr ia£i«. Tha dost canaea aittvimg. SVntral -V 
doaa of ODI grvnm^ tak«A liitM»ny ecmeicloriKr_v dopr»<&i'ir8 iht- pnlavl 
awd caqaaa b ^ada A a, coafoacd raioo, anddc^Ul/t;» — It jircvL^ta l«r- 
PKiktAtion n a oi4atioo of Bttgar to which jcaat haa brca Mti 
(A. BnBacETt BCn>)> 

1. Od he'u^ brato^l to 180^ 1I bctvimca jilIoW; ftl 
too' It Itims btffvwiw ttitteas, atid i^vrlb np; th/^n aI ^m'' [T] jbli 
down a|:mih, andaow taitea k«c tnit^r, bol «}iarpcr anii u^tnniEt^t— 
^ IKgitolai itt iuAMiMaUa. aad bam» vHlh a vority Aunty. — 3< Wiit 
mT fT vAi'ibt. it fimtiA al ottoo a datV aolulii^rk eKluEntini; ttftrr 4 fcif 
da^ a onmaoo ndour wbm iieivnt m thin la vejn, aj»d Ih*ovi)i-« j^^u 
oa adJittntiofalittlfwatn-, — 4, FAa^rf0rw4ir«/liini3iT ;pwn^biitibi9 
not clinMltT^ lu — 5. It ia lAnnvdifttelj duaolv^ hy EiriiAfr AvrincilMr 
wK*ii thr solution bt a firw mocartita aa^itnes an < 
mulaiirrntainfin^ foraabonr.dcunejlsn^-c-n )k< 
dark grppo ia ■ frw dajra. — 6, Ttoali^ with mirj^- < 
atttmia faai««, »uA foma a y^lhnr aolii I'tnn, whk'h af <' ' 1 
a fidd^D cvjottr. — 7. Wlwn bmkd down with mh6d« v/ /«rti^ ii Im«« 
ita Utter tft»tcs aiMl tbea taetea aatiinginit (U<Miu>lic). 


C\«akaaf;«iu». IHgita&a ia acdaU^ ia al^mf !.nrm ^ «rl« <if «oU *a<l 
1 .iifxt fnnM iif UiOiuir mfnr :— It dSaaolrv^ 1 lu ODnfcftiniAl 

awiio add; in dilulv dnrfr not nmrn |deiu ...ui ii> wHt«v. u»il 

(Uh-h iiu4 tvaa Balla with ibcn. Tb4^ ai)tic«nja H<i|btion do«a ty>t f^ 
|ai^iiital«« wtth a<»1nt*iukfl oi loclallw «alt« (n<ii>v>nr). It ia nu^. 
vHdiiblv ia dkvAvlaad In ttiitnrca of alonhol and wut- 1. — It dii«olivf 

|,Sa<>riaTtm of (X>ld aiihyilrnutf «fjWr of ap. gT, *'~." TVr ilauhllr' 
aolutiMD <kf di^tabn U )«rrt'^pitaTnl br Laniiie adi) < 

U. Ucftiy fnala Ibo ak*«tMilk FXtract of digii«uxt ^ ^ik a aixltfi^ 



of 1 part Qcelic acid raid 3S parte water at 40' to 50", decoloriaes the 
eolutiou with nnimni L^han:ijaT, liltr<r». Mi^titnLtl^eH with umniniiLu. mtd 
precipiUies with d€'r.*>rtiori of milgnll*. The. prpc^ljiitat^ is misf*! 
wtlh u third of its wdpht of litharge and di^'**8led Iti y menRuroa f>f 
alcobolof ep, qr. 0-93 ; ami tho Ifqimr, Hpparatcii bvfittratioti and press- 
id^ lilt roBidne, ia trtiatiid with jkJiinial charcoal and evajwratod to 
diynesa aft^T fill.raLioii, Tlie residue IH imw v-nshi^d twi* or fhre*i 
times with ether, tlie di^rjialiu then remaining, 1 tih^jamme of the 
djy leaves yields from 9 to 10 grammes of dig;italiiif e^thibiUn^ the 
properties described bj Homollc (0. Htury). 

The f>llijwing dcBcription b.7 Koeniaiui {N, J. Phann, 38* I), ap- 
pears ttj refer tu Homolle's digiTiilin, B, 

Pi-opertifA. Ilvdrafe of digntalm (? Kr.) loste 10-07 per cent, of 
water al lOO"" wittmut fuilliLT change and ie then highly hygrgecopic, 
It 18 free frurn nitrogen, 

■ Cafimlatioit aecordUfj to Koflnanri. m^an. at 100'- 

fc M o asi w-ao &270 

^^H 4s n „. 4fi 7-39 7*3 

^^H so O 240 39-41 39^ 

„ 101>00 

0»H«0" 609 lOCMW 

'IVOOrding to K«Eiianii, 

TifrarripDntinnH. Digi'laliii Ixttled with drliito Holphuric ncii is re- 
solved into KosmaniTs di^'tftlirelin and fermpntahle angar : 

100 part* di^italln ^iLVf as an average 5741 ptfl. euirar and 4C'G7 
pta^ digitaliretin, Dnring the ebullitinn, the Hmi<]l of digif^liii L8 
perceptilklo, — 2. It diaa\>lves slowly when boiled in gnda-ia/ and is con- 
Tcrted into di^talic acid without fonnalion of sugar, 100 pts. 
digitalin yield llC-3 di^italate of aoda. 

C, Homollo and Quevenne'e Df^itnfint^.—liiG diffitalin preparad by 
Uoiaolle ifl deennii>nsilj|e into dipl'^lin- ili^'italiac, and di^^talfieo, 
Whvn TlnTiiolIe's ihtnliilin ib treated with alcoholic ether of 07H f^p. gr, 
Ih^ digitaline and di^talt«e are diHWolvcd and the dig-italin ia left 
behind; and if the lihrato be tht>n eraporatt'd to dryT^tKiJ, ar>d the 
residue treated with alcohol of C0% the digitaline diwsoh'oy, leaving 
the digitaluiie. The digiuline may be recovered by cvnporuting tho 

Propfrtifs. Non-cn-Htallioe ecalea, or pale-yellow, Imnsparent, 
friable ftsin. It withstands the action of the air, hua a pecnliar frunt 
odijiir and very bitter taete. NeutraL For i(« phjaicflofical viim ko 
IT. M^yfrt. 9. SO, . 

It bebaves with Lydrocliloric like nomolle'h digitalm, — Pisflolvea 
Yory flparin^flv in irnter, in all pr-ipurtlorxs in iii*:otmi, in 100 poita dher 
of Gp. gr. 0-7^7 at SI' at. (Homolle & Qnevenne)- 

n, DlifituJi'i lif LA*i>itrihis. — T\iM inineons fiolution of the extract of* 
digitaliR prepured witlHiilinealeoholjK precipitated with neutral acetate 
of leadt fiUereii, and Hhakun up with br^rio-blnck ]irevto«>*l> washed in 
add, whereby the liiiuor loeoe it^ wd our and bittertasle- On decantliijj 


4ff fifttJr, wMUng the d>rM»l willi wai^, enhiustiu^ \t by UnODf 
m ileahoL ewpontn^ the wvAkW-enlouicd nk< allelic Anlntinn f-Vi'r » 
wstai^bttll^ mad IcaTu^it to ootM, a {"^^^^'^ ^^ clupi«i[c<i ^liirii Utu 
W ■■i4i,ilaftd^aftol*gdin alcobol; IUr fiolntinu tliiu obuim^i) ,vii-l(^l 
OTStftb of <ligitilBn brr e|iaEil»n0oa« eva|-rrathiQ. T}i<>m' arc tv 
%*Tt*f, Bcvtn^ umI fr(c bvBB nititiigf^, T1l«-v ilii^solvr in otJ of n'l 
fwaiig ft toMKififtl pwtJo soMmq, Thk^h, fi.7lcr eoruc Lifiirr tx.t.i%mi 
fcg»W> <ft4 fc |i »« tO ft bUcfc SUbataooe. Tlir purple f^rilulmn h^i^ijir*] 
gn i «» tAlitijm of wmtTT. Tbe iXVSLHffi are but vjwruigl}' i^dlitblt- is 
«HKr; ibr; dnaihrp wiibout 4-ul"urin hgtirocMori'' AUt\ in nitn't: ond-^ 
aktJ^i, widi fMlcr facOitv in jjr<j(ifnti-iti u it in moro fr»e ftnn 

H Di jA rfi'm i>^ Xlifftflp- — 5<V p". ro3irsv?ly-potiri1.Tyv1 f,%X-|rln' 
)nivcifiMV«xhwte<lBft MRoblrM' whh altiM of £,ty p.*;.; tlic dikrii' 
to eT«pc«»l«d o« ftu dieh<^H^ in & ciirrrnt of ait; ftn^l tJi 

to iJPin^Pri is a liUv of wvm waIct: UnnuU' nf di^tjilir^ tin 
s a stitkj ■■■>. vbkfa is irashpd witli x Uilli- wa 

TW f ofci tion ii exvpuni^ dowu t.k 4 litivs; i«iKVt 
«C«tale of IcmI ia stinvd vrell bio il ; ihv pttctprUti.- is 
^fltnlM; tW grcAtrr |iait ol ihe lead rcmorcfl friNu cfn' llJlriEfrt? 
lateal ctemiai^ ilir ritnainder by rsnlph^tc nf bnmkr>iLinj htiii u 
wmA g^lpkif «f aaumwia it dnaolr^^ in tbc^ cletir lTJtrttt<* m ll ii 
aUf totaxr «p^ !>(«■ tUo. aftcf tOBke time, the diptalin Eb'|«rm(Mii 
whitr dik«<a. vhick. Mt«r J4 bo«ink ^re collectctl woxlot! wtih ■ mIO' 

rated eolutiiia «f 5al|iliale of atupoiuah atic!. nftrr 'h '^ ^'''•<ii|it4 

ia 3 paiTt* cf «at««, nl|bl« of Wd ihon rrrmi^iriui^ rr i Thi 

telHbtNi to Wi^B pR<i|ai«l«d bir «Ai<tTtttkMi ^^leIi t^ulp^.*.- - 'o'-j'sa 

mA Ae nwopHalc of ^^takn is o^lb^u^ dhM, nu'l tln-nthr-J vicb 
of tt ^ C 71ke fihcfvd aulutiiiB, ftvatvuraltHl nt » p.^uili^ bat 
the dipiadm <K«lifcttts y. C^im. mM. ^U f I ; ab«[r. ^:. 

Tbc 9nlabofi cf tb« aIcoMk ejUmct, prepared acooniiox to 1. 1» 
|nv^fllalr<l witli taiuuc MvV uid hot wat(^ b |>nTirri] iip^ta llic pf- 
ci^vuic till it airlt^ aficr vbkli It ia kncttik-*i in vmmx HkikTj 30 fn, 
vi tbf atiO maie$ lart^lalo is tbca (Slasrilvxxl in 1 liirv uf wunn vtlrr 
witb tiMai4«f to dntpaof aotai&iNi o>r tauaiuJa; fh» srilutKii^ i« pn- 
dpkfttcd with ttcutfal accttte of Wad at 30* and filtcfnl ; a^d ia otoi 
Ok filmt« b siiQ ci4omd baak wnrlalc t>f k'&i ie add«il to il Tb 
iMd b ftgiifa nnvc*vrd l>T caiiotLk- at-kl a»-] ovlptiaic* uf ^ftiuuida. ili 

of anuBoaifti it OM" tKea be punfi«L Ulcc Chat obudncd br mdm 

iytfnfitt. AoKVpfecwt, tfaatloMQl, fviabW rMn. ttorin^ a 
iirtMt. Uurr, utd pauc^ot taM^ The d«vl MlaUto tbo i?yi«, 
jiaiwia awwciu^- O"! gl. b po^«»«a to aaunala if il caoDnC be 
bjrToaitiag. Ncatni- Pannaornl in tlw air. CnntauM nitn^ppft. 

flMVMpv^MH. I- ncat<«l ca pUUtjDin-f-Til il m^lia, bra^oH* 
ccJcmtvd, and givvv nff anaoatic Tapoitr^ wliftb are i&lkauakU^ ixJ 
hM% wilk a «(^4T depoott.^— t. TV dibilnt wairrv aolaikto, *St^ 
»Utidinff MWtiJ «1^ In ft ovrwnA gIftM ve»*«l, fte(|iM« lh« 




CTinDaHot thuu of Utter nlmonds, di^ponitfl white flocks* ond bccomcfl 
acid, liiit. still tusles biUer niid Hhiirp. - — d. It is proripitau-d from ttA 
aqaooDB a^-lulion as aiodifi<.'d digiijdiii (^.c WW) hy wi-uk OLJd>, slowly 
at moaQ Lori]|KTali]ro8, vuiy quickly nt tho boiliw^ bctiL^4. it dia- 
Bolvtti in ft/!ffVt iTf'W and in ofJo/' vilHoi with dark-red ci>linjr. — <>, By 
coutaA^t witli alkaline Huliilioii^ itKM>;H Jl^iiilU-i' tJuLc, wLidiiA reetai'ed 
only ill nirtdilied form by neiiUitlisutiou with uuidB. 

Ct>mhmatiort^. StjJutilo in oil proportions in ctild wtitf^M — From & 
BOluli*>n i;ot h'O dibitr, it iw pivcipitntcd by luiArc ncttitff of Und, but not 
hj tlie iieuuid acclfttep — It is easiJy HolubU- \u wetik spriic, eiRuiiij^^ly 
iti ulimirliite iilcoholj iMhi^liilili* in ftJicr. It '\n jiivdpllJilfd inmi itu 
>U]Uvoiis eoliiTioii by tnnjiic ndd lo i^^hitc flucka, wiikb uiiito into a 
eoft, tra/iBluootit niasp (Nulivcilk)* 

NalivfUo i3escrib(?3 a miv7r>W ''iVT''^'" (['f'rhup? iili-utii^d u-itl. WnU'n 
digitoJiih'riii : Kp.) wliicEi In: '►btiiios by the fidlriwiiig roctliod : The 
feiinn'i ubtaine'J fniTii 500 gm. fnx-^dnvL' loavi?H is iiissolvcd lei 2 litr<?« 
of wat**r; Xhf floluti'Hi is prti?rpilat< d by rn]u(ral aoelate of IfiirJ ; the 
disH'dvcd load is removed from tiiu dltmtc by hydruaiilpLuric acid ; and 
Iht* Bulution ia ngidii filti'ved aud eTap^^ntttd to Ibrec-fuurths of its 
Lu1k. Ojj iLdditioii uf ahttlo o^iL'tii; acid, this liquor, Jiri:<-i' hoi^ Klandiu^, 
<ir infcmfidifltoly on Win^ wnmiprl, df'jmKi's ihp nrndiflid Jigiljdin in 
tranebirpiit '»dy di'opfi. — 1 his moditWd iliptaliii liUowJtM; Hojirtralcs nut 
^hoii the tunttjhtc of di^tuii:if ubtaijud iis in E, is disgidvc<i in wvak 
aloi»h<i|, and prccipitalcd I»y banit^ iu;c.'tat<? of k'nd ; and lit filliatei 
afliT Ih'Iihj frtrd from h^ad by hydiiwiilpliurEo add, ih Ifft to itKHF.— 
Or *iiftidi*ut ac<^tic.r add \r ndded tfi tb*^ sulotinn of i^sinct of dipinllfi 
in a eiimll ituauFily of \ratcr, and tbo tannuto of dip^Udiii, whjtih 
Bcpnmtca aft'r somo tiiuf, h i\-cf%u-d ae aUfVo dfecnlh.-'iL Tbie 
diifitalid likd-wifie lafll^?s eRlit-uifly bitlcr, but ditfrt"lvi.B with difficulty 
Li ttw/fn i-asily iii aft^iifinL, frcmj ivUith it. hteparattn in ttiofused tayHtuCi 
by slow ovaporatiun (?Jativi.ll(?). 

P, Dijitalir^ {not BtyUalinc) of Kosmaun (J. Vhirn^ m/rf. i2, 377)- 

K<«mBiin'Bdigita.liDtf b [denticnl with noink:i]](^'« rlufihilin. — It occurs in tiliiull 

qiianlily ia t\\v. romriion fi«-j^lovn {iJiijitaH-i purjinrtvi). WlU'n dry 

foi-jflnvo lonvi?8 aro Ixiiled in n artiall quantity of wiitor, ehuiliig 

erj'fllftla of this dijifitalin rimy he h-^u on u>,qtiiliu^ tliL' Oi>i'k"d deout^tioii 

ji eunahinc. — Dry fni-p-lovt- leavi'S are tihaufltfd with cold watfr, tbe 

Bolutifin ifl |»r*"cipilatcd wilh Itrljabit; acrtalL' of kad, aud the iiltmte in 

tnrAti;d fur dig-haliu Jtcrordin^ to \>. B+, H. Tho iiri-olpiTaU' ih wwnhm!, 

Tiilod for n qiinrtor of an boiir willi srihifinii nf s^da, nnd Iht brrpwn 

Itralf;; ia supt^rsatu rated with dilute sulphurio acid ; it thi-n d<^posite a 

oci^uleut prtdpitatc, whicb ie collcLtod, wafibi.d, drii-d, and bodi^il with 

liyjhni of rW p. c. The alcohol imtrriot in t^VTiporatcd ; luid IUl- wnlid 

ryfltAUini^ residue i^ troatcii nW tim^'U wiLh cihr'r, whiHi dii^mlvc^ 

kOsma^H'^^ Fatty add of dig-italis; it is tbon boiU-d with wntor, whicfi 

pmovoB tho cxtTiiotivc nifiltt'i- ajid loavca a ^rbito ll<>c^ukMit i^ubslaniM; 

iidiRsoIvcd This Bubgtaocc coHoctcdf wasbi^Ll, nod diHSolvi'd lu 

oiling jilroliol, [v*>piiialrw pai'dy on ijooljiig, partly afti^r fTirthor 

vaiiHirniion, Iti crysTallino roiIob conaittiiig of KusinntiM'ti di^itaJin. — ' 

■caive, toihiNting und<jr the mioi-oecoiie ft [joirly Inutie, Ukt- thut of 

•orncic acid. Neutral. i'Vee From nitrop^cn. Has a siiavp tattto. 

On iMdiig ]ii;£ktt^ it iuma withoul: rcaiduc, g^Lviug off white fuinc^ 


It J f Ir e r nariig^ la wmm. aa4, whtPMMm 

«f (Ooie I ^1 L ic»L It Anhm in m^aam 

pvcA ft white inv^iibievii^MftWaod loitr ■oMrt^fafjaot 
ifMfiUMdr ^r v«M or «rtr«tt ^Jdbv. 
DiHMm £f««^ tt warn irfewia^ aot in iAi«- (Kotnvu), 

CL-ftjliri of L^JMdat, I^ A, Bttckoer «>d o<h«ra.— LAso«k>% 

flf S^; graforaiBM 19 an exbvt; ri i1mmiI» ij this <^xtfoct i v^d 
to llie aotaxM 8 ^n ite vo^ of dimlir liTdnichbviG MotL 

It iBmjMtilw rf JgittPp k fanned, whicha 
bjaMfiMof ««l»- TtoJigitftliB <UU mauaiQ^ m •ob- 
fatmeMWed&oadhefihntebjpniMlL TkepvdpUki 
lad wnlfied n akoUi an trcalfdaevml times wit^ atiinil 
■ kuLlij B aeailj iiiwiiliiii wohtiMi ■ obliBmed mM 
jvJLnr cTjvtMSAnm gnias oa ^vuDratXKi. — l^i '^igi'*Ji* m 
maaafil is t^ u^ aad kM «ijyk>finciM.ctioa <p«w%a 
If n ■ !i ■ ' ill n v«i4. M«/~iii»ipf toiMltmr-f*^ 
b mict Md b |ifedp<liit«>] tlv^P* 
by wwbv (t^Bodot) — TW dtgiulb tiiaa ofaubcd b. iKvunlMijr la 
iZ A. BvteOT, ft vMk rMift-ft«L It u aodtKbAo in alhjjinc iKjuKfa 
•ad b pgBffn'tiW ^ *?^ >*™ ^ ftMtic Mid. bm b rc-<teolH 
Ij «ft vxcaoi «f ftodie Kid. Tbe BUiliik* vvJmkm loac« ite billvntfi 
<n stasAft^t aoTG qwcklj vbca vftnncd. It fuolncft trUh ififficniQ 
bi »tfv; CMilv b ^■bf, bit b mriy UMobhla b «fW(BQcbiarL 

(T, »*. J/4.3aMa>P<rilidik>dwiMfi>>kkhbi]bUiH|b7tMHlal^|» 
ilifaft»«y wiA>toWL4»mbM 

lis /l^Ub^b b famed bjboilb^ digiUlb (QowUtfW) 
«e«d wkk ftofa («>p«cU«X 

Pbjtelft b boiled viib dilnl« vulphurk ftdd f«r BW^y bovn <f 

tflS b oi^flelcjj AxatnmKdi tbe fligiulintiti wUob iepinlw 

b «oImI«4, wvaM vid dned, tben dbeolnd b bodliD^ ftbolxilj tfd 

Ibt flbfttt b Mt to erapDtftM ilvirli, whcnraimn it anlMifinbi 

trbcb ftMj b* pohfiffd t^ i«ci]r«t»l]iafttioii, 

ftbioi, wbbliftt 169* bvgb tomctt wi 

rsrtfc«r«^«C«w It 

»C - 1« 
too » 

o-ts _« 

... Ml 

— mn 

r^iPKi* _ »i 

«..„ l«H» _ 

^ inmo 




It eonreely diasoivoe m water, bat reodoro the liquid bitten — It 
d<yjs not dissolve, either tu aqueous orajnonia rrr in potwh-Ut,, Tlio 
alcf>hiiliir FUjIjtion iiiodiicL-s 6i.'»iY!i:ly uuy [jrec:ijiltuto In nn iilcnlmlif; 
flrtlutiim nf nDiilral (icotatc <»f ioEid, bnt ^r'J'-'lds wiih it, i'Y\. ovuiioritinTi, 
a ^T™^^^*^ predpitate, whil*? ammonia aildyd to tbo mipcmntftiit »dd 
liquid throwe dgwn white flodiUi wliich d^appear on bein^ Iicnt^, and 
ro-apt^rir on cooling. With bttsic wf/flfc of h'ld it f(*rma a cry«lftlliiLc, 
Uji] w[lli ffTTinf^ stdphfite ;i pitlc yi^llow pn'ei[»ilifctfl. — With milphittt t^f 
tvpp^j digHtftliretin forma a akV'Mup prrdpiratCj whicli, whon driod at 
ItNJ'^, contains 42-^7 p, c. djgitalij'etin, 6*9 p, c- totido of copptr, and 
51*8 p. c. of turbaBJQ Ettj||>ha(c of copper, and from whiuli alcohol 
extracto the wliole of the digilaliretio. — The Bolution nf digit*Urctm 
slowly proilucirB turbidity in a wdntion riF mtrti/c of fitvrr to v/hlch 
ft1cohi>l has boQQ added, and prei^ipituti^a shtning bcil1c-3 wlilcU aoon 
tmti brown. 

Dij^italirclin diseolveB upariiipfly in cold, etteily in boiling aicoh&l dl 
90 p. c_, &Dd spariu^'ly iu rthcr (EofiOiauU) N. J. Pharitt. S8, 1). 

2. Dlgitaliuio Acid. 

EosHAKs. JV. J. PhitniK 38, 14- 

^WMftfmn. By boiling digitftlin B with eod6-lc7> 

prfjiaraiifni. Dtgitnlin is boiled for Hboiire with a solution of afida 
of S6 ' {Huuuh^)t llio watorwhich evajximt+^fl boin^ replftcod ; tho liquid 
in xiT.-arly neutraliKofl with dilute sulphuric acia, and eva|]oi-ated ia 
dryutsft; tho residue ia exliiti»sted with brilliugiilcobol; and Xha fillrnte 
IB evaporated. It then d*?pi)rtiln digitnliriate of Hoda* wluL-h is dt'trom- 
poaeJ l>y n eli^ht oxr-oBs of riihitp Bolpliuric acid, and the tioeeulent 
precipitate which ecparalofl ia eoJieeted aud crjBtalliacd from lioilinff 
tticoh*.»l» Whi^n an alkfjine eolution of digilalin, after boiling- and 

Ling, ia at once pR'CJpilated viiiU eiceaB of dilute Miliihunc add, 
greator pari nf tfie iligilaliiiic Jieid is thrown ilowii ', the rest may 
'be predpilateiJ hy Ijt^ilin^ with sulphaio of oopjior, aud obtained iu 
the frt^'C atate by decomposing this eiilt with bydrobul]dLiiric acid* 

JVojKF-fiiM. CrjBtalUiic mauft cojieisting of microBcopic, ahiiiiu^, and 
tnuiBJuccuL plaleK. It has au aeid rcactiniL, and tatiteH HOiinrwbat 
bitter. When dried at 100'' ll contains 6C"94 p. c. C, 7*54 H., and 
41-52 O, 

By boiling-' with ocid^^ it ie resolved into dipULirotin and sugar, 

DtgilaliziiL' acid combirjcB wilh tunica. Wilh iioda it fonue a salt, 
;;1j cryKtHtliHeH in rusfrtti's, and, when diied at 10l>'', (jnnlnioB on 

Average U'LtSi p^c^ i^oda. — It preeipitatea ^eoJaud silveriaiu^ 

Digitaliuie acid is soluble in akoftoL 

3, Bigitalic Acid. 
Fir, Moam. N. J. Pkmn. 7, 295. 

Prtpnratio'i, The hot aijueouu iuftiBiOD of fox-^lovo leaves U ctilv 

"^T^ 1> 

'^^■'.1 -* 

'-- I* 


? 1 

,- ' t^ioilC"'' ' ' ' ' ' - -' -T'- 1 i-'ii t')Li"*surt- 1" lilt 

':■■ ; ■■hj;* ^ ^ifc I&f:w» -iT-r:. & .-^ :. -^ ll^vrulrnt jinr;; i'.iT'- 
^V^iigV if J^r^Mtf *^}j*K..t,^ \-i d-K-d hill iilrcr irr..- 

3,j ^*«7 e«i'y in a/c-'Ai7. less iu fMcr, 

10 ■ 


4. Fatty Acids bom SigitaliB. 

E06MAIW (1S46). J. Chim, me'iL 22, B77. 
Diffitotric acid, 
CcanpuT Eumann'* Digito^ia (p. 837). 

The ethereal Holutions of the acid obtained as there deRcribed 
leaves on evaporation a ^recn oil, which soon Rolidifioa into a granulo- 
cryBtaliinc nmsH. Thm in diaaolved in an aqueous solution of bi- 
cmrbonate of eoda, prcciriitated with aci'tic acid, liieii waslied, oikI 
dlBAolvcd in ether, from wtiicli it in recovered on evaporation. 

Green, atar-shaped groups of needles, which melt at 30°, make 
preBHC-spotB on i>ai)er, have a not unpleasant odour, and BhMri>, 
bitter taste' Its alcoholic t^olution reddens litmus. 

Sparingly Boluble in irnter. — Decomposes the anneoue solutions of 
the carbonatfs and bicarhniiatea of the alkati\ disBofvcs in them, and 
is precipitated in gi'cen (locks by acidn. — It forms with the heav^ 
wuiailic oxidesj insolubie, yi.;llow or greeii feathery salts. 

J'otiuh-iniU. — The acid disBolves slowly in c<M aqueous solution of 
bicarboDAte of potash. The sulutiou is cvft^xirated to drynesa, and the 
reuduc dip^'sti-d in cold alcohol of 85 p- c. ; this leaves on evapunitirm 
a greenish-brown imperfectly crystalline resiiluo which does not con- 
tein any carbonate of potatilL. Its aqueous solution froths like 
■oap- water. 

Sodo'safL — Obtained in the same maimer as the potash-salt- It ifl 
ft soft soapy mass, soluble in ether. 

Sarytasa/L — Obtained fiom the potaah-Ralt by double dcconijjosi 
tk>ZL It crj-stallises in tufts, wliicli at 10<J° iMMMimo green and gummy. 
It contains 18'T2 p. c. baryta, and 81-28 p. c. acid. 

Lead-salt. — Obtained from the so<Ia-salt and neutral acetate of lead 
by double decomposition. Green pimimy tufts, which melt at CO", and 
do not Holidify in the crystalline form on co<»ling. It contains 2&'IU 
pL c oxide of lead, and 74-87 p. c. acid. On being drenched with 
0thor, it is resolved into an acid Bait wb^cti dissolves, and a residue of 
buio salt, the latter containing, at 100°, 64-88 p. c oxide of lead 
•ad S&*12 acid. 

The add is easily soluble in alcohol and tiher, 

Pfimartf Nvcleu9 C*T1". 


DnUS h Fkuqqt. Anji. CJtim. Phifs. G2, B ; Pogj. 3G, 130 ; J. pr- 

BtariHKLOT. Campt. rend. 44, 1350; N. Ann. Chim. Phi/s. 51, 81; 
Ckim, organ, 1, 121 ; Ann. Pham. 104, 184 ; J. pr. Chem. 72, lUl^ ; 
Oktm. Cntr. 1857, 573. 

Ckigkm. AtiMaUa. (See Tii, 156,) 



Ffirmntiim. — J, From etlml by tho actbn of phoe^iono tdd 

up hvdmdiinric utAy], and i? d Ui^rttud into cetjlisie (Tut! 
3. riy ih\- iu\lvm of |icMta*^li![trick of phdsiihoniti cm tlhal, dil 
ci'tyl mid <'t'tjl[)h"isplifn'ic »cid being fttrmed fit tlw 
(Tutlechofr)< — 4. Bv tho dry diatilbtion of Hptmaowli-fftt (Sdilli' 
I. Olio of th(.« oils ntmltiag frvm tUo dij duCillaliaii of itHno a^kil i* 

i>ffifarari'«n. Elhal is distilled oiico or Iwioc with prtmnlejl 
mcrtaal gludal phuftphoric a^\d, and the distillate i^ n^ilu^itllol 
mdiyilrvMis p)inHphnn<; acid (Diuuub A, PHi^.^t). I'ho diMdbt* ulliriii 
^m thi? nipjil dixlilLotioD of ipeTniiu.ieti ff■ml^ vfth intadtJe^f m BiMp fron Ihi 
fequuoua suIuttQn of vluoEi edur ciUncU oetjlcutf (amilLi). 

Pi-opfrri&. ColoarlesB, ron-eriliditiAhie ^J, whioH mjik/>» pT*nP- 
BtAitifi on fiaptT, Bolla at 975"* (^74'', TnttachcfT) wiili.>ui diTi'iuiKW- 
tioD. Neutral, task-leea. Vapour-drnmly = ft*007(lJDinnH& Pi^Tifi^ 
Sp, gr. 0-7893 ftl 15'2', the sp. gr. ftf vaU-r nt 4" tN»iny Uirn ^ 
uni^ (Mendelejef). {Cotnpl. rend. 51, S7 i Kupp» Jtthr^, I6fi0, 7.) 

Diunu A PpligkH. SvuIIl 

9S C ,^,-,. IW ... 

9S H ^ 3a .. 

-„ 8S71 ^,... 
.-. U'29 , 

H-SO 14 U 

C«H» -,... 224 .„ 

H-e« — 

« lyCKX) ., 


SB . 

., as . 

8019 „. pass 


Ce4;lrK-npw -^,.«. 

fl « 

1 - 


Cotylcnc frurnjff nith ft [lure whitf* flaiuc (Dimtas A IVKgot^ It 
conlAiiM At ordmVT icmpcraturcfi and At 100° wiili AyrlrooAicw «4 
JUift^tili OMi'c otfi'^* Vben cct^lcne ih heated to 100' with a \argt 
«XOn«ol BGiU-^fttiirjilf^d iqQooiia atiliitjfin of byd^lX^^J^x^ii: aciJoi 
Mttlod tube i'*v l*^ faonra, about iht* half of tlio Cf^iykiiu ta tvATritad 
tutocfakw^ of cctyl (oraTj i&oni<?rio compmiid, U8 sinwij lU IvMt ia 
lilb»cwe d U»9 anjrl eeiit^sf Kr,); iit'V4^L^l€S«, il dm« tint a|^ 
that ihtw a *uy eicwa of ootyltno to bo MUitaUNl (B(.-rlIicl«>t> 

Cvtx&rm' is ii»»Udik! iu tr^ter, hut dintfofros OMlljr b okM w 
to«lfcr(ltaM& relict). 

Cetylio Ether. 



Iodide of cetjl re Iicatr<l to 110* with awliHUi-ethal till it m dtfcom- 
posei, witb flcpuralion of iodide of aodinni; tln_' product is dieaolped la 
eihcr ; tho indidy of eodium 8Uparat<?d hv hoi\ic\^ wllU wattr ; and iho 
product ifl finally imnlied by repeated cryttUilisation ivjiu WiUng 
&\lXt\i*Aj WH^Jdri^'^, and mtlLLLi^ tUe cr^^Atala lu wiitei. — Wlirn eihal ia 
henUfd Willi Dil uf Tjtrioi Lhe miitiue oontuuu, ucardiiia to HaintAi celjl-oLliitr &iul 

Beautiful hULuih^ Ifkmiuae, meUici^ at i*}^", uad Bolidiryiug tn a> 
radiating tiiiibh at 5fl"5^. At 150" k tiinia Lmwii, gives (i£F & faXni, 
Huy (xlnuv, arjd a am&ll quantity of browii distUlutei the rotaaiudi^r 
pftwinp ovor iiQchangcd at ohout 300°. 

It la docoiDptised by oil of vitriL>I, tat is not changed by boiling 
lijdnmhloric or aitiic aoldd. 

as .,., , isa 

33 H.. .,_ 33 

Q S 

CFH"0. £B3 

- 1417 
-. 0-43 


100-00 lOD'OO 

C"fP*0» = C»I1» H'O". 

CBEVitEUL- A.WI. Chira. Ph^fs, 7, 157- — i&cAarcAtfJ *Mf le corj^s jm?, IGl 
anJ 230- 

Lbcaiot & Buear. t/, F/wr/rt, 12, 625; Jtfaj. Harm- 17, 150; Ann, 
CAim./'V.34, 57- 

DuiiUA & PEUJior. ^n/i. Chim.PhifS. 63, 5; J'./w CA*m, 9» 285. 

DuvAa & Sta39h vl'^ft. Vhim. Ph,fg. 73, 113; .4/*™. /^Aamn 85, 139. 

L. Smith, Ann. PhitTJn,\2^U\ i N. AnfuChim, Ph/a. G, iO. 

Steshouse. Phil. Mug. J., 20> 371; Man. Ckciru Soc. ], 13;i71pr. 
Ofiftn. 27. 2Jj3- 

FlUDAi"- Awi. Pharm. 83» li abelT, J. pr, CA*fnj, 57, 457; jV, Ann, 
Cfiim. Phtfd. S6, 385, Preliminary nolico; Ana. Phttrm. S0» 117, 

W, Heistb. Aleu as a survey of tlie irholt; of Ileintz's roeearchea 
on tho fats. — I, Mi^Uing ^Kiiiit (jf St<:ariii: Bet^L Akad. Utr^ ISiit^, Chem. -LS, 3^2 ; PAorm, Centr. Ift.'iO, 18S; /;wf. 184!)» 
390; i..Vt, ATi^^rf J.Lft™i. 184y, 342.— 2, Mutton-fat, Spormactti, 
HniDan fat ; Pt>7j. 84, 221 and 238 i J. pr. C'/i^n, 53, 443 ; -4a;i. 
Pl^tirra. 80, 293; /'Aam. Caifr, 1851, 04r> ; //h?i. 18&2, 63; Lieb. 
Kopp's Jahroib. 1851, 446. — 3, tipemmceti : Pvjj'j. 87, 21 aird 
2S7s J-pf- t'Affli. 57, 31); Pharju. Cenir. 185:^, 5A3; CAm_ Gaj. 18j2, 
321 i JV. Jnn. C7j*V«. /'%. 37, 3t)l ; X.«6. A"y;>j*'fl Jafu-esK US2, 503. 
— 4. Mixeil aatiin^ of M^rRnrio ucid : Poify. S7, 55:j ; 
y,/T-(Vj™i. 57,300; ^nn. /Viar»;. 84, 2^7; /'/mm. Centr. 1852, 777. 
CA»?n^,G'TJ- ]853h41 ; Li''h.Kf>{if>tJfdii'i'3h. I8.'i2, 51 5> — r>. Bfi^f-fiiiet : 
/^- 8a, 57i); -Ir.rt. Pkariiu m,2^y;>'i Lieb. h'opp's Jnhrrfh. 1853. 
445. — ^. Unlttr; A517. 90, 137? Ann. Fhorm. 8a, 300; 
Caam. UO, 301 ; Chem. Gtu, \^\tZ, 411 ; N. J, Ph&nn, S5, 71 j i^fct^ 

- . : - -- L.-- ; J v. y.^ -US; 

:* --. .--- — ::. j..:: l f P-'ta^h- 
_L . -- r . ,1, r:-. ■:/._,■'_ t^fM,»ii, 

- - -~ ■ . ". ;"1 . ^i- ■- A' :; '■ J'i/nA 
- - --.: ." o;. . i. 17:; : >, pr. a-w. 

" >■"- !."= _" - - '.v",!.': L-:': K-ff'l 

".- :■■ ....'. : ——:.-' :" LIzi-.-: /"'W-H 

'" ■ ' — " .-■- 1: -\ ; \ 'V;- f-ri^.y-^; 

..-.: ' :: -.-.-. :. .:: /' ; ■. 1-2, i^: 
- , r -'■..' 7^. 15-:-! '"''"'-'■i. 0"'r. 

"_ : :.^ -/"=:■ .. liVl. 1^1: Hf-?. 

' - ': . ^ .-''-. 115- ji:.r:- A' ;->>'- JuA^^*. 

.7' - , J. v^/: A\,j'> ./iiA/'tA IN"''. 4<'5. 

■ - - .-: "" '/^'TT-:-! ill 1>1M, (Vvrirs :^ 
-.:^ -.J r.L: :.fc::v ;h.v.!s iii tho fonu '4 ui 

. -- ■ -. 7:.- ■:;,'r'-r>TilWi-ff l^-ni ihi"rlli'rii(i 

, ' --;.->: '/.•■•\ f^r >"Tm' tiiiK* witli «iil"'i" 

, . : r . .V ■ ,Lr\ r J iKui iiiav rxTiuiiti. tlu'ii 'l'" 

'-.- * v„il whi.'li i'n>tiillisi'^ "lit 111 oa- 

. .. - ■ ■ _ :' !;.;:■ ^ j u:ilii.d bv ^■|v:^t^■■^ pripsiip 

7 . _■ H .- .->■.- ■:, 1. Small p-ni<'iis ipf sf"'noji''''M wli^i 

J . ; - '■ ]"! ". T4-:'iirii!"' »'ii ;^tji'1ii:i1 ri«'Hiii» iVr-Tii tJi^ 

; - : ■ .— . *r" .rni-'.-l. fi- h.*T ific t'TliuUt^'fininTifa" 

, .i\ i r!..iT wl.k'li tlii'ii iTyslallis»'s Miif iii:iv !• 

- - ■ ■ J 1 :r ■ T i:' ;■■ 4'.i'.'i (llrinti^j. l>r 1U ''ttui 

' ■: ,» ^ , ■ ^ /.v 1 ! ll-il with ;liiiiilT'Flli»| :»l<'n]n.|i4" |iiiT.iJil"' 

■_'..:-■■ I'f fill- v'li"I<- *'i eIu' K[-T[iJiUT(i (HiJi!:- 

/, .., ^■. o^ :':l,:.'' :: is T[:»hi<l wiili Imlf ili^ wi'i^ilit *>f liVilrjT';^ 

iji|.^ -■ - ' -i-r-' !: -t F-iSij^r Jill""'<'<I til risi" -.lU^vr IlO (" I-" - 



oily mixture of fatty ficids and cthfil in a^iQ mcltod with potash ; the 
wboloie surtpcinkd in li'it wntcr, aud frccipiliitcil by chlifridcof caldnni, 
aud the procipilute eh civlli-oled muX dried. Thi- cllml it HviULnLCL'd iniia 
the lime-n^jip liy hm alcohn! rir^J^icr, as in 1 (Dimia.fland Pclignt, Sniilh), 

Ji>iilaii ikBt<9, iTiMi'-iL^i cf l1]t h>lid ]iyiti^Ll-i\ n mtdiTion or prjiuli, itrofig i^iuiii^li To 
Miljilify Evlicn raid. Cbc.'7rriil uipoiiil^pf nilJi Strang aciueoua potuli-lcv. Id nliieli 
coat*, ImnL^Ytrr, thu tniil.uri< ujubI dp 1h<aU'il fur sti'miil daji- Tbn ulhikl bria still In 

IliL' i?thal obliiincd in tliia mnmiet is ncl the piiru ccFTDpouiiO C"IPH>', 
liut c^mtiLiiir; in ;iddiliu:i lu tliifi, wlucL in itn t^bmf countitnuti, am;ill 
qnaijtaie* nr siothjil, (;*n"<:>», methal (p. 209), and lethal {yv. 43) 
ftlcf jliolr4 which aru Far from havinp: been couiplctdy i^olalcd au(] obtained 
iu ft stittc of piiriiy, Tbuir prcsK^nce is mniiifL'steii tiy tliu hiilkaviuur of 
the »-l!ijil with hydiat*; of potaah, as described ui pa^Tt ^4G. If llio 
^thal IH roorywtidliwd si-veml finicH fmin aluithul initn its loeltiiijf 
point ig brou;^iit to <i'J°y a ptu'lion of the olhal, tngother with the 
whole r^rneurfj^ the whole of tlie mnthal aud lethal, leniaina in the 
i]tc>lhct-hi.]Uor, whili; the p!>t'ti<ha which cry&t&llL^oe out contaiiia the 
Hlctlial tu^i^tlier with uthaf (Ik-iiitz). 

/Vnpcrfi'ea. Ethal, when melted and g^dually cooled, cryHtallisos 
In shiiirri}^ Umiun'; fnrni a hirt aliMlLolii^t^ilittJfm it HepiirateH in small 
tpari^les, which glitter less than rhowo of 8}H'rmuc4?ti, Coloarlree, 
Hftnalneont. Melt** above 4*4° (ChevreulJ, at 4^-:^° (t^U^nhoiieo), at JS-5'' 
(IKi^it?.)* and B*?lidifi('fl at 48*, Jt evn-pumtcs even when Hy*<frinflO(.'ti ia 
boded with [Krtaah-lej-, so that a funnel held over the masB becomes 
covfired with it ; it likewise f^vaponiit-R coin|Jete]y when b<.nl<'d in an 
opon dish (ULesTeid), and paiis^H fvor quite undycompoaod on rej>ealed 
durtillation ( Buni^y & Li'eauu). — ^ lioiJing point nlioiit AtXf (DuuiaH & 
PclipUl. WilUi^ut tawte or einelli neutral — For it* npn-lfl*' hcai. iht* 
IdteikL luNit cjf Lie tii}iutir, iiJid laLfJit heat wheii uii'llndt fltv Fik^jv ^ SiibtiuuLlm. (If, 
Amm Cki/>>. PKft'- 37, K!l-) 

S3 C 

fti II 

! O 

-. lOS .... Ttha* .... 78-63 „- 78-10 . 
.„ SI „„ 14<)6 „,. 13-95 .... 11-21 . 
„. 16 ,,, erjl ,. . 7'a7 ... TfW 

BtenLoDjiD. npioti 





(FH^O* SiB H.,. LOO-00 ,.„ 100[X> h-,. lOO-CK* ..,. 10000 ™ 10{HX» 

]l muft be nrgardi>d bb ui nJcohul (viL 181^ 

J)ecoinpcnrionp. 1. Wlieri tho vapour of cthal \b pnaecd t}iroug;h a 
fwf-A*/* tiilK"* g"aaenUB and hquid hydrOcarborifl are foiTDedi containing 
et^nal niunbi>m iif alua^s nf hydrngen and e-arbou; ainung ihmi 
propylene C"Il'<iceiVfl in hirgcqnanlrry (Cahfmra, Compf. rrad. 32, 142). 
— 2. When liC'jiled in the air. it fi"m*t like wax (Chevreul). — 3. By re- 
peated diatilliitiun with uijhydi"i.ius fhn/^fione m-i'ly it is converted into 
cclyli'ue (jj. ail) (DuuiAH lie Peligot). — 4. 'When hjdrovhlo^ic ijcid [a 
p(igsi'*1 Thiii;igl: m<'lted othal, ur rhmngh i(H hnliilroii in abmilnle 
uJcoh^l, the mi'lling point ia bdt little alli^red. ani! \v* chloride of eeiyl 
ts produced (UeintK), — 5. WhtJi etbal is builed with ILK) jiarte of 
nttrk «*^«V/ i»f f:<pp j;r. I-i!>l, a larf^e quajitlty of nitrous acid ia ffivcn nff, 
and by i^peated t*>ln>l>auont till the reaidue ]ieeim»eB soluble in the 
tliatdlAte, a eryetJilIiBahlc acid body is fomied, whieli dues not precit 

iL ■ 

ig j* i ^ 

It ii <athaamad tnr dbt&- 

«ff ft iltft 0n]|4vni 

no noai W' 

Willi uiiuumIhb 

d iB^ma off, ttd 
4«eb> tiae» 6ii« dftrr, wHb the bob of 

g< «M7fie«lfc«r Add «oljtit 

k« MMOIiaa d eywiiB 

by bvfiiS cAtr^ Altar 18 crpt>^ 
adbir Mtt ti niMd hum 47-1' 
p«ttt* - — ^-- Bl-i4 a, 1^.73 IL 

a«TCTie4 Into lo^Ae tif «etrli 

Arf beooMi bMtad, giTw of 
d fuvaa cUom^ctf|ib(inc «r^ 

L$«ti pVli rf ■111 r I ti> SIO' nrfSO* 
^^ pJaJWc « pifcab (Itonafl and StrnV 

4q«« ftot law nc^ tiU tbo mixluc it 

t7i^ ; Ife iMiUv vid il a lkii.t4ue •»- 

«f piUtk adl togtiba wiib iiinh^ 

tkva Mi& BIT funnvd trot 

te aiBft wij M nWtic Mid b furvvd ^^ 
A* m&dw «buiMd liter bcklBV «CW 

In Qmbu^ ihii lod !■ pnwt oob 

hy 1 aL 

Mrialj tbc^ mrv 
into olofldo of 



ethal (Luwig, Pftf^g. 43, S22), fFridrtii). Sodhm-ethal nbtained at 
110° ie aolid, yclloWLRb-^cy, mid mtlU |>ariially &t lOU'', complctuly 
at liO^i It ie uot lUttrtd by builitig wotor (Fridftu). 

2. By the action of sufph'/te af airlon and htfdrate of potash^ ctlial 
converted mto cetylicautliule uE p<jttteh (Provnstftyfl ^ DneainB). 

13. FiYjm t,he organic neuU ftTid ethal ibo cctylic ethers ars formed, 
■with elimjnfltinn of water, Tboeo coutaJnuig acotic, butyric^ bcnaoic, 
ani] fltParie iniids are formed by hunting those ocida with othal to 200** 
(Berthcbl). Etbal heated with aiicciitic nddyicbJs snccinate of ci^tyl, 
but DO corres[joiidiiig compound b oblaiiied hy Leating clhal with 
oTali(^ acid (TiittHrliefT). Ae^tate of cetyl is fonned by tho aid of 
sulphuric or hydrochloric adda m a luixtixre of ethal and acetic acxd ; 
bctLZoatoof otholia fonui;d from ethal and chloride of bousoyi (Beokcr). 

When cthol Jd licuti'J (o 100° fur G Loim 7ith an cauiralf^it qimn^f^ of luatio ocid, 
38-7 p- P- of the olhnj enlpi-t info c<>nibiri;Titiii ; ii' for -W* luurfi, C3"7 p, r- 1 wliilo if, 
imt^wl of fHhal, rommoti ali^hol it iiBed, IJ^im 4I-S to 5tt'S j>. 4^. of ic i» oiiaverted 
inta athyLJii apotittc (Ef>nbe]M & Fi^ de Bl.. ditlcft, CdH|jr. rmd. BC, 43). 

H. Etbal oomhiiiod with Hodium Ig attaofeed by cfJoroffjrm aiid by 
chUiridc of etfii/icwe {o\\ of olcfiuiit gxia, viii, 376), {T\ittecheff) ; by 
hydriijihitc of afuH'ie aL. 120^* it is dtcoiupoi^t'd iato chloride of flcKllnm 
and crytilals wljicli melt let« cimily than pthal, but dieaoU'c more 
I freely la alcohol; heatod with iodide of ctt^l^ it yJL'lda cotylic other 

Cfni^iiiaXiQt\8^ Ethal la uot solublo m lOoter^ and Is not altered 
by V».iiling with wnter ((Jhevreul), 

It forme a cryatallisablc compnand with hichioride 0/ tin (Lewy, 
Comm. rf^d. ai, 371). 

Ethal diftflotvcB io all proijortiona in ahokal of sp, gj. 0-812 at 64", 
aiid ccyBlLi)liB(;s m part oa cooling. — It diseolveB frcL^ly in zthcr. — It 
TiuxeH with ya£/y *jciVi>- flO jiarts of a mixfui-y i\{ mwv^afvi and oleic 
]v:!idl^ moiling at 45", vir.'ld, on addition of 40partB trthal, a ruixturo 
oivltin^ ut 13^ to W (OhoTruuL> 

A^peniiix to Ethal. 

Cetin or Spermaceti-fat. 
spermaceti In foiind in peculiar cwvitieB in the head of Ph^tet^ 

maeroceph'i/iiB^ P/i, Ttn-iio and ti til ore, and of De!phimi3 edeatiifttSj 
beda^ kept iu aolutbD in the Bpcrin-oil by the heat of the animal's 
body, aiid uytttallisinijout after dijalh. It ifl freed as much as poeaihic 
froLU ml hy JilunlLiin aikd by trejitmont with pota8h-lcy« and tlieii 
meltvd. The fu^ed and tioUditied maas, oonHtituiing the sp<;rnjaceti nf 
Goromei^', is white, Bcaly^ LiritUe^ w^ft to the touch, of ap. gr. <J"y4JJ at 
IS'' (0-843 at 50% l)'824 at J^T, U'SlS at 94% the sp, gr. of water at 
15° bfiaK takta at 1 1, (SauHaure) ^ lueltipg p<Mnt from ^ti^ to 47*^ ; 
nearly Lastck'^, ijuHluroiiH, and iieutnd* 

SporEuaeeti ia iileo f*jund In smalt quantity in the blubber of tho 
JiaiMTui n^frnia (^charlijig, J. p'% C'^eta. 43, 257), and, with but 
eli^btly diljei-eLt pru^rtiea, in the oil of IMpkiMtt gkbic^ (ChcTreui^ 



When ftpermflcpti is freed from adlioring epctin'on hytnt^tnt^ 

cold alcohol, and tlic rcaidue ropOHtedly tT^'atalli(H*d from fjot alo^h' 
the 6ptFiiiacdi-fitt or cettn of ChoTTCu! is cbtmTji?<i- This muj 
Htill fiL(iJi{.>r {jriTiQed hy ct^EtiLllifiutLuu from b<»1ing eliiur (Ucmt^, 

Frupfrtiei of Crtin. Soft white UrumR lowing a pe»rly Iml 
rodU ftl 49* (Ubevrwul), 53-5^ ;Ueiiiiz), 54-=.° [ Unf^liiatiT)^ and 
fioa lit Wi-" to lO-l" (Slciihuuao), /"rt.»'5 (HufriUdu-fJ. to ft 
radi.-itt" ninffB. If not exposed to the air, it evapi,jr»tc'9 wiibonl i!^. 
0(mi|iOHitE*>u at h li'Ui|j<.iiiiture m-ur il60" (spe Itlow). ^ lu'"l»»l^»u*l" 
oontviLl (ChovrodtJ, Culin orjHtahisL'J from dol|»]iiii oil, and pinflM 
by alcobol, aolidiiiefl piirtly at 45", wholly at 4li'5'' (Chevruul)- 

84 O 881 

S4 H 64 

4 O 02 

ChflTTPul. Smith. 
.„ 80-01) ,-„ &0H> .„, 7S"71 

C»*H*»0*.. 180 ™ lOO-OO ,.„ lOOi) ™, lODW ,„. 100-00 


CMin ii rormod froDi pnlndtic icid nud ?l.lin1, villi dimiiviUon of ivat#r, mttd Hif 
b« tcptLTAled utU> ihflsp ociniiiriiiiids, "ilh aHiuu|iI.iini nf mhU^ (L. RiiiiIIj)^ ll aq 
thnvfurc Ln^ rct;iu-d«l lu p&liiii(a1« of cctrL Bf)DniiiiJM.^i yii^lila hy •■poaiScvi^i^ 
beii']i.-e pnluiilic airjcl, emtsJI qufuitili» of BtOArJo, mjTintio, «nd Unrii: witU, todi 
bi'Bid^s ?diiil| ilI^o ^Tullinl, iiicllial an J Ic-rlialT nbii^h ncids And nlrDlji^la mr* uri — il jt 
the f'trm jf citmpoimiJe anftLogoiii to pubniTufi* of ool}l (neuifr^. — Tl\i- ^t.-r,-*! 
nftturf< jf Apf^rmnr'^li wm (rrat riNMfpiij'ed hj Qii^TroiiL more eiftotJ; ' 
Pdil^t. die fonner of vhom rcgartltd ibc aeidi obtwrtul bj ibi-- .. 
iperutflceli u uluic ftud murgirio Bcids. 

Drcniriintititiorni. \. Ry r/r?^ ilhttHattfm a diH'ilhlt*' is nhtjuin^l, whldi 
hnii b !i)wer nn'Uing jiomi C23'i>' I'Iil'i.tpliI, 23" Busbv A; l>i'rAJiu^, J<>r* 
not jit-Ld aebncic acid to wator (wlii^nce it I^dhkwid thitt o.<tiji cvioUiv 
no oleic add : Stenhorisei), and may be napnuLlied by (K>taeh. Frxifn Ibii 
Hoa|>-k'yi tther culractd uii oih proba]>iy 04?tyiiirK-, aud )ipiha|ia mwt 
LindirninfiTitH.-il i^^K'njiacfti ; the biui]i c^iiitaius iJiilmitic [U.'id (mt^Tdig t> 
55*) and nne nf the lij|Tiid acide dorived fnnii thr Mioi'tci od. .M<>rt<^vi*f, 
towtLtdb th"^ uml of tbo diHtjhatiiin, wjiler, cajiM^miu add, wvjKfliic 
oitidui mid ok-fiant ^;w* pcwft ovcr» whih; diarunal jviiiiiiufl. Nocclu] b 
foritiLH] iji UuH di^L^oiiipijHiliori (L. Suitth). BlihfiV ^ Uvlulu ciUaiitt*^ 
fttfto aootLG and and a yc-Llnw mjitorinl r^»iomL1iii^ i'firii|ih4>r, [tr-rfi^ 
chryRont' (xv, ]). — ■2- S|»ermncoti Awr^^ with a biighl Qanie hie 
— 8. It ifl dtuvinipOBt'd by puw'rlioatod sitearn at IGO"", m Htc 
manner aa by atrotig baaea {Scoarling:)> 

4. Whcu cotin IB heated with niinc acid, nitrotis famca an akivlj 
given off; bttl wen after 3 or 4 dnja, Bome of thr fiU, bftviairi 
rancid amoTh etiU ElL>at» iti the acJd; In tact 10 dH>-p<* dipTiiiina. «ll 

aildiEion I if TrrHh u«iiU i»4 ivmijr*^d U^diiuolvp it, unit fmrn I A tn fdd^ 
t>) oxidme it eoin|i](>t(!W (>iiLtrh). MUt !f4 h'^nrs' aolinn t\t tb* vil 
the e<TtJn lHre<jmori aoFt, t-ryaljillinr, iind oiisily fli?luble in pnlM^ 
ley; (irttni tlte alkaliu<.' rtfrlutioii* mtntrrjii ncidA rtrfiaruirr a tJbA atd 
mi rri]yai.'id (liuilLlilTp Ann. litann. 4^ ^491 By ihtM iniiUtko IkN 
aro forniffl : a. Ormtntlii/ic iiriii {xll, -451 ), a^ a volatilfi <iJl flunlllif !■ 

th'* lii^iilliii*' (lUdfli^l, Ari^i*), — b. St.-initic 'iWr/ trbevrmilV 
by KudoliJl and Ar^pc — c Accordiup to f?tnitb« odqiic ort 



Di^t fotTnd ©itber by Radcliff or bv Arppe, and ia regarded by the latter, 
nnt ns a diJ?tifict c^mpnimiL but ns a nurture of auocinic iici<l with miiro 
easily fusil'lt' aciiJSh — A, PimcU^ mid (lii. 4fiS), a<;Wfrdi[jg t*^ UadL'lifT. 

Ar|>]Po rnniicrljr ateu ituubtcil wliL'tttr tliLi wob « illfllim'l. iLt-iil (.Jau. Fhnruu ] 15, 
143), bul ftfterwqrcU {^ir*, PAftrm. 124, flS), lie Eu-kDuwkfl^d it lo Ix? so- Ar|ipc 

(jlnrj. FhnniK I20j 292 ; 124, 98), by Imiliiig sf)cnnftcoti in a rL^t'^rt fur 
10 brjiirn witJi 2 |nnl8 nitric acid of ep, gr, 1-25, pi'xjnn^ back the 
difltiilat*:, romoviiiK the Jioid solution, pourinj^ on frceh acid, wud con- 
lirkLiirLjf Ihie Ire^l.nitMkt for 8 or hi dayff, obtained, bcf^idte volntile 
oenautliylic ticid, Aiiou-volttlile ufUwliiuli solidified witli difficulty in the 
(ioM, ;ind an iicid eEjIiition frnrn whiub hi? noparatcd siicciiiu;, t^idiei'io, 

pinnjlic (bdi? tiu ilia, Arppe^s du™ rpi?.nl -itiiloiDcnt i Ai^n. P*m'^. 134, 98), and 
fiC'boOh^ acids. Sdc jlIdo beLoWi cLd ticuoJuiiuBiticiij ai dfb acid 1>J cuEric aajiL 

5. Cotiin dig(*atpd with 10 parts oil of ritmd dissolveH in a few 
hours to a tbi<:k yellow Uijuid, which on Btandinp BopariitOB iiit'i twe 
layers, and wbt'n htiatud jrivofl off flidfiburuue acid, in^rbftps also hydro- 
Biilpli uric acid, and chars (Ohevreul). — 6. Cetio is aapoiiificd by aqueona 
BcdntM)]! of jHiUtxh \\\\\y\\ Irs^ iLiiii.kly tljaii lalLciw, Imt iul^t quickly liy 
alrwtbrdic [>ofntb^ or by Ihp fnscd hydrate, yif?ldi[ig the protfnct above 
dtiflcrilH'd (p. 348). If it be tr^n etrtaigly bt*atod with hydrate of 
piilash, Wv hvdro^fon reqiiircd for the formatioa of otbol ie given oS 
(Gerhaidt, Pr^w^ 1, 131); 

C"H«0' + BCSO,IIO) - ECFIPKO* + 4H. 

Cetio friira du[phm-oil fiaponificfl more readily, yielding mote fatty 
acid and less etliul than the ordinary variety ((Jhcvrciil). — IUB|iBctiiiE 
the DflidlL-rotlutiB of Bpf^nuacpli luid their detPt^tiun, eeci Oli&t^au ( Jfu^rA. Stur^ BulL 

aa, 416). 

Cciin ia not solnblo In bqiiid carbons atnd (Goro), — It dieeolvce in 
C'33 pflrta of lioilin^ alcohol vl sp, gr, O"?!)!, in 40 parts alcohol of ap, 
^T. 0'82l (actxjrdinj*- to a later account Jii iJ3 partti (?f ep. gr. 0'fl34), and 
tJie greater part cryBtallisin^ out mi cioling (Cbevrcul). Tt dirisulvefl 
Cfimpietrly iit uold ethovy aud so cooiously ja hot f-ther that the eolution 
Irt'coiiiea 3'ilid iu eooiicig. It le aolublo ui warm Mvod-apttitj and io oiU 
hoihjiccd and volatile 

Cetylic Aldehyde. 

FBPAU. Ann, Pharrn, 8By S3. 

A mi^luTC fif elhal and bichromato of potftHb ifi hpat'Ml with dilute 
Buljiburic Jicid till Ihc etbul multe, and ttiu maSK blaokpne with brisfc 
i-fFi?rv<'M-i'Jice. Asrooiulb the fiction ceases, lb e rnaaftifla^in wormed, 
then boili'd rPin'iLtcdly with water ; and tbe undiasolvtid fatty aubHtaace 
in piintied by rep'ati-d iiryhtalliHatrorL from we^ik and strong uIcdIioJ, 
olber, dher-ftlcobol, and at lant from boiling uk-obnL Tbe cry^itaU aro 
Iwiilod with water, then melted aud tiitorud throiigb cotlon-wooL 
At a biiEliortoapuraturt], gr^th umwotntod sulphuric acid, & duk-ocbLLriKi min 


«s»iu ; X a». cuk. /^ 6« 4a 


to (pp. MS* 944). 

J, ^. cw^ Mint j««. A«r«. ae; aoit Ov. 8<k. Qt.j. 

t,t»i m^mSk y- ^^ C$mt. ft^ 41. tl«E «l«tn J.^.C^L 
Ct, UL— f. Piw— tiriwof ELhm: Cbwl nndL A7, t«^; X w, 

fmd. 41, iU; T:^. Oc-k 67. »5i m dcUil. ^V. .In, dnT^ 
47. »7. 

ek4hl M^ inMiltii^ ttvm Ite w^wtitfiation of fuia m wvyvv ^i' 

aftWmrdi'MnE«r^ the ronoLT melting W fiOMk 

bncr al T5\ nd t titMymf «i 70'. Oo ^Ikl w>l «oitfider Ik 

ti«l wMuio *cid iHglii beftBiixtun of tkaric Mid with 
$0Mmanw^^tmthtmdMtvt in oxygen. Aooonllftg toOhfffi^ 
MAfa iHlh itWviu aottuiMoint wtt« omo M iod M cd with wmrpric 
M4ii lo wlkick Uw fixmtk 4>im* wu tbMM«|fD«di Obteotliir 
paitiBitic add> vkJ toMoy uiUum of pftlttittt «t •toujcaad v^ 




fithor ftdda, Tcccivetl pocnliar namcfl. Eeintz^ in l€52 and aEterwarda, 
ehowf^d th&t ; 

I, All l.hcj ari(5s obtainnil in tbc sitpnnincatinn *>f fnte contiun a 
number nf carlioii- atoms diviaiblo by 4 witht^at reniruiidfjn 

2^ TLe cnnrgaiic acid of most chomidts ifi eepajabk into p&!imtic 
and tiluaric 'i\ciiis. 

3. Fatty acids may be mbttnres and not definite oompoiiuda, cvon 
thoEtgli neitlier their compntiition nor their melting point caa be altered 
by rocrjBtallitiitii)[i. 

4. Such mixtures may, however, be aoparated by partial prccipita- 
tion (ivi. £10], 

5. They differ fn.^m pnro acids as re^rds their melting-point an! 
iHeir mode of Bolidifj'iTjg, 

Hemlz baa, moicover, the merit of having determined with ftcou- 
!y the melting- point, compOeititjn, and many Other f^opcrties of tha 
ty acidH, and also of havijig drawn dp the tables hereoTtor to be 

S'vcn of misturps of fatty acida of known cfjmpisitinn. FVora 
eae, and the itiveetigutionB of othc>r chemiftta BubaeqneTiily pub- 
iishodf it appears that tbo naturn of the bodies deuenbed as mar- 
gaiic acid is probably as followe :— ^ 

a. ^fiv^Jil^ic nctd of Clinvreu]. This, according to HcintK, is to bo 
regarded as a miitnre of about yo p. c. palmitic acid and 1 p. c, 
BTid, whit^h ift proba.blo from the circuimstance iJiat it ci'velaUiseB ia 
needles ':>n c^KilLrk^. Of sinular nature are doubtlfcia tlic mar^ric 
wid of Vuirentrapp {Aa^i. Fhtmn. 5;'j, 8J), nbtaiucd fmm human fats 
tJifll frum ^jntii'-fitt bv Quttlieb {Asm. Phnrtn. 57, 36); fruin tiheft- 
bottcr by Thoniflon k V^^ood {J, pF. Cfitm, 47, 237), and many others, 

b. Marfftrio acid of Bromeia. Tho aeid obtained by oxidation of 
•toftrio add ie undei? imposed etcanc add, which owce ita lower 

melting-poiat to associaticin with vulatlle add^ {See S(tnrifMd, TJemmpoti- 
Horn dyyifrir aruf.) — Ri^pcpting die m&rgarii: ftdd vhicb Bromeis (Ann. Phafn.ZSt 
99) obluiadd from ipipurv oloii; add bj tbo octwn uf Dilnc odd, sm Oldt- ichI. 

c. Mnrijiiric acid of RedloiilimbfT and Varroiitrapp. That of Reil- 
tctibacbor is obtained by the dry distillation of stearic acid, when, 
turcordmg to lieintz, moat of tho stearic aeid paasea over unchanged. 
That of Varrcntrapp (Ann. Pha/7n. 35, tii), obtainod by the dry difltil- 
lation of beef-But'l, hog's Wii, olive-oil^ or crude oleic acid, doubtleaa 
vftHcJ* in oiraj^irtiiiim acconliug' to the kind nf fat employed^ never- 
thok'sts in thoao cases whore 35 p. e. mitrgane acid wor<j obtained by 
the rapid diflliUation of olivo-od or of cnido obic acid {Ana. Phujvt, 
45, 127)^ il appears certain that a decompoaition of the oleic acid must 
have Utkcn plitccf atteudod with foruiatiun of palmitic a/dd (Er.). 

rL Anderson's Marganc acid (Ann. Fharw. 6it, 376) is nbtained, 

»tJirr with hydroeul(tburJc acid, odrayl, and other products, hy tho 

distil]ati<'n of aimond-oil with sulphur (v. 250). It coiitjiins, on 

the average, 75'34 p. c. C. 12'6H U. ; in tlie eiiver-ftalt, 2H-G2 p. c 

fidvor ; ill the elLybc ether, 76-33 p, o, C I2'7fi H., and 1<)'97 0. It 

r* tfi be palmitic add formed by tlie decompoeilion of oloic 


•cU ham IW ■»« ■! pWia ■ 

12^7 H.{ tJbe «WK ^nM ^iifi to 

oT tl» add (^Mrfarf, a«. n«^ U, 106V 

far tke»f«tp«rtrf 
the eUtjbc <ihfr 

ry^^tai ii t— d fchrgg f^Mdlfai hi the ww^ 
tf CfvaMDrti of bsBBk, JH^W, mA g«o» fsu« m rf 
Aokkmmad tnia dai it k ^odtK a J m ^nler ovABtitj. Inrrtkr 
wA— cfcgtoMic«jJ,tgAgMpBiJfatii»offc^ter, fa^k5,«>^ 

■^PH- — 1. Bj bnti^ «tiwl viti iwaMli hiai (Do^ 
|v S4«. — S. te wlliBf-cdno ^ad wU raoDw «f fnta 
^Bttk aod antic aciii m iJ todacad (Tanvrtv^fi): 

c*H>o- ■* e(saHO) » c*H>Eo< » c*a>i:o* f IB. 

Bbfc acid bc^MM ■ ^ MM MflMt (H. BltyvtV 
A dnAv facvBli» cf i^WliB add boai utenaod maj Ufca| 
osder the foOovia^ 

& When toaorfattyaqhtiaota BptoaLongtittciB^oirt 

ftod gcomllj vbm fat^ bodhi a are looe [r wir rB d ni nntei , 

wHhooi expoam to 1^ air thej baroene bantr, aod nwmU^ «tnri» 
in appearaDoe ft&d oonpasitiock, aa «tnld be tli« ov other va lb< ifi»' 
uwanDce of tbcir olcm, or on tbe oobv><reioA oF the olcin u«» 
|i^iii^alieBriBortbocom«|ioodiDcacidi. Srr cw^jW (Wov), TW 
fflaawing observalkfia bmb also to beloDfr to Lbia fdaoD. 3lalt« 

end U ■oftCT and lirida oUc Kvd aiore nwdilj ia tba bvah atata llaa 
wben old. HdleJ tallov, «luch bad beoQ fevfdte 10 jvwar viib l»- 
perfect aooMtt of afr. b a 0oaj>>fact(«T, bad bvootto barl ^nrj brMv 
and rhiUa^ Waaheia arjaked in UUow, naed u tbv oMwict ii— v 
water-papeaf bad beconke bard aflef Umg uw: the taXkm obUta^J 
froBt tbon invited &t ^\ A pieca oi lallov from a Minar^ 
which bttd lain in Ibe miae for maaj ^raati^ w«» whAi^ Ufbt* 


and eaaily powdered, it had a b[k gr. of 0724, melted at 59'*, and con- 
taiued ou the average 76-02 p. c, C, 12-J7 IL, and 11-41 0., nearly 
correspo riding to tlie comjMmitkni <tf Kieariii (or jmlriiLlin, Kr.)» which 
it resemblea in its other properties. By wiiBJiiificatirin and decmiijtoai- 
tion of the soap, it yioldi^'d an acid lueltin^ at 6o°. A aetojid pitco 
of tallow, from a similar source, but jn'Hiaps fitiU older* coutained 
Id p. c* of A fat reseiubling stearirj, and tt2 i>. e. of a lime-soap, the 
acid of which melted at 5»^ (BccJz, Fog^f. Tiy, 111 j Ann. Pharm. 47, 
225 i Phil Mag. J. 23, bi}b ; Mem. Chem. Hoc, Loud, 1, 233)- 

h. When eaator-oil is distilled with aEi cscoss of nlkali, there 
rcmaiiks in the residue, togethi^r with sebacic acid, an oily add from 
which a large quantity of a solid fatty aeid se[w»rateH on etAnding, 
Tliis fatty acid, after purifieatiozi, oioUnat 112", and contains 7rr05 p. c 
C, 12'65n.; the ethyl -comjKjnnd, which i^ilidiGeB at 2!>-5°, contains 
75-91 p. c C, and 12-70 n, (Bomw, ^\ Ann. Chim. Ph/!^. 44, 110), 
Bonis regards tljis suli^tanco an pahnitic acid, the ethyl-compound 
of which, however, melts at 24-2^. 

Preparation. A. Fro